Kirsty kemp silwood nov 19 2013

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Transcript of Kirsty kemp silwood nov 19 2013

  • 1. Marine management a history of monumental failure, a future of success? Dr Kirsty Kemp Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regents Park, London, NW1 4RY Kirsty.kemp@ioz.ac.uk

2. A whistle-stop tour of major fishery issues 1 2 3 4 5 6Overfishing Bycatch Benthic community damage Expansion of fisheries Fishing down the food web Non-compliance 3. Bycatch and discards 4. Benthic damage: ground gear Trawling is on very rough terrain Ground gear includes large rubber bobbins to help gear to be towed over obstructions Used to be steel bobbins but rubber are more efficient 5. Benthic community damageOctocorals ~2700 years old - recovery will be slow (~ 100 1000y) 6. Expansion: Fishing deeperTime series of bottom fisheries catches by depth (Morato et al. 2005 Fish & Fisheries 7: 24-34) Original slide: Alex Rogers 7. Expansion: Fishing seamounts Seamounts difficult to fish Require special gear and techniques to fish Trawl doors modified to hold net open with minimal or no bottom contact Shoals targeted with acoustics Tow times very short (as little as15 minutes)Original slide: Alex Rogers 8. Expansion: Seamounts - unfishedOriginal slide: Alex Rogers 9. Expansion: Seamounts - fishedOriginal slide: Alex Rogers 10. Fishing down the foodwebPauly, D. et al (1998) Science, New Series, Vol. 279, No. 5352, 860-963 11. Non compliance: Move on rule Scientific investigations for trawling indicate levels should be:75kg sponge 2kg for large octocorals 0.2kg for small octocoralsManagement threshold levels set at: NEAFC 1000kg sponge, 100kg live coral NAFO 1000kg sponge, 60kg coral NPFC 50kg coral CCAMLR 10kg of VME taxaOriginal slide: Alex Rogers 12. Decision making and conflict resolution Consensus-based decision making means that the interests of a few parties lead to poor decision making or a lack of timely decisions Even where majority decisions are allowed members may not be bound by decisions if they register an objection Lack of information is often used as an excuse for inaction instead of application of the precautionary principle Lack of transparency Lack of formal mechanisms for conflict resolutionOriginal slide: Alex Rogers 13. A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance 1 2 3 4Dividing up the ocean Regional fisheries management bodies International regulating bodies Major policy documents5 6 7 8Shifts in ideology of management of natural resources Government regulation approach Economic incentive approach Market based approach (voluntary labeling)9 One voluntary certification scheme the MSC 10 A case study 14. Dividing up the ocean Territorial waters (defined by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea) are coastal waters extending12 nautical miles (22.2 km) from the baseline (usually the mean low-water mark) of a coastal state. The territorial sea is regarded as the sovereign territory of the state, although foreign ships (both military and civilian) are allowed innocent passage through it; this sovereignty also extends to the airspace over and seabed below. Adjustment of these boundaries is called, in international law, maritime delimitation. Exclusive economic zone (EEZ) (as defined by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea) is a sea zone over which a state has special rights to the exploration and use of marine resources. An EEZ stretches from the baseline of a coastal state (usually the mean low-water mark) out to 200 nautical miles. International waters is any body of water that transcends international boundaries Oceans, seas, and waters outside of national jurisdiction are also referred to as the high seas. Ships sailing the high seas are generally under the jurisdiction of the flag state however, when a ship is involved in certain criminal acts, such as piracy, any nation can exercise jurisdiction under the doctrine of universal jurisdiction. 15. A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance 1 2 3 4Dividing up the ocean Regional fisheries management bodies International regulating bodies Major policy documents5 6 7 8Shifts in ideology of management of natural resources Government regulation approach Economic incentive approach Market based approach (voluntary labeling)9 One voluntary certification scheme the MSC 10 A case study 16. Regional fisheries management organisations RFMOs are international organisations formed by countries with fishing interests in an area. Some of them manage all the fish stocks found in a specific area, while others focus on particular highly-migratory species, notably tuna, throughout vast geographical areas. They are open both to countries in the region (coastal states) and countries with interests in the fisheries concerned. Some have a purely advisory role, but most have management powers to set catch and fishing effort limits, technical measures, and control obligations. 