khztu; ife;E}y; tpNrl Njitfs;rhu; fy;tpj; Jiw khztu; ife;E ... · PDF file khztu; ife;E}y;...

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    26-Apr-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    1
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of khztu; ife;E}y; tpNrl Njitfs;rhu; fy;tpj; Jiw khztu; ife;E ... · PDF file khztu; ife;E}y;...

  • khztu; ife;E}y;

    tpNrl Njitfs;rhu; fy;tpj; Jiw fy;tpg;gPlk;

    ,yq;if jpwe;j gy;fiyf;fofk; ehty> ENfnfhl.

    njhiyNgrp ,y: 0112881015> 011288149

    njhiyefy;: 0112768055

    kpd;dQ;ry;: postmast@ou.ac.lk

    ,izaj;jsk;: www.ou.ac.lk

    gl;lNky; tpNrl Njitfs;rhu; fy;tp

    bg;Nshkh epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk; 2016/2017

    khztu; ife;E}y;

    mailto:postmast@ou.ac.lk http://www.ou.ac.lk/

  • 2

    khztu;fSf;F rpy thu;j;ij……

    gl;lNky; tpNrl Njitfs;rhu; fy;tp bg;Nshkh epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lj;jpidj; njhlutpUf;Fk; cq;fis md;Gld; tuNtw;fpd;Nwhk;. gl;lNkw;fy;tp bg;Nshkh epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;ijj; njhiyf;fy;tp Kiwapy; gapy;tjw;fhf ePq;fs; gjpT nra;ag;gl;Ls;sPu;fs;. ,k;Kiwapy; tpupTiuahsu;fis my;yJ Nghjdh Mrpupau;fis Neupy; re;jpf;Fk; re;ju;g;gq;fs; kpff;FiwthFk;. vdNt> cq;fs; epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk; njhlu;ghd rfy tplaq;fisAk;; ,f;ifE}iy ed;whf thrpj;J tpsq;fpf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;W vjpu;ghu;f;fg;gLfpwPu;fs;. ,g;gpuRuj;jpy; nrk;ikahd jftiy mspg;gjw;F Ntz;ba Kaw;rpfs; vLf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. vdpDk; jpwe;j gy;fiyf;fof xOq;F tpjpfspy; gpd;du; Nkw;nfhs;fpd;w khw;wq;fs;> nfs;if khw;wq;fs;> epjp my;yJ NtW ,lu;ghLfs; fhuzkhf Vw;gLk; khw;wq;fs; vd;gtw;wpw;fpzq;f ,f;ife;E}ypy; cs;slq;fpAs;s tplaq;fspy; khw;wq;fSf;Fk; jpUj;jq;fSf;Fk; cs;shFk;.

    ,f;ife;E}ypy; mwpTWj;jg;gl;Ls;sthW ehl; ghlrhiyfs;> Nghjdh tFg;Gf;fs; Kjypatw;wpy; fye;Jnfhs;tJk; Fwpf;fg;gl;l jpdj;Jf;F Kd;du; G+uzg;gLj;jg;gl;l xg;gilfisr; rku;g;gpg;gJk; fw;gpj;jy; gapw;rpiar; nra;tJk; cq;fsJ nghWg;ghFk;. ,f;ife;E}Yf;Fg; Gwk;ghff; fhy ml;ltizfspy; Vw;gLk; khw;wq;fs; kl;LNk mwpaj;jug;gLk; vd;gijf; ftdj;jpw; nfhs;sTk;. ,e;epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;jpid (PGDSNE) ntw;wpfukhfg;

    G+u;j;jp nra;tjw;F vkJ tho;j;Jf;fs;.

    fy;tpg;gPlk; ,yq;if jpwe;j gy;fiyf;fofk;

    ehty ENfnfhl.

