Kelompok 6

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Check this outPendidikan Kimia Non Reguler 2010

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DEFINITION OF CELLA cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.

EXAMPLES OF CELLSAmoeba Proteus Plant Stem Bacteria Red Blood Cell

Nerve Cell

Cell based on nucleus

Prokaryotic

Eukaryotic4

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Types of CellsPROKARYOTICDo not have structures surrounded by membranes Few internal structures One-celled organisms, Bacteria

http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/prokaryotic_cells.html

Types of Cells EUKARYOTICContain organelles surrounded by membranes Most living organismsPlant Animal

http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.html

EUKARYOTIC Animal Plant Protist Chromista Eumycota

PROKARYOTIC Eubacteria Archaebacteria

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Cell

Unicellular

Multicellular

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CELLUNICELLULAR MULTICELLULAR

Unicellular organisms are those that contain just one single cell

Unicellular organisms are mostly prokaryotes Unicellular organisms are usually smaller or unvisible to the naked eye

Multicellular organisms are those living organisms that are made up of more than one cell Multicellular organisms are mostly eukaryotes Multicellular organisms are visible to the naked eye

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UNICELLULAR Chromista Eumycota Archaebacteria Eubacteria

MULTICELLULAR Plantae Animal Protists

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CELLS EXTRACT ENERGY FROM THE ENVIRONMENT

Cell Autotrophs are cells can utilized sunlight as an energy source

Archaebacteria Eubacteria Protists Plantae

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Cell Heterotrophs are cells obtain energy from food Animalia Chromista Protists Eumycota

Eubacteria

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DIFFERENT BETWEEN AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC RESPIRATIONAEROBIC is respiration that require oxygen (O2 occurs in the mitochondrial matrix is used to breakdown organic compounds into inorganic compounds produces more energy produces 36 ATP ANAEROBIC is anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen (O2). occurs in the cytoplasm occurs for decomposition of organic compounds produces less energy produces 2 ATP

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AEROBICKINGDOM PLANTAE

ANAEROBIC

KINGDOM ANIMALIA KINGDOM PROTISTA KINGDOM ARCHABACTERIA KINGDOM EUBACTERIA KINGDOM FUNGI

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PLANTAE

BACTERIA

ANIMAL

KINGDOMS

PROTISTA

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KINGDOMS PLANTAEAll plants are eukaryotic autotrophs making food from sunlight through photosynthesis. There are, however, a few species that are both autotrophs and heterotrophs. Plants have cell walls made of cellulose.

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THE PLANT KINGDOMThis kingdom has organisms that are multi-cellular, have cell walls and chlorophyll, produce their own food, and dont physically move from one place to another.

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TYPICAL PLANT CELL

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/images/plant3.gif

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TYPICAL ANIMAL CELL

http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/images/cell.gif

~ CHARACTERISTICS ~ Multicellular Eukaryotic with no cell walls Heterotrophs (consumers)

Have a nervous system to respond to their environmentLocomotion relates to ability to obtain food Most animals develop from a zygote becoming a blastula A single layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled space forming a hollow ball of cells called a gastrula.

~ CHARACTERISTICS ~

If you look at a drop of pond water under a microscope, all the "little creatures" you see swimming around are protists.

All protists have a nucleus and are therefore eukaryotic. Protists are either plant-like, animal-like or fungus-like.

Plant-like protists are autotrophs they contain chloroplasts and make their own food.

Animal-like and fungus-like protists and are heterotrophs.

Protozoans are animal-like protists(heterotrophs) grouped according to how they move. The word protozoa means "little animal." They are so named because many species behave like tiny animalsspecifically, they hunt and gather other microbes as food.

All protozoa digest their food in stomach-like compartments called vacuoles . As they chow down, they make and give off nitrogen, which is an element that plants and other higher creatures can use. Protozoa range in size from 1/5,000 to 1/50 of an inch (5 to 500 m) in diameter. They can be classified into three general groups based on how they move.

