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    TASK I: FEATURES OF SPOKEN ENGLISH

    1. You are required to work individually

    2. Search the internet and other reading materials and print out at least two

    relevant articles for the following:

    a) Pronunciation

    b) Stress

    c) Rhythm

    d) Intonation

    e) Public speaking

    f) Characteristics of a good speaker

    3. Read, highlight and present the main ideas of each the article in the form of a

    graphic organisers.

    a) PRONUNCIATION

    Article 1:http://www.wordhacker.com/en/article/what_is_good_pronunciation.htm

    3 level of English pronunciation

    level 1: poeple do not understand what you want tosay. You use the wrong sounds in English words.

    level 2: people understand what youwant to say, but it is unpleasant to

    listen to you

    level 3: people understand you,and your English is pleasant to

    listen to

    http://www.wordhacker.com/en/article/what_is_good_pronunciation.htmhttp://www.wordhacker.com/en/article/what_is_good_pronunciation.htmhttp://www.wordhacker.com/en/article/what_is_good_pronunciation.htmhttp://www.wordhacker.com/en/article/what_is_good_pronunciation.htm
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    b) STRESS

    Article 1:http://esl.about.com/library/weekly/blinter_course_aa110997.htm

    Stress

    Namely, English is considered a stressed language while many other languages

    are considered syllabic. In English, we give stress to certain words while other

    words are quickly spoken (some student say eaten). In other languages, such as

    French or Italian, each syllable receives equal importance (there is stress but

    each syllable has its own length).

    Many speakers of syllable languages dont understand why we quickly speak, or

    swallow, a number of words in sentence. In syllabic languages, each syllable

    has equal importance, and therefore equal time is needed. English however,

    spends more time on specific stressed words while quickly gliding over theothers, less important words.

    Stressed words are considered

    content words such as:

    Nouns kitchen, Peter

    (most) principle verbs

    visit, construct

    Adjectives beautiful,

    interesting

    Adverbs often, carefully

    Non-stressed words are

    considered function words

    such as:

    Determiner the, a

    Auxiliary verbsdont,

    were

    Prepositions before,

    next to

    Conjunctions but, while

    Pronouns they, she

    http://esl.about.com/library/weekly/blinter_course_aa110997.htmhttp://esl.about.com/library/weekly/blinter_course_aa110997.htmhttp://esl.about.com/library/weekly/blinter_course_aa110997.htmhttp://esl.about.com/library/weekly/blinter_course_aa110997.htm
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    Article 2:http://course.cug.edu.cn/cug/eng_language/chpt9/9-3-3.htm

    In English words of two syllable, one is usually altered slightly louder, higher, held for

    slightly longer, or otherwise uttered slightly more forceful than the other syllable in the

    same word, when the word is said in normal circumstances. This syllable is called

    stressen syllable. For example in the word kitten, kit is the stressed syllable while

    ten is the unstressed syllable. In addition to stress within an individual word, when

    we put words together in utterances we stress some more strongly than others. Where

    someone puts the stress depends partly on what they thinks is the most important

    information in their utterance, and pertly on the inherent stress in words.

    Stress

    Traditionally, to work out the stress of a poem, first of all you need to work out the

    number of syllable in each line, as in this example from the play Romeo and Juliet by

    Shakespeare. There a ten syllables in this line and the bold ones are the stressed

    syllables. (the stressed syllables may be different according to different

    understandings of the line.) a ten syllables like this, which has stress on alternate

    syllables and starts with an unstressed syllable, is a very specific and popular form in

    English poetry known as iambic pentameter.

    Forsaintshavehands thatpilgrimshandsdotouch(ex. 9 -14)

    http://course.cug.edu.cn/cug/eng_language/chpt9/9-3-3.htmhttp://course.cug.edu.cn/cug/eng_language/chpt9/9-3-3.htmhttp://course.cug.edu.cn/cug/eng_language/chpt9/9-3-3.htmhttp://course.cug.edu.cn/cug/eng_language/chpt9/9-3-3.htm
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    Article 3:http://poewar.com/rhythm-and-stress/

    Stress

    SENTENCES STRESS

    As well as stress patterns within individual words, we have

    stress at sentence level. Usually the words that are

    emphasized when we speak are those that contain new or

    important information. Consider how would say Im going to

    London in a neutral context. Now imagine yourdeaf aunt

    keeps getting the wrong end of the stick. First she thinks your

    mother is making the journey. You will find that the same

    phrase will be pronounced differently in each case, with the

    emphasis on the word, I, going, London.

