• date post

06-Jul-2020
• Category

## Documents

• view

0

0

Embed Size (px)

### Transcript of KNOWLEDGE ORGANISERS - City Academy Norwich › wp-content › uploads › 2020...

• KNOWLEDGE

ORGANISERS Year 8 – Term 3 – Spring 1

Name: ………………………………… Form:…………………

• Students are required to apply the ‘KO code of working’ which is:

LOOK – Read the specific part they need to learn for homework.

SAY – Read out loud the specific part they need to learn.

COVER – Cover the KO.

WRITE – Write out everything you can remember from the specific part of the KO in your workbook.

CHECK – Check that you have all the content needed and it is correct. Any content that is missing or incorrect use a purple pen to illustrate the gaps in your knowledge that you have corrected.

x3 – Repeat 3 times.

LOOK SAY COVER WRITE CHECK

• ENGLISH

• MATHEMATICS

• Language Meaning Example Language Meaning Example

Acute An angle that is less than 90 degrees.

Opposite Angles that are directly apart.

Right angle An angle that is exactly 90 degrees.

Parallel Angles located on a line that intersect two lines that will never meet.

Obtuse An angle that is greater than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees.

Adjacent Angles that are next to each other.

Straight line An angle that is exactly 180 degrees.

Perpendicular Angles that meet at 90 degrees (right angle).

Reflex angle An angle that is greater than 180 degrees but less than 360 degrees.

Corresponding Angles that make the shape of a letter ‘F’ when located in parallel lines.

Full turn An angle that is exactly 360 degrees.

Alternate Angles that make the shape of a letter ‘Z’ when located in parallel lines.

• SCIENCE

• Section 1 – Keywords Section 2 – Types of Reactions

Physical Change – Changes of state

Chemical Change – You can tell if a chemical reaction has occurred

because one of the following will happen: Colour change; Fizzing (gas

being produced); Temperature change; Producing light

Section 3 – Energy Changes

During a chemical reaction, the first thing that happens is that chemical

bonds in the reactants are broken. Then bonds are made in the

products – the new chemicals.

Reaction profiles, or energy level diagrams, shows whether a reaction

is exothermic or endothermic. It shows the energy in the reactants and

products, and the difference in energy between them. We move from

the left to the right along the diagram.

Section 4 – Catalysts

Catalysts work by reducing the amount of energy needed to break the

bonds in the reactants. This means the reaction can happen more

quickly because less energy is being absorbed. The energy change of

the reaction is unchanged.

Chapter 11 – Chemical Energy

• Catalysts: Substances that speed up chemical reactions but are

unchanged at the end.

• Exothermic reaction: One in which energy is given out, usually as

heat or light e.g. Respiration, Neutralisation, Hand Warmers

• Endothermic reaction: One in which energy is taken in, usually as

heat e.g. Photosynthesis, Thermal Decomposition, Cool Packs

• Chemical bond: Force that holds atoms together in molecules.

• Physical change : A reaction that is reversible and does not

involve new chemicals being made e.g. a change of stage

• Chemical change: A reaction that is usually impossible to reverse

and involves new chemicals being made e.g. combustion

Exothermi

c

Endothermic

• Section 1 – Keywords Section 2 – Types of Reaction

• Combustion:

• In order for a fire to start three things are required, oxygen,

heat and a fuel. If you remove any of these then the fire will

go out.

• When we burn a fuel in oxygen, carbon dioxide and water

are produced.

• Alcohols are often used as fuels because they are liquids,

so are easy to transport and store, they burn easily and

they release lots of energy.

• Thermal decomposition is when a single reactant breaks down into

two or more products using heat.

• Mass is conserved in every reaction where the system is closed

(the products have not escaped)

Chapter 12 – Types of Reaction

• Fuel: Stores energy in a chemical store which it can release as

heat.

• Chemical reaction: A change in which a new substance is formed.

• Physical change: One that changes the physical properties of a

substance, but no new substance is formed.

• Reactants: Substances that react together, shown before the

arrow in an equation.

• Products: Substances formed in a chemical reaction, shown after

the reaction arrow in an equation.

• Conserved: When the quantity of something does not change after

a process takes place.

Section 3 – Balancing Equations

We know from studying our law of conservation of mass, that atoms cannot be made or destroyed, therefore every chemical equation must

be balanced.

Rules for balancing equations: You can never change the little numbers; You must only balance the equation by placing big numbers in

front; The number of atoms of both elements must be equal.

How to balance an equation:

1. Draw a line under the equation using a ruler. Draw a vertical line down from the arrow.

2. Underneath the line, on the left hand side write out the elements present.

3. Count the number of atoms of each element in each compound. Right this below the compounds.

4. Check if it is balanced on the left hand side and right hand side of the equation.

5. If it is not balanced then you increase the number of atoms of each element by multiplying the number of molecules.

6. Readjust your number of atoms and see if the equation is now balanced.

7. Repeat the process until the equation is balanced.

8. Rewrite the final equation.

• Section 1 – Keywords

• Aerobic respiration: Breaking down glucose with oxygen to

release energy and producing carbon dioxide and water.

• Anaerobic respiration (fermentation): Releasing energy from the

breakdown of glucose without oxygen, producing lactic acid (in

animals) and ethanol and carbon dioxide (in plants and

microorganisms).

• Fertilisers: Chemicals containing minerals that plants need to

build new tissues.

• Photosynthesis: A process where plants and algae turn carbon

dioxide and water into glucose and release oxygen.

• Chlorophyll: Green pigment in plants and algae which absorbs

light energy.

• Stomata: Pores in the bottom of a leaf which open and close to let

gases in and out.

Section 2 – Equations

Aerobic Respiration – with oxygen GO COW

Glucose + oxygen  Carbon dioxide + water ( + energy)

C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O

Anaerobic Respiration – without oxygen

In animals: Glucose  Lactic acid ( + some energy)

In plants and microorganisms: Glucose  Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide

C6H12O6 2C2H6O + 2CO2

Photosynthesis – only occurs in plants COW GO

Carbon dioxide + water  Glucose + oxygen

6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2

Section 3 – Respiration

• Aerobic respiration occurs when there is plenty of oxygen so

glucose can be broken down fully into carbon dioxide and water

and lots of energy is released.

• In some situations organisms may not be receiving enough oxygen

so they instead respire anaerobically which still produces some

energy but far less. In animals anaerobic respiration produces the

toxic chemical lactic acid which causes cramp; however in plants

and microorganisms ethanol (which makes beer alcoholic) and

Section 4 – Photosynthesis

• In order to grow plants need: carbon dioxide (for photosynthesis),

oxygen (for respiration), light (to provide energy for

photosynthesis), water (for respiration), as well as space to grow

and nutrients from the soil

• Plants have specially adapted leaves which have chloroplasts

containing the green pigment chlorophyll to absorb as much light

as possible and stomata to let gases in and out.

• Plants have specially adapted roots with tiny root hair cells to

absorb as much water as required and all of the nutrients they

need to make the plant healthy.

• The water is moved around a plant in xylem vessels by a process

called transpiration

• Glucose is dissolved and transported around the plant in phloem

vessels in a process called translocation

• Glucose is used in respiration, building the cellulose cell wall and

any left over is stored as starch.

Chapter 17 and 18 – Respiration and Photosynthesis

• FRENCH

• Knowledge Organiser French - Year 8

Spring 1

Les endroits Places

Dans ma ville il y a… In my town there is/are…

un café a café

un cinéma a cinema