Mysterious Molds Mildews

And Mushrooms

Eukaryotic Non-Vascular organism Unicellular Cell walls similar in structure to plants but different in chemical composition Heterotrophic

Charateristic of Fungi

Characteristics of FungiHeterotrophic saprobes cells of hyphae secrete digestive enzymes and absorb products of Digestion Cell wall made of chitin - a polysaccharide with added nitrogen group

Hypha - filamentous body - forming mycelial mat - each hypha is composed of a chain of cells with or without separating septa Nuclear mitosis - all stages of mitosis go on within the nucleus - followed by nuclear division and then cell division

FUNGI ARE NOT PLANTSPlants make their own food (sugars) from light

FUNGIAbsorb food from plants or other substrates (things they grow on)

Reproduce with spores

FUNGI

PLANTSReproduce with seeds

YEASTS ARE A TYPE OF FUNGUSYeasts grow by buddingYeasts are present almost everywhere

Budding yeasts

FUNGI

CHROMISTA

EUMYCOTA

CHROMISTA

CHARACTERISTICS OF CHROMISTA At some stage or other of their lives most members form cells with two flagella that are attached to the side of the cell rather than to either end. Many Chromista are unicellular or form colonies in which the cells function individually.

The cells of some Chromista form cell walls of celluloselike substances that correspond chemically to those of plants to a certain extent, but many others form external skeletons that contain silica or calcium carbonate.

CHARACTERISTICS OF EUMYCOTAAll are eukaryotic Most are filamentous Some are unicellular Protoplasm of a hypha or cell is surrounded by a rigid wall

Many reproduce both sexually and asexually Their nuclei are typically haploid and hyphal compartments are often multinucleate All are achlorophyllous All are chemoheterotrophic (chemo-organotrophic)

KINGDOM MONERACommonly called bacteria All monerans are unicellular monerans are prokaryotes Prokaryotes: Single-celled organisms surrounded by a membrane and cell wall that LACK membrane bound organelles

7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Capsule

Cell wallRibosomes

NucleoidFlagella

Cytoplasm

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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Capsule keeps the cell from drying out and helps it stick to food or other cells

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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Cell wall

Thick outer covering that maintains the overall shape of the bacterial cell

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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Ribosomes cell part where proteins are made Ribosomes give the cytoplasm of bacteria a granular appearance in electron micrographs

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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Nucleoid a ring made up of DNA

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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Flagella a whip-like tail that some bacteria have for locomotion

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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Pilli hollow hair-like structures made of protein allows bacteria to attach to other cells.

Pilli-singular Pillus-plural

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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Cytoplasm clear jelly-like material that makes up most of the cell

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BACTERIA

They are found almost everywhere:-water -soil -skin -on most objectsBacteria - small one celled monerans Bacteria like a warm, dark, and moist environment

-air -food -inside the body

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CHARACTERISTICS OF MONERA

Monera can be divided into two main groups: 1) Archaebacteria - ancient bacteria - live in extremely harsh conditions2) Eubacteria - true bacteria

Archabacteria

BacteriaEubacteria

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ARCHAEBACTERIA Unicellular Microscopic Cell wall does not have peptidoglycan

CHARACTERISTICS ARCHAEBACTERIA

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ARCHAEBACTERIA (ANCIENT)Can be divided into 4 groups:

1. Methanogens methane producers2. Thermoacidophiles heat and acid lovers

3. Chemosynthesizers make own chemicals4. Extreme Halophiles salt lovers

METHANOGENSProduce methane Live where there is no oxygen Found in intestines of many mammals

Found in swamps causes the rotten egg smell

THERMOACIDOPHILESLive in extremely hot and acidic watersOften found in hot springs

Ex. Yellowstone National Park

Use inorganic compounds as source of energy (instead of sun)Inorganic = compounds containing sulfur, iron, nitrogen (not carbon!) Process called oxidation Use energy to change carbon dioxide into organic food molecules Live in harsh environments (e.g. hot sulfur vents on ocean floor)

CHEMOSYNTHESIZERS

salt loving Live in water up to ten times saltier than sea water Found in places like the Dead Sea

EXTREME HALOPHILES

ARCHAEBACTERIAMethanogensLive in oxygen free environments, produce methane (CH4). acidic (pH 2 to 4), line the edges of hot springs

Thermoacidophiles Live in water than is very hot and Chemosynthesizers Make carbohydrates usinginorganic compounds as