Kompendium Copy

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immunologi

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  • Teoretisk Immunologi Samling af resumeer fra forelsninger i immunologi 2011-2012

    Overlge, lektor Claus Koch

    ckoch@health.sdu.dk

    Lektor

    Institut for Molekylr Medicin Cancer og Inflammation Syddansk Universitet J.B.Winslwsvej 21, 1 5000

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    Indholdsfortegnelse

    FORORD........................................................................................................................................................................ 5 IMMUNFORSVARET: DEN INNATE OG DEN ADAPTIVE IMMUNITET ........................................................ 6 DE GRUNDLGGENDE FORSKELLE P DET INNATE OG DET ADAPTIVE IMMUNSYSTEM................ 7 FASERNE I IMMUNSYSTEMETS REAKTION P INDTRNGEN AF EN MIKROORGANISME................ 8 BESKYTTENDE IMMUNITET .................................................................................................................................. 9 DE CELLULRE OG HUMORALE ELEMENTER I DET SPECIFIKKE INNATE IMMUNSYSTEM............10

    DET INNATE IMMUNSYSTEMS RECEPTORER..............................................................................................10 FAGOCYTOSE ...............................................................................................................................................11 OPSONISERING ............................................................................................................................................11 DEN INFLAMMATORISKE REAKTION..........................................................................................................12 KOMPLEMENTSYSTEMET ...........................................................................................................................13 NK-CELLER .................................................................................................................................................15 B1-B LYMFOCYTTER ...................................................................................................................................15 /-T-LYMFOCYTTER..................................................................................................................................16 NKT-LYMFOCYTTER ..................................................................................................................................16 GRANULOCYTTER .......................................................................................................................................16

    IMMUNSYSTEMETS CELLER OG ORGANER .....................................................................................................16 MODNINGSORGANERNE ELLER DE PRIMRE LYMFOIDE ORGANER ....................................................17

    KNOGLEMARVEN ........................................................................................................................................17 THYMUS .......................................................................................................................................................18

    DE SEKUNDRE LYMFOIDE ORGANER............................................................................................................18 LYMFEKNUDERNE .......................................................................................................................................19 MILTEN ........................................................................................................................................................19 MALTEN DE MUCOSA ASSOCIEREDE LYMFATISKE VV .....................................................................19 BLODETS CELLER. .......................................................................................................................................20 ET ADAPTIVT IMMUNRESPONS INITIERES I ET PERIFERT LYMFATISK ORGAN .......................................21

    ANTIGENER OG ANTISTOFFER ...........................................................................................................................23 ANTIGENER ..................................................................................................................................................23 HVAD ANTISTOFFERNE GENKENDER .........................................................................................................24 HVAD T-LYMFOCYTTERNE GENKENDER ...................................................................................................25

    ANTISTOFFER...........................................................................................................................................................26 DEN GENERELLE STRUKTUR AF ANTISTOFFER .........................................................................................26 INDDELINGEN AF IMMUNGLOBULINERNE I FEM KLASSER (DEN ISOTYPISKE VARIATION) ....................27

    IMMUNGLOBULINGENER OG REAKTIONEN MELLEM ANTIGEN OG ANTISTOF ..................................29 DE MANGFOLDIGE ANTISTOFFER...............................................................................................................29 OPBYGNINGEN AF DIVERSITETEN I ANTISTOF-SYSTEMET .......................................................................30 VARIATIONERNE I ANTISTOFFERNES KONSTANTE OMRDER .................................................................31

    B-CELLENS ANTIGEN-RECEPTOR OG B-CELLE AKTIVERING.....................................................................32 B-LYMFOCYTTERNES ANTISTOFDANNELSE...............................................................................................32

    REAKTIONEN MELLEM ANTIGEN OG ANTISTOF...........................................................................................33 ANTISTOF-MOLEKYLETS INTERAKTION MED SPECIFIKT ANTIGEN .........................................................33 BEGREBET SPECIFICITET............................................................................................................................34

    FC-RECEPTORER OG FC-FUNKTIONER.............................................................................................................35 HVORDAN MAN KAN INDUCERE, MLE, OG MANIPULERE ET IMMUNSVAR........................................36

    FREMSTILLING AF ANTISTOFFER. ..............................................................................................................36

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    IMMUNISERINGSPARAMETRE:....................................................................................................................38 T-CELLERECEPTOREN OG MHC ..........................................................................................................................39

    MHC: STRUKTUR, ORGANISATION OG POLYMORFI. ...............................................................................39 IKKE-KLASSISKE MHC I MOLEKYLER ......................................................................................................41 SUPERANTIGENER .......................................................................................................................................41

    T-LYMFOCYTTENS RECEPTOR OG DENS INTERAKTION MED SPECIFIKT ANTIGEN. ........................41 STIMULATION VIA T-CELLENS ANTIGEN SPECIFIKKE RECEPTOR:..........................................................41

    ANTIGEN PROCESSERING OG PRSENTATION.............................................................................................41 DEN EKSOGENE PROCESSERING .................................................................................................................42 DEN ENDOGENE PROCESSERING.................................................................................................................42

    MODNINGEN AF B- OG T-LYMFOCYTTER I KNOGLEMARV OG THYMUS ...............................................44 B-LYMFOCYTTER I KNOGLEMARVEN ........................................................................................................44 B-CELLE HETEROGENITET .........................................................................................................................46 DANNELSEN AF AKTIVEREDE EFFEKTOR B-CELLER (PLASMACELLER)..................................................47

    MODNINGEN, AKTIVERINGEN OG EFFEKTORFUNKTIONEN AF T-LYMFOCYTTER............................49 THYMUS OG UDVIKLINGEN AF T LYMFOCYTTER .....................................................................................49 T-CELLE RECEPTOR GEN-REARRANGERINGER OG RECEPTOR EXPRESSION ..........................................49 POSITIV OG NEGATIV SELEKTION AF T CELLER .......................................................................................50 T-LYMFOCYTTERNE EFTER MODNINGEN I THYMUS .................................................................................50 LYMFOCYTTERNES VANDRINGER ..............................................................................................................50 DANNELSEN AF AKTIVEREDE EFFEKTOR T-CELLER ................................................................................51 EFFEKTOR T-CELLERS GENERELLE EGENSKABER ...................................................................................52 T-CELLE MEDIERET CYTOTOKSISITET ......................................................................................................52 MAKROFAG-AKTIVERING VED HJLP AF ARMEREDE CD4 TH1-CELLER...............................................53 MAKROFAG-AKTIVERING VED HJLP AF EFFEKTOR CD4 TH2-CELLER ................................................53 TH1-LYMFOCYTTER SOM HJLPECELLER FOR TC-CELLER ....................................................................53 TH17-CELLER...............................................................................................................................................54 REGULATORISKE T-LYMFOCYTTER (TREG) ...............................