Kim loại chuyển tiếp

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    23-Jan-2018
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  1. 1. TRNG I HC Y DC HU B MN : Ha hc Gio vin hng dn : Trn Th Ha 1 CC NGUYN T CHUYN TIP Nhm : Chicken chicken chicken
  2. 2. NI DUNG 2 III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG VI. VAI TR V NG DNG TRONG Y HC II. TNH CHT C TRNG I. C IM CU TO NGUYN T
  3. 3. - Cc nguyn t chuyn tip l nhng nguyn t m nguyn t ca chngc 2 electron lp ngoi cng v cc phn lp bn trong (d hoc f) ang xy dng. - Do c 2 electron lp ngoi cng nn chng l cc kim loi. - Trong bng h thng tun hon, chng c xp vo cc nhm B v hai h Lantanit v Actinit xp cui bng. I. C IM CU TO NGUYN T
  4. 4. NI DUNG 4 III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG VI. VAI TR V NG DNG TRONG Y HC II. TNH CHT C TRNG I. C IM CU TO NGUYN T
  5. 5. Ngoi cc tnh cht chung ca cc kim loi, cc nguyn t chuyn tip do c phn lp d v f cha y electron nn c mt s tnh cht khc vi cc kim loi thuc phn nhm chnh: C nhiu trng thi oxy ha Hp cht ca chng thng c mu C tnh thun t n cht v hp cht thng c hot tnh xc tc C kh nng to phc cht II. TNH CHT C TRNG
  6. 6. C nhiu trng thi oxy ha Trong cc nguyn t chuyn tip, cc electron ha tr nm cc phn lp ns v (n-1)d c nhiu nng lng xp x nhau nn chng c th s dng cc e ny khi tham gia lin kt V d: Mn c th c s oxy ha +2, +3, +4, +5, +6, +7 Trong lc , cc kim loi in hnh thng c s oxy ha t thay i. V d: Na c s oxy ha +1, Al c s oxy ha +3 II. TNH CHT C TRNG
  7. 7. C kh nng to phc cht Cc kim loi chuyn tip c kh nng to phc cht bn, do chng c cc orbital trng, c th tham gia to lin kt phi tr vi cc phi t to thnh phc cht. V d:K3[Fe(CN)6]; [Cu(NH3)4](OH)2; [Zn(NH3)4]Cl2; II. TNH CHT C TRNG
  8. 8. n cht v hp cht thng c hot tnh xc tc n cht cng nh hp cht ca cc kim loi chuyn tip thng c hot tnh xc tc. Chng c kh nng to thnh nhng hp cht trung gian vi cc cht phn ng lm gim nng lng hot ha ca phn ng nn phn ng xy ra vi tc nhanh hn. Kim loi chuyn tip cng c th ng vai tr xc tc l cht hp ph b mt (thng l xc tc d th) do c din tch b mt ln. V d: MnSO4 xc tc cho phn ng KMnO4 oxi ha H2C2O4 trong mi trng acid Ni lm xc tc cho cc phn ng hydro ha Cc ion ca cc kim loi chuyn tip(Mn, Zn, Mo) c mt trong enzym ca c th II. TNH CHT C TRNG
  9. 9. C tnh thun t Cht thun t l cht b t trng ht, thng c e c thn. Cn cht c e ghp i b t trng y l cht nghch t. II. TNH CHT C TRNG
  10. 10. Hp cht ca kim loi chuyn tip c mu Hiu s nng lng ca cc e nm phn mc ns v (n-1)d ca cc kim li chuyn tip khng ln, di sng hp th ca chng nm trong vng kh bin nn hp cht ca chng thng c mu. Vd: Cu2+ mu xanh, Ni2+ mu lc sng, II. TNH CHT C TRNG
  11. 11. NI DUNG 11 III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG VI. VAI TR V NG DNG TRONG Y HC II. TNH CHT C TRNG I. C IM CU TO NGUYN T
  12. 12. 1. Fe, Co, Ni: Fe (3d64s2,s OXH +2, +3): L kim loi tng i ph bin C trong thin nhin dng hp cht vi oxy nh: Hematit (Fe2O3) Manhetit (Fe3O4) Pyrit (FeS2) xiderit(FeCO3) 12 III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG
  13. 13. 1. Fe, Co, Ni: Co (3d74s2,s OXH +2, +3): t ph bin Thng gp trong cc qung: cobaltite, erythrite,glaucodot, Cobaltite erythrite glaucodot 13 III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG
  14. 14. 1. Fe, Co, Ni: Ni (3d84s2,s OXH +2, +3): t ph bin Thng gp trong cc hp cht: pentlandit, limonit, garnierit. Pentlandit Garnierit Limonit 14 III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG
  15. 15. 1. Fe, Co, Ni: Tnh cht vt l: L nhng kim loi nng. Nhit nng chy v nhit si cao. Dn nhit v dn in tt. C t tnh. Fe v Co c mu trng hi xm. Ni c mu trng bc. 15 III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG
  16. 16. L cc kim loi hot ng trung bnh. hot ng gim dn t Fe n Ni. a) T/d vi nc v khng kh: Khi nguyn cht dng khi bn. Tuy nhin, do st thng ln cc tp cht nn trong khng kh m b n mn to ra r st xp khng bo v c kim loi. 3Fe + 2O2 Fe3O4 16 III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG 1. Fe, Co, Ni: Tnh cht ha hc:
  17. 17. b) T/d vi phi kim: nhit thng v khng c hi m, chng khng tc dng. nhit cao chng tc dng kh mnh. 2Fe + 3Cl2 2FeCl3 M + Cl2 MCl2 (M: Co,Ni) 600- 11000C, Fe cn tc dng vi cacbon to xementit 3Fe + C Fe3C 17 t0 t0 600- 11000C III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG 1. Fe, Co, Ni:
  18. 18. + Vi acid thng: Chng y c Hydro ra khi cc acid thng to mui c s oxy ha +2. Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2 + Vi acid oxy ha: Fe b th ng bi H2SO4 v HNO3 c,ngui. H2SO4 c nng d ha tan cc kim loi trn. 2Fe + 6H2SO4 /n Fe2(SO4)3 + 3SO2 + 6H2O Fe + 6HNO3 /n Fe(NO3 )3 + 3NO2 + 3H2O Fe + 4HNO3 long Fe(NO3 )3 + NO + 2H2O 18 c) T/d vi axid: t0 III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG 1. Fe, Co, Ni: t0 t0
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. Chng y c kim loi yu hn ra khi dung dch mui: Fe + CuSO4 Cu + FeSO4 20 d) T/d vi kim loi yu hn: Hp cht: i vi Fe, hp cht +2 v +3 u in hnh, cn i vi Co v Ni ch c hp cht +2 l in hnh. a)Hp cht +2: Oxid MO: FeO (en), CoO(xanh lc xm), NiO(xanh lc) l cht rn khng tan trong nc ,kim nhng d tan trong acid nn chng l cc ocid base. Khi un nng, chng b kh n kim loi t do. III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG 1. Fe, Co, Ni:
  21. 21. 1. Fe, Co, Ni: MO + H2 M + H2O Hydroxid M(OH)2 : Fe(OH)2 mu trng, Co(OH)2 mu hng, Ni(OH)2 mu xanh lc sng. L nhng kt ta khng tan trong nc v kim nhng d tan trong acid. L nhng hydroxid base, nhng tnh base yu C ba u l cht kh mnh. Khi c mt oxy trong khng kh, Fe(OH)2 d b oxy ha thnh Fe(OH)3 4Fe(OH)2 + O2 + 2H2O 4Fe(OH)3 Lc nht nu 21 III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG
  22. 22. Cc mui: a s cc mui tng ng tan trong nc v b thy phn. Trong dung dch, Fe2+ c mu xanh l cy nht, Co2+ mu hng, Ni2+ mu lc ti. Chng u l cht kh. 2FeCl2 + Cl2 2FeCl3 22 b) Hp cht +3: Khi i t Fe n Ni: tnh kh ca M2+ gim dn nn tnh oxy ha ca M3+ tng dn. III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG 1. Fe, Co, Ni:
  23. 23. Oxid M2O3: Fe2O3 (nu), Co2O3 (nu sm), Ni2O3 (en sm). L nhng cht rn khng tan trong nc. Co2O3 v Ni2O3 l nhng cht oxy ha mnh. M2O3 + 6HCl 2MCl2 + Cl2 + 3H2O (M: Co, Ni) Cc hydroxid M(OH)3 to thnh khi cho mui M3+ tc dng vi dung dch kim: FeCl3 + 3NaOH Fe(OH)3 + 3NaCl Chng l nhng cht oxy ha mnh trong mi trng acid. 23 III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG 1. Fe, Co, Ni:
  24. 24. Mui M3+ Mui Co3+ v Ni3+ rt khng bn. Mui Fe3+ bn v thng to mui kp c cng thc tng qut M[Fe(SO4)2].12H2O (gi l phn), trong M l cation +1. Ion Fe3+ thc t khng mu nhng trong dung dch c mu vng, l sn phm ca s thy phn. FeCl3 + H2O FeCl2(OH) + HCl Mui Fe3+ tc dng vi SCN- to cht tan mu mu: FeCl3 + (3+n)KSCN Kn[Fe(SCN)3+n] + 3KCl mu (n= 0-3) 24 III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG 1. Fe, Co, Ni:
  25. 25. III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG 25 Mt khi ng trong qung t nhinTinh th bc vi tinh khit hn 99.95%Tinh th vng vi tinh khit hn 99.99% 2. Cu, Ag, Au