  • 3

    cs;slf;fk;

    gFjp I - nghJj;jfty;fs;

    1.0 1.0 ,yq;if jpwe;j gy;fiyf;fofk; 5

    1.1 ghlnewpfSk; epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lq;fSk; 6 1.2. fw;gpj;jy; Kiwfs; 12 1.3. kjpg;gPl;L Kiwfs; 13 1.4. gpuhe;jpa Nritfs; 15 1.5. Vida Nritfs; 16 1.6. fw;if epfo;r;rpj;jpl;l fl;lzq;fs; 17

    gFjp II- nghJj;jfty;fs;

    2.0 gl;lNky; tpNrl Njitfs;rhu; fy;tp bg;Nshkh

    epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk; 19

    2.1 Nehf;fq;fs; 19 2.2 fhy vy;iy 19 2.3 fw;gpj;jy; nkhop 19 2.4 eilngWk; ,lq;fs; 19

    3.0 mDkjpj; jifikfs; 20

    4.0 fw;if epfo;r;rpj;jpl;l cs;slf;fk; 21

    4.1 epfo;r;rpj;jpl;l mikg;G 22 4.2 fw;wy; Kiwik 24 4.3 ehl;ghlrhiyfs; 24 4.4 khztu; Nghjdh tFg;Gr; nrayku;T 26 4.5 fl;Gy nrtpg;Gy rhjdq;fs; 27 5.0 kjpg;gPL 27

    5.1 kjpg;gPl;bd; gFjpfs; 27 5.2 xg;gilfs; 28

  • 4

    5.3 ,Wjpg;Gs;spfisj; jPu;khdpj;jy; 28 5.4 ,Wjpg;guPl;irf;Fj; jifik ngwhNjhu; 31 5.5 vOj;Jg;guPl;ir 36 5.6 fw;gpj;jy; nrad;Kiw (ESE7339) 36 6.0 gl;lk; toq;fy; 44

    7.0 fl;lzq;fs; 45

    8.0 epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk;> tpNrl Njitfs;rhu;

    fy;tpj;Jiw 46

    9.0 fw;if newp/epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;jpidg;

    gpw;Nghly; 47

    10.0 epfo;r;rpj;jpl;l Muk;gk; 48

    11.0 tpz;zg;gg;gbtk; 48

    12.0 tpz;zg;gpj;jYk; gjpTnra;jYk; 49

    13.0 Kf;fpa jpfjpfs; 50

    14.0 epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;Jld; njhlu;ghd

    Mrpupau; FOf;fs; 51

    15.0 Kftup khw;wk; 53

    ,izg;G – I 55

    ,izg;G – II 59

  • 5

    gFjp-I

    nghJj; jfty;fs;

    2.0 ,yq;if jpwe;j gy;fiyf;fofk;

    1978 Mk; Mz;L 16 Mk; ,yf;f gy;fiyf;fofq;fs; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; 1980 Mk; Mz;by; ];jhgpf;fg;gl;l jpwe;j gy;fiyf;fofk;> 1990 Mk; Mz;L ,yq;if jpwe;j gy;fiyf;fof 1Mk; ,yf;f fl;lisr; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; ,yq;ifapy; cs;s Vida Njrpa gy;fiyf;fofq;fs; Nghd;W xNu jd;ikahd rl;l> fy;tp me;j];j;ijf; nfhz;ljhFk;. ,g;gy;fiyf;fofk; 18 tajpidAk; mjw;F Nkw;gl;l tajpidAk; cilNahu; gpujhdkhfj; jkf;F fpilf;Fk; Xa;T Neuj;jpy;> jkJ tPLfspy; ,Ue;J nfhz;L rhd;wpjo;fs;> bg;Nshkhgl;lq;fs; gl;lq;fs;> gl;lNkw;gl;lq;fs; vd;gtw;Wf;F ,l;Lr; nry;fpd;w fy;tp epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fisg; gapyf;$bajhf cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. jpwe;j gy;fiyf;fofk; ehty> ENfnfhlapy; kj;jpa tshfj;ijf; nfhz;Ls;sJld; vl;L gpuhe;jpa epiyaq;fisAk; (nfhOk;G> fz;b> khj;jiw> aho;g;ghzk;> mEuhjGuk;> kl;lf;fsg;G> gJis kw;Wk; FUdhfy;) ehL G+uhfTk; fw;if epiyaq;fisAk; nfhz;Ls;sJ. jw;NghJ jpwe;j gy;fiyf;fofk; khdpltpay; kw;Wk; r%f tpQ;Qhd gPlk;> ,aw;if tpQ;Qhd gPlk;> nghwpapay; njopy;El;gtpay; gPlk;> fy;tpg; gPlk; kw;Wk; Rfhjhu tpQ;Qhdq;;fs; gPlk; Mfpa Ie;J gPlq;fisf; nfhz;Ls;sJ. tpNrl Njitfs;rhu; fy;tpg; gl;lNky; bg;Nshkh njhlu;ghd tpguk; ,f;ifNal;bd; gFjp-II ,y; jug;gl;Ls;sJld; ,e;epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk; fy;tpg;gPlj;jpd; tpNrl Njitfs;rhu; fy;tpj; Jiwapdhy; elhj;jg;gLk; xU epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lk;khFk;.