17. RFMOsReference: http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/cfp/international/rfmo/ 18. RFMOsReference: http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/cfp/international/rfmo/ 19. A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance 1 2 3 4Dividing up the ocean Regional fisheries management bodies International regulating bodies Major policy documents5 6 7 8Shifts in ideology of management of natural resources Government regulation approach Economic incentive approach Market based approach (voluntary labeling)9 One voluntary certification scheme the MSC 10 A case study 20. International advisory bodies UN United Nations (eg FAO, UNEP) ICES International Council for Exploration of the Sea coordinates research and advises management bodies such as the EU with respect to North Atlantic fisheries http://www.ices.dk/Pages/default.aspx OSPAR The OSPAR Convention is the current legal instrument guiding international cooperation on the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic.http://www.ospar.org/ IWC International Whaling Commission is the global intergovernmental body charged with the conservation of whales and the management of whaling. And many more 21. A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance 1 2 3 4Dividing up the ocean Regional fisheries management bodies International regulating bodies Major policy documents5 6 7 8Shifts in ideology of management of natural resources Government regulation approach Economic incentive approach Market based approach (voluntary labeling)9 One voluntary certification scheme the MSC 10 A case study 22. Major policy documents 1982 UNCLOS United Nations Law of the Sea Convention international agreement regulating conservation: MSY-based1992 CBD Convention on Biological Diversity -the only global agreement focusing on biodiversity management1995 UNFSA United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement shift in emphasis: first global fisheries agreement requiring the precautionary approach to fisheries management1995 UN FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries - Voluntary, includes detailed technical guidance for implementation of the precautionary approach 23. A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance 1 2 3 4Dividing up the ocean Regional fisheries management bodies International regulating bodies Major policy documents5 6 7 8Shifts in ideology of management of natural resources Government regulation approach Economic incentive approach Market based approach (voluntary labeling)9 One voluntary certification scheme the MSC 10 A case study 24. Shifts in management ideology MSY Maximum sustainable yield The common fisheries policy 1970s EU member states agreed that fishermen should share access and have common rules for fishing in each others waters. 1983 the CFP was created Tragedy of the Commons (2010) 88% of European stocks fished beyond sustainable levels, 30% close to collapseEcosystem-based fisheries management and the Precautionary Principle 2012 reform of the CFP: ecosystem-based fisheries management now obligatory 25. Shifts in management ideology MSY Maximum sustainable yield The common fisheries policy 1970s EU member states agreed that MSY fishermen should share access and have common rules for fishing in each others waters. 1983 the CFP was created Tragedy of the Commons (2010) 88% of European stocks fished beyond sustainable levels, 30% close to collapseCochrane, K.L., FAO Corporate Document Repository, A fishery managers guidebookEcosystem-based fisheries Management Measures and Theirthe Precautionary USE OF SCIENTIFIC management and Application, CHAPTER 5: THE Principle INFORMATION IN THE DESIGN OF MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 2012 reform of the CFP: ecosystem-based fisheries management now obligatory 26. Shifts in management ideology MSY Maximum sustainable yield Ecosystem-basedmanagement The common fisheries policy 1970s EU member states agreed that fishermen should share access and have common rules for fishing in each others waters. 1983 the CFP was created Tragedy of the Commons (2010) 88% of European stocks fished beyond sustainable levels, 30% close to collapseEcosystem-based fisheries management and the Precautionary Principle 2012 reform of the CFP: ecosystem-based fisheries management now obligatory 27. A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance 1 2 3 4Dividing up the ocean Regional fisheries management bodies International regulating bodies Major policy documents5 6 7 8Shifts in ideology of management of natural resources Government regulation approach Economic incentive approach Market based approach (voluntary labeling)9 One voluntary certification scheme the MSC 10 A case study 28. Shifts in regulatory approach Government regulation approachEconomic incentive approachMarket based approach (voluntary labeling) 29. Market based approach (voluntary labeling) In the past decade explosion of voluntary certification and labeling schemes 1st party firm certifies itself to its own standard 2nd party standard is developed by an industry body that then certifies members to that standard 3rd party standard is developed by