    WORD STRESS

    The stress on a words moves according to the context rather

    than meaning or grammatical function. Consider the word

    princess. Usually the stress falls on the second syllable, for

    example in the expression the little princess, but when it is

    used as a title princess Alice, the stress is at the beginning.

    http://poewar.com/rhythm-and-stress/http://poewar.com/rhythm-and-stress/http://poewar.com/rhythm-and-stress/http://poewar.com/rhythm-and-stress/
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    c) RHYTHM

    Article 1:http://www.pbs.org/standarddeviantstv/transcript_public.html

    Rhythm

    Rhythm is the sense of movement or pacing within a speech. A good way to create

    a sense of rhythm is through repetition. While repetition can be overdone, its a

    good idea to repeat your purpose as you go through the body of your speech.

    Repetition helps emphasizes your key points, enhances the audiences ability to

    remember, and helps a listener understand the overall structure of your speech.

    Another way to create rhythm is through parallel wording. Parallel wording is when

    the speaker uses a word patter thats easy for the audience to anticipate. Parallel

    wording is easy to recognise and creates a rhythm that moves the speech forward.

    Another rhythmic device is antithesis. Antithesis is the pairing of opposites within a

    speech, usually to suggest a choice between the two of them. It flows off the tongue,

    moves the speech forward and makes a point.

    http://www.pbs.org/standarddeviantstv/transcript_public.htmlhttp://www.pbs.org/standarddeviantstv/transcript_public.htmlhttp://www.pbs.org/standarddeviantstv/transcript_public.htmlhttp://www.pbs.org/standarddeviantstv/transcript_public.html
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    Article 2:http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/rhythm

    Rhythm

    Rhythm is both a feature

    and product of the

    phonological structure of

    English. The phonology of

    any language is a system,

    so that a change in one

    part of the system will

    affect some or all of the

    other parts.

    English is a very rhythmical

    language, so that a learner

    who can maintain the

    rhythm of the language is

    more likely to sound both

    natural and fluent.

    The two components of the

    system which have the

    greatest influence on

    rhythm are sentence stress

    and the various features of

    connected speech.

    CONNECTED SPEECH

    The most common features of connected speech are the weak forms of

    grammatical and some lexical words (and, to, have) and contractions, some

    which are acceptable in written English (cant, wont). However, we often

    ignore other features which preserve rhythm and make the language sound

    natural. The most common of these are :

    Elision (losing sounds)

    Linking (adding or joining sounds between words)

    Assimilation (changing sounds)

    Uses of schwa ( the most common vowel sound in English)

    http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/rhythmhttp://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/rhythmhttp://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/rhythmhttp://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/rhythm
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    d) INTONATION

    Article 1:http://www.talkenglish.com/ExtraLessons/Intonation.aspx

    INTONATION

    Many people from

    different countries

    have improper

    intonation because

    their teacher had

    improper intonation.

    In many situations,

    being monotone is

    better than having

    bad intonation. The

    worst is when

    someone goes up

    and down too much

    on every word.

    Another thing you

    should avoid is to end

    high at the end of the

    sentence.

    To correct improper

    intonation, you need to

    remember to start high

    and end low. You cannot

    do it any other way. Go to

    the interview section and

    listening to one of the

    audio files provided by

    native speaker. You will

    hear the proper

    intonation. After listening

    to the audio, record

    yourself and listen to it. If

    it is does not sounds the

    same, find the areas that

    are dissimilar and make

    the necessary

    corrections.

    You can fix your

    intonation with

    only a little effort.

    If you have a

    friend who is a

    native English

    speaker, you can

    usually fix

    intonation in a

    couple of

    lessons.