  • 6

    1.1 ghlnewpfSk; epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lq;fSk;

    jpwe;j gy;fiyf;fof nrhy;yhl;rpapd;gb “ghlnewp”

    vd;gjdhy; fUjg;gLtJ nghJthf xU fw;if

    tUlj;jpDs; G+uzg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;ba mbg;gilf;

    fw;if myF MFk;. mJ fl;lhakhdjhfNth

    tpUg;gj;jpw;FupajhfNth ,Uf;fyhk;.

    fl;lhag; ghlnewpfSk; tpUg;gj;jpw;Fupa

    ghlnewpfSk; Nru;e;J fw;if epfo;;r;rpj;jpl;lj;ij

    mikf;fpd;wd. fw;if epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk; xd;;wpid

    ntw;wpfukhfg; g+uzg;gLj;jp rhd;wpjo;> bg;Nshkh

    my;yJ gl;lj;ij ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;Fj; jFjp

    ngwyhk;. fl;lha ghlnewp vd;gJ VjhtnjhU fw;if

    epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lf; fl;likg;gpDs; me;epfo;r;rpj;

    jpl;lj;jpd; Njitfis epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhf

    khztu;fspdhy; g+uzg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;ba

    ghlnewpahFk;. jpwe;j gy;fiyf;fofk; rhd;wpjo;>

    bg;Nshkh my;yJ gl;lj;ijg; ngw;Wj;jUk; fy;tprhu;

    fw;if epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fis Kd; itf;fpd;wJ.

    mit gpd;tUkhW:

    (1) mj;jpthu epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fs;

    (2) rhd;wpjo; epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fs;

    (3) cau; rhd;wpjo; epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fs;

    (4) bg;Nshkh epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fs;

    (5) ,skhzp epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fs;

  • 7

    (6) gl;lNky; bg;Nshkh epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fs;

    (7) gl;lNky; gl;l epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fs;

    (8) njhlUW fy;tp epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fs;

    (9) jdp epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fs;

    (10) FWq;fhyg; ghlnewpfs;

    mj;jpthu fw;;if epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk; Fwpg;gpl;l fy;tprhu;

    fw;if epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lj;jpw;Fs; GFtjw;Fupa

    thapyhFk;. ,t;tj;jpthuf; fy;tp epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk;

    kl;lk; xd;W (F1)> kl;lk; ,uz;L (F2) vDk; ,uz;L

    kl;lq;fspy; elj;jg;gLf;fpd;wJ. fiy> tu;j;jfk;>

    ngsjpf tpQ;Qhdk;> capupay; tpQ;Qhdk;> my;yJ

    njhopy;El;g tpQ;Qhdk;> Nghd;w fw;ifj;

    Jiwfspy; Vjhtnjhd;Wf;fhd mj;jpthufw;if

    epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;ij ntw;wpfukhfg; g+uzg;gLj;Jk;

    khztu;fs; kuGuPjpahd gy;fiyf;fofq;fspy; Fwpj;j

    epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;jpw;F mDkjpf;fg;gLtjw;Fj;

    Njitahd fy;tp kl;lj;jpw;Fr; rkkhd jFjpiag;

    ngWfpd;wdu;.

    jdpahd epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk; ahjhapDk; Kjd;ikf;

    fy;tp epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;jpy; mlq;fhj

    epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lkhFk;. mit xt;nthU jdpahspd;

    Njitapd; mbg;gilapy; RahjPdkhff; fw;f KbAk;.