  26. 26. 26 Cu hnh electron ngoi cng l ns1 (ging kim loi kim) nhng lp st ngoi cng c 18 e ( kim loi kim cng chu k ch c 8 e) Cu, Ag, Au l nhng kim loi yu hn kim loi kim nhiu Ngoi kh nng nhng 1e ca lp ngoi cng n, cc nguyn t phn nhm ng cn c th mt 1 hoc 2 e lp (n-1). Tuy nhm I nhng cc nguyn t ny c th to hp cht ng vi cc s oxi ha +1, +2 v +3 i t Cu n Au bn knh ca nguyn t tng rt chm tnh kim loi gim nhanh III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG 2.1. Cu to nguyn t v l tnh
  27. 27. 27 Trong thin nhin Cu, Ag, Au c th tn ti trng thi t do nhng t. Chng c khi lng ring ln, dn in v dn nhit tt, d dt mng, d ko si, nhit nng chy v nhit c si cao, d to hp kim. III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG 2.1. Cu to nguyn t v l tnh
  28. 28. 28 Cu, Ag, Au l cc kim loi yu. T Cu Au : hot ng ha hc gim Tc dng vi phi kim + Trong khng kh: Cu b bin i v to lp cacbonat base (gi l tanh ng, rt c). Cu + O2 + H2O +CO2 Cu2(OH)2CO3 xanh lc xm Ag , Au khng bin i + C 3 kim loi khng phn ng vi H2, N2, C ngay c nhit cao Tc dng vi axit: Cu, Ag tan trong acid c tnh oxi ha mnh ( HNO3,H2SO4 c, nng ), nc cng toan, Au ch tan trong nc cng toan Au + 3 HCl + HNO3 AuCl3 + NO + 2 H2O AuCl3 +HCl H[AuCl4] III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG 2.2. Ha tnh
  29. 29. 29 Cc hp cht bn l hp cht Ag+, Cu2+, Au3+. Hp cht Ag+ : + Ag2O l bt mu nu t, khng tan trong nc, tan trong acid oxit base + AgOH l base khng bn, phn hy khi to thnh 2 AgOH Ag2O (r ) en + H2O Ag2O AgCl + 2 NH3 d [Ag(NH3)2]Cl III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG 2.3. Hp cht + a s cc mui Ag+ kh tan trong nc, d b as phn hy (ng dng trong ch to phim, giy nh), d to phc cht vi NH3, CN-, S2O32-
  30. 30. 30 Hp cht Cu2+ : + CuO l bt mu en,khng tan trong nc nhng tan d trong acid. +Cu(OH)2 l kt ta xanh da tri, t bn, d mt nc khi un nng. Cu(OH)2 (r ) xanh da tri CuO( r) en + H2O. N l mt hydroxid lng tnh, c 2 tnh cht u yu,nhng tnh base tri hn: Cu(OH)2 + 2NaOH c 50%, si = Na2[Cu(OH)4] tan, dung dch tm Cu(OH)2 + 2HCl long CuCl2 + 2H2O + Cc mui Cu2+ u c v d to phc cht, CuSO4.5H2O c dng lm thuc tr su trong nng nghip. CuSO4 + 2NH3 + 2H2O Cu(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4 Cu(OH)2 + 4NH3 d [Cu(NH3)4](OH)2 tan, dd xanh tm III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG 2.3. Hp cht CuSO4.5H2O
  31. 31. 31 III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG 2.3. Hp cht Hp cht Au3+ : + Au2O3 l bt nu sm mu, khng tan trong nc,d phn hy khi un nng. + Au(OH)3 l kt ta nu , lng tnh, tnh acid > base. + a s cc mui ca Au3+ c mu vng v d to phc cht: AuCl3 + HCl c H[AuCl4] tan Au2O3
  32. 32. 32 3. Zn, Cd, Hg 3.1. Tnh cht nguyn t Cu hnh electron ngoi cng ns2 ,c 2e lp ngoi cng,c 18e lp (n-1) Chng l nhng kim loi yu hn kim loi IIA cng chu k. 3.2.L tnh Nhit thng, Hg l cht lng rt c,Cd v Zn l cht rn,chng c tos v tonc tng i thp,Hg c th bay hi nhit thng. Hg ha tan kim loi ngay nhit thng,hn hp c gi l hn hng.N c th dng rn,lng hoc st. III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG
  33. 33. 3.3 Ha tnh Zn,Cd,Hg l kim loi yu hn kim loi kim th cng chu k. Tc dng vi phi kim: Trong khng kh kh,to thng Zn,Cd,Hg khng b bin i. Khi un nng Zn v Cd chy cho ngn la c mu,Hg b oxh chm. Vi lu hunh v halogen,Zn v Cd phn ng mnh lit khi un nng,Hg phn ng ngay to thng 33 III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG
  34. 34. Tc dng vi axid: Zn v Cd ng trc H trong dy in ha nn phn ng vs acid long,Hg ng sau H nn ch tan trong HNO3 v H2SO4 c nng. Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 H2 Hg +4HNO3 Hg(NO3)2 +2NO2+H2O Tc dng vi dung dch kim: Ch c Zn ha tan trong dung dch kim v c hydroxid lng tnh. Zn +2NaOHdd +2H2O Na2[Zn(OH)4]+H2 34 III. MT S KIM LOI d THNG THNG