    Recording andlistening to

    yourself might be

    tedious, but

    having correct

    intonation can go

    a long way.

    http://www.talkenglish.com/ExtraLessons/Intonation.aspxhttp://www.talkenglish.com/ExtraLessons/Intonation.aspxhttp://www.talkenglish.com/ExtraLessons/Intonation.aspxhttp://www.talkenglish.com/ExtraLessons/Intonation.aspx
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    Article 2:http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/intonation

    INTONATION : is about how we say things,

    rather than what we say. Without it, its

    impossible to understand the expressions and

    thoughts that go with words.

    Features:

    Divided into phrases (tone-units)

    The pitch moves up and down within

    a pitch range

    In each tone unit, the pitch

    movement takes places on the most

    syllables known as the tonic-

    syllable. (usually a high-content

    word, near the end of the unit)

    Purpose of teaching intonation:

    Awareness of

    intonation aids

    communication

    Incorrect intonation

    can result in

    misunderstandings,

    speakers losing

    interest or even

    taking offence

    Intonation and attitude:

    The first thing for leaners to recognise the effect of intonation changes. The

    word bananas-firstly with an interested intonation, then uninterested.

    Students identify the two and describe the difference. Then brainstorm

    attitudes such as bored, and surprise.

    This can be developed by asking students to greet everybody with a

    particular attitude. At the end, the class identify each persons attitude.

    http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/intonationhttp://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/intonationhttp://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/intonationhttp://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/intonation
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    e) PUBLIC SPEAKING

    Article 1:http://relache.hubpages.com/hub/public-speaking-tips

    Breathedont be

    afraid to pause or just

    take a breath

    Those long awkward silences we think we have fallen into

    are in fact only about 2-3 seconds and the audience does

    not think you have stopped or gotten lost. Most of the time,

    they will not even register those pauses.

    Make an outline for

    yourself and print it out

    in type larger than

    usual print size, so

    that its easy to read at

    just a glance

    Having the outline helps keep your presentation on track so

    you dont ramble off and prompts you if you lose your train

    of thought. You dont want to actually read a speech, as

    your audience doesnt want to look at the top of your head

    while you talk to your chest. Dont be afraid of losing your

    train of thought and having to check your notes.

    Own what you know Remember at the presentation that the audience presumes

    you are the expert. If you act confident, they really will

    believe you are.

    Make eye contact Slowly scan across the audience and look people in the

    eyes as you talk. A good audience gives energy back to

    you and participates when you demonstrates a friendly

    presence, so invite them in. this is also how you can see if

    your information is being comprehended, and helps you

    spot people with questions.

    Practice your speech

    ahead of time

    Talking to others, hearing yourself run over the presentation

    can really help you feel more comfortable with it and iron

    out any awkward spots, as our ears are really smart and will

    catch stuff that sounds off. Some people tape record

    themselves and listen to it .

    Take all questions at

    the end so that you

    can get through the

    Its better to run short time for questions than to have the

    audience derail the presentation. Sometimes for longer

    presentations, you might want to pause after key section

    IMPROVE YOUR PUBLICSPEAKING SKILLS

    http://relache.hubpages.com/hub/public-speaking-tipshttp://relache.hubpages.com/hub/public-speaking-tipshttp://relache.hubpages.com/hub/public-speaking-tipshttp://relache.hubpages.com/hub/public-speaking-tips
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    material you intend to

    present

    and ask forquestion then. Dont be afraid to tell some their

    question will be answered by material you have yet to talk

    about, or ask them if you can take it at the end id that works

    better for you.Dont freak out heavily

    on timing

    If you time the presentation at home, in can run shorter

    when you actually give it. Its better to take off your watch

    and put it where you can see it, or find a clock you can see

    while you speak than keep looking at your watch during

    your presentation. Bring along a friend or ask a colleague to

    give you time signals during your talk from the back where

    no one will see them doing it.

    Be mindful of nervous

    habits

    Twirling hair, playing with a necklace, bracelets and the

    audience will be distracted by the movement and watch

    your behaviour thus losing the presentation part. Dont wear

    clothing or jewellery that will make noises as you speak.