  • 8

    epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fspd; fy;tprhu; ngWkhdj;ij

    fhl;Ltjw;fhf jpwe;j gy;fiyf;fofk; “jpwikkl;lk;”

    (Credit) vDk; gjj;ij gad;gLj;JfpwJ. “ahjhapDk;

    xU guPl;irapy; khztu; fhl;Lk;” milTkl;lj;

    juj;jpid ,r;nrhy; Fwpf;fhJ. cjhuzkhf

    f.ngh.j.rh.ju/cau; jug;guPl;irfspy; jpwikr; rpj;jp

    vd;gJ milT kl;lj; juj;jpidf; Fwpf;fpd;wJ.

    Mdhy; ,q;F “jpwik kl;lk;” vd;gJ fy;tpapy;

    ngWkhdk; vd;Dk; fUj;jpy; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.

    ghlnewpnahd;wpd; fy;tpg;ngWkhdk; “18 jpwik

    kl;lk;” vdf; Fwpg;gpl;lhy; rhjhuzkhf thuk;

    xd;Wf;F 15 kzpj;jpahyq;fs; tPjk; 30 thuq;fSf;F

    mg;ghlj;jpw;F 450 kzpj;jpahyq;fisf; fw;gjw;fhfr;

    nrytpl vjpu;ghu;f;fg;gLfpd;wJ vd;gJ mu;j;jkhFk;.

    ghlnewpfSf;Nfw;g Ra fw;wy; fhyk; jpwik kl;l

    mbg;gilapy; NtWgLk;. nghJthf VjhtnjhU

    epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;jpd; ghlnewpfSf;fhff; fy;tpahz;L

    xd;wpy; khztu; gjpT nra;af;$ba Mff;$ba

    jpwikkl;lq;fspd; vz;zpf;if 36 MFk;. gjpT

    nra;af;$ba Mff; Fiwe;j ghlnewp vz;zpf;if

    jpwik kl;lk; 9f;Fr; rkdhFk;. rhjhuz fw;if

    epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk; xd;wpNyh my;yJ ,uz;bNyh cs;s

    ghlnewpf;F Nkyjpfkhf jpwik kl;lk; 9 I tpl

  • 9

    mjpfupf;fhj fy;tpg; ngWkhdk; mikAk; tifapy;

    njhlUW fw;if ghlnewpfSf;Fg; gjpT nra;a

    KbAk;.

    xt;nthU ghlnewpf;Fk; mjw;Fupa FwpaPL xd;W

    xJf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,it gpd;tUk; tifapy; 7

    vOj;J ,yf;f FwpaPLfisf; nfhz;Ls;sd.

    Kjy; ,uz;L

    vOj;Jf;fs;

    fw;ifj;Jiw (ml;ltiz 1)

    %d;whtJ vOj;J epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk; (ml;ltiz 2)

    Kjy; ,yf;fk; epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;jpw;Fupa kl;lk;

    (ml;ltiz 2)

    ,uz;lhtJ

    ,yf;fk;

    jpwik kl;lk; (ml;ltiz 3)

    filrp ,uz;L

    ,yf;fq;fs;

    ghlnewpapd; jdpj;njhlu; ,yf;fk;.

  • 10

    ml;ltiz 1 : fw;ifj;JiwfSf;Nfw;g ghlnewpf;FwpaPL

    gPlk; fw;ifj;Jiw FwpaPL

    fy;tp fy;tp Kd; gps;isg;gUtf; fy;tp tpNrl Njitf;fy;tp

    ES

    EC