    If you find yourself

    about to say um or

    oh just close your

    mouth, take a breath

    and think what you

    need to say next

    Not saying any sounds more professional than thinking

    aloud. One of the best way to work on this is to tape record

    yourself giving your speech or presentation and then listen

    to yourself talk

    Bring water along if

    you might get thirsty,

    and have some

    tissues in a pocket

    There is nothing so uncomfortable during a presentation

    like having a dry mouth or having to sneeze and not being

    able to take care of yourself. Have the water in container

    that is hard to spill but not hard to drink from and take very

    small snips when you do. That way you dont run the risk of

    coughing on a mouth full of water or giving yourself

    hiccups.

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    Article 2:http://www.media-training.info/Public-Speaking-Articles/6-Traits-That-Make-

    A-Great-Professional-Speaker.html

    Your attitude speaks

    through

    why are you presenting this information? Are you here because it's ajob requirement or a way to make money? The attitude you takeconcerning the material you present will show through in yourpresentation

    Your passion communicates

    more than you'll ever see

    passion brings aprofessional speaker's material to life for theiraudience. your audience will know if you are passionate about whatyou're speaking about or not. moreover, they will need to draw onyour passion to mave them into taking action

    Your ability to empathize

    with the needs and wants ofyour audience

    you must have an ability to respond in a split second to the needs ofyour audience. you have to start interacting with your audience to geta feel for their hearts and minds are concerning your message.

    Your ability to make your

    message easy to understandand implement

    The easier your solution is, the easier it will be for your audience totake the action you're recommending in your presentation

    Your physical energy

    communicates the passionand life in your message

    you've got to make your audience excited about what you'll be

    presenting. This requires having the physical energy to rev up youraudience as you speaks excitedly, move about the room excitedlyand present your material in an exciting manner.

    You must love in order to

    become a success

    a general love for what you do, the topics you speaks on and thepeople ypu're speaking to are needed elements to your speakingcareer.

    TRAITS THAT MAKES A

    PROFESSIONAL SPEAKER

    http://www.media-training.info/Public-Speaking-Articles/6-Traits-That-Make-A-Great-Professional-Speaker.htmlhttp://www.media-training.info/Public-Speaking-Articles/6-Traits-That-Make-A-Great-Professional-Speaker.htmlhttp://www.media-training.info/Public-Speaking-Articles/6-Traits-That-Make-A-Great-Professional-Speaker.htmlhttp://www.media-training.info/Public-Speaking-Articles/6-Traits-That-Make-A-Great-Professional-Speaker.htmlhttp://www.media-training.info/Public-Speaking-Articles/6-Traits-That-Make-A-Great-Professional-Speaker.html
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    f) CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD SPEAKER

    Article 1:http://www.sooperarticles.com/business-articles/entrepreneurship-

    articles/speaking-characteristics-good-speaker-40868.html

    Don't fidget around with your hands, hair orany equiptment on the speaker's table add

    audience bonuses if you throw in a few funnypunch lines out of the blue. this makes theaudience feel a little more comfortable withyou as well as gives you time to think andpace out as they laugh. don't be too serious.keep alight mood during speaking so youwon't feel nervous.

    Confident

    and Funny

    No speaker should come to an event withoutbeing prepared. speaking requires a lot of

    energy, planning and research, especially ifyou're not as familiar with the subject. learnwhy your audience is there listening to yourspeech, know their wants and goals. Beresponsible enough to research on importantthings that will help make your speaking asuccess. avoid being late to events as thisensures major negative points to you as aspeaker, everyone will be hating you alreadyas soon you step onto the stage.

    Organized

    and

    Responsible

    to make an effect on your audience whilespeaking, you have to be determined tomake your point. Use various methods topass your message onto your audience anduse passion to get them hookes. Beconvincing with your passion for the subjectand earn respect for your dedication.

    Determined

    and Full of

    Passion

    CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD SPEAKER

    http://www.sooperarticles.com/business-articles/entrepreneurship-articles/speaking-characteristics-good-speaker-40868.htmlhttp://www.sooperarticles.com/business-articles/entrepreneurship-articles/speaking-characteristics-good-speaker-40868.htmlhttp://www.sooperarticles.com/business-articles/entrepreneurship-articles/speaking-characteristics-good-speaker-40868.htmlhttp://www.sooperarticles.com/business-articles/entrepreneurship-articles/speaking-characteristics-good-speaker-40868.htmlhttp://www.sooperarticles.com/business-articles/entrepreneurship-articles/speaking-characteristics-good-speaker-40868.htmlhttp://www.sooperarticles.com/business-articles/entrepreneurship-articles/speaking-characteristics-good-speaker-40868.html
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    Article 2:http://top7business.com/?Top-7-Characteristics-of-Great-

    Speakers&id=10761

    TOP 7 CHARACTERISTICS OF GREAT SPEAKERS

    Authoritative top-calibre speakers strikes you as authoritative. Mastery may or may

    not include academic degrees in that area. Primary, mastery results from wide

    reading, research, interviewing experts, and learning through professional

    associations, not because you have an overwhelming urge to learn all you can.

    Attitude outstanding speakers avoid saying they are going to deliver a speech. Thatsounds too bland and routine. Instead, they visualize having a dinner conversation

    with friends, when youd share your ideas naturally, with no pretence.

    Audience if the speaker focuses too much on herself and the impression she is

    making, she will become unnerved by a simple mispronunciation, and will lose

    confident and poise. They find ways to involve audiences, creating interactive

    sessions, involving attendees in discussions, and directing meaningful small group

    activities.

    Animation vary your voice in pitch, rate, and volume, just as you do in casual chit

    chat. Gesture freely, naturally, without rehearsed motions.

    Anecdotes as long as you can remember, stories grabbed you, and wouldn't let go

    until you had heard all of the fables. As adults, we still respond to intriguing stories.

    People learn from and remember the anecdotes, not your statistics. Paint wordpictures. Create a you are there sensation.

    Appearance speakers need to look like professional when they face audiences.

    Your audiences want you to dress a level above their garb, just to indicate respects

    for them and the situation.

    Atypicalyou dont have to fit a mould that seems right for most other presenters.

    http://top7business.com/?Top-7-Characteristics-of-Great-Speakers&id=10761http://top7business.com/?Top-7-Characteristics-of-Great-Speakers&id=10761http://top7business.com/?Top-7-Characteristics-of-Great-Speakers&id=10761http://top7business.com/?Top-7-Characteristics-of-Great-Speakers&id=10761http://top7business.com/?Top-7-Characteristics-of-Great-Speakers&id=10761http://top7business.com/?Top-7-Characteristics-of-Great-Speakers&id=10761
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    TASK 2 : PREPARING SPEECH

    1. Based on the ideas that you get from the articles above, prepare a speech of

    any topic you choose of not less than five minutes (in written form)

    2. Record your speech on an audio tape or CD-ROM.

    Bullying Around Us

    Assalamualaikum and a very good morning. Today, I would like to share

    something with you all. My stomach hurts and I have headaches every day. The

    girls are spreading rumours and telling secrets, and itjust doesnt feel right to me. Is

    there something wrong with me? Or am I really what they say I am? Could I be a

    victim of bullying? As you may have noticed my speech is about bullying, so lets get

    started.

    Have you ever been bullied? Has it happened to your peers or have you just

    seen or heard about it on TV? Many people have different opinions on what bullying

    is. Some say it is kicking or hitting someone, others say its when you say mean

    things or call someone names. All of these things are correct, as they are different

    ways you can be bullied. However, they are not the official definition of bullying.

    Everyone has a different opinion. So do me.

    To be honest, bullying is just like a disease because you dont make it happen

    and it does not just go away overnight. Bullying even makes you feel like you are

    sick or something is wrong with you! This, however, isnt true at all. It is not your fault

    if you get bullied.

    Did you know that 900 thousand children get bullied every day in Canada?

    Out of 5.2 million students! That means that 1 out of 5 students get bullied every day!

    And people say that Canadians are too nice to be bullies! Many people are unawareof the bullying that happens around them. That just shows how bad it is.

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    Here are some myths and facts about bullying:

    Myth number 1: Bullying is just a stage, a normal part of life. However, fact is

    bullying is not a normal or socially acceptable behaviour. We only give bullies

    power by our acceptance of this behaviours.

    Myth number 2: If I tell someone, it will just make it worse. Fact is: Research shows

    that bullying will stop when adults in authority and peers get involved.

    Myth number 3:Just stand up for yourself and hit them back. Fact however is: While

    there are some times when people can be forced to defend themselves, hitting back

    usually makes the bullying worse and increases the risk for serious physical harm.

    Myth number 4: Bullying is a school problem, the teachers should handle it. Fact is:

    Bullying is a broader social problem that happens everywhere.

    Myth number 5: People are born bullies. Fact is: Bullying is a learned behaviour

    and behaviours can be changed.

    Okay, you are probably wondering what the different types of bullying are?

    Statistics show that there are six different types of bullying, which is Physical, Verbal,

    Indirect, social Alienation, intimidation and last but not least Cyber Bullying.

    Verbal Bullying is the most common because it is not as easily noticed as

    physical is. Talk about how horrible this is! Think if you were the target or the person

    that got bullied! Bullies bully because it makes them feel better than everyone else!

    Also they do it because they have been bullied at some point in life and feel like they

    need revenge.

    A bully can be a person that is big or someone small; it just depends on what

    type of bullying we are talking about. Sometimes teenagers and older students bring

    guns to school to kill bully but end up injuring many others too. Some people that

    have been bullied all their life decided to leave their old life because they dont

    appreciate it and commit suicide. Suicide! That just shows how out- of- hand this can

    get, bullying is that serious!

    You may think now how can you stop bullying when you can barely see it

    happening! I mean how are you supposed to put an end to it when it goes on 24/7?

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    The best way for you to make a start is to talk to your friends and have a discussion

    in your class and make a set of rules to put an end to it. Then present the idea to

    your whole school. The next step is to create an Anti-Bullying team so you can end

    bullying at your school.

    As a conclusion, bullying is so bad that it can end up with dying and killing

    others which shows exactly how serious and bad this is! Remember everything I

    have told you today and you will not be a bully or not be afraid to stand up for

    yourself! Just be strong, keep your head up high and do your best to stop bullying

    once and for all! Remember, school Bullying is everyones business! Thank you for

    listening.

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    TASK 3: WRITTEN REFLECTION

    1. Write an individual reflection in about 100 words on the activity. In the

    reflection, discuss the strengths and weakness of your activity and how it

    helps you improves your English.

    This assignment requires us to search for the relevant articles, mostly

    features of spoken English. That includes pronunciation, stress, rhythm, intonation

    public speaking and lastly characteristics of a good speaker. After that, we are

    requiring to present the main ideas in the form of graphic organisers. This is easy

    since we have to only print out the chosen articles. To convert it to form of graphic

    organiser is a difficult one. We have to choose the right form of graphic, arrange it

    and make it look nice in that order.

    Fortunately, this difficult one yet slow, we can take our time to understand

    more the main points since we are typing it ourselves. We can chose to just copy

    and paste it but, when we type it back, we remember the whole thing that we type.This is useful when doing the task 2 that is preparing the speech. In that way also, it

    can helps improves our English.

    Next thing is when we record our self-speaking on that speech, then we play it

    again, we can note our mistakes. Our pronunciation also is can be corrected through

    this way. The bad thing is when this assignment is given nearly on the holiday. This

    make us cannot divide our time well. Along the holiday, nobody will go on their

    assignments. Most of us did it before the holiday and continue it after the holiday.

    Maybe the lecture can consider later on assignments can be give after the holiday.

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    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    1- http://www.wordhacker.com/en/article/english_pronunciation_tips.htm

    2- http://www.wordhacker.com/en/article/what_is_good_pronunciation.htm

    3- http://poewar.com/rhythm-and-stress/

    4- http://www.pbs.org/standarddeviantstv/transcript_public.html

    5- http://www.media-training.info/Public-Speaking-Articles/6-Traits-That-Make-A-

    Great-Professional-Speaker.html

    6- http://top7business.com/?Top-7-Characteristics-of-Great-Speakers&id=10761

    7- http://esl.about.com/library/weekly/blinter_course_aa110997.htm

    8- http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/rhythm

    9- http://course.cug.edu.cn/cug/eng_language/chpt9/9-3-3.htm

    10- http://www.talkenglish.com/ExtraLessons/Intonation.aspx

    11- http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/intonation

    12- http://relache.hubpages.com/hub/public-speaking-tips

    13- http://www.sooperarticles.com/business-articles/entrepreneurship-

    articles/speaking-characteristics-good-speaker-40868.html

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    APPENDICES