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  • Kaukaisten kohteiden Doppler-seuranta Doppler tracking of distant targets

    Piotr Ptak, Juha Hartikka, Mauno Ritola, Tuomo Kauranne

    MATINE seminar, Helsinki, Finland, November 17, 2016

    Awarded funding by MATINE 100000e Awarded funding by LUT 67500e

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 1 / 26

  • Motivation

    Table of Contents

    1 Motivation

    2 Recorded data types

    3 Coverage area of the system

    4 Tracking capabilities

    5 Antennas and equipment

    6 High Flying and Highly Manoeuvring Objects

    7 Conclusions and future goals

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 2 / 26

  • Motivation

    Ultimate goal

    create Doppler Aircraft Tracking System

    by utilising available transmitters of opportunity and

    receivers by radio amateurs.

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 3 / 26

  • Motivation

    Objectives

    List of objectives:

    Use Doppler shift seen at many receivers to find and locate aircraft

    Determine aircraft size

    Find the potential coverage area of such a multi-point radar system

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 4 / 26

  • Motivation

    Objectives

    List of objectives:

    Use Doppler shift seen at many receivers to find and locate aircraft

    Determine aircraft size

    Find the potential coverage area of such a multi-point radar system

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 4 / 26

  • Motivation

    Objectives

    List of objectives:

    Use Doppler shift seen at many receivers to find and locate aircraft

    Determine aircraft size

    Find the potential coverage area of such a multi-point radar system

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 4 / 26

  • Motivation

    Objectives

    List of objectives:

    Test tracking accuracy with multiple simultaneous receivers

    See if high-flying ballistic objects or military aircraft can be seen and located

    Test affordable receiver setups

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 5 / 26

  • Motivation

    Objectives

    List of objectives:

    Test tracking accuracy with multiple simultaneous receivers

    See if high-flying ballistic objects or military aircraft can be seen and located

    Test affordable receiver setups

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 5 / 26

  • Motivation

    Objectives

    List of objectives:

    Test tracking accuracy with multiple simultaneous receivers

    See if high-flying ballistic objects or military aircraft can be seen and located

    Test affordable receiver setups

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 5 / 26

  • Motivation

    Bistatic radar

    Forward-scatter signal strength is better than the backscatter response of conventional radar.

    Bistatic scatter is more variable but often better than backscatter. Direct path

    Baseline L = dTR

    E ch

    o pa

    th

    d A R

    Illu mi

    na tio

    n p ath

    dT A

    γ

    Vc

    δ

    β/2

    T R

    A β Bistatic angle δ Aspect angle Vc Cruise velocity

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 6 / 26

  • Recorded data types

    Table of Contents

    1 Motivation

    2 Recorded data types

    3 Coverage area of the system

    4 Tracking capabilities

    5 Antennas and equipment

    6 High Flying and Highly Manoeuvring Objects

    7 Conclusions and future goals

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 7 / 26

  • Recorded data types

    flightradar24.com (FR24)/Radio Signal Data (RSD)

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 8 / 26

  • Recorded data types

    Recorded Radio Signal Data

    -84.9 49750000 +84.7 20:13:42

    20:46:29

    21:19:16

    21:52:03

    22:24:51

    frequency / Hz

    2012-07-11

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 9 / 26

  • Coverage area of the system

    Table of Contents

    1 Motivation

    2 Recorded data types

    3 Coverage area of the system

    4 Tracking capabilities

    5 Antennas and equipment

    6 High Flying and Highly Manoeuvring Objects

    7 Conclusions and future goals

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 10 / 26

  • Coverage area of the system

    Examples of bistatic coverage area

    Four-element horizontal dipole array at about 14m above ground, horizon of 370 km for aircraft at cruising altitude of 10 km;

    Power of the Saint Petersburg transmitter 149 kW;

    Aircraft detections range up to the horizon.

    JH,D4E

    S

    A 33

    2 FA

    7X B

    77 W

    A 38

    8 B

    77 2

    G LF

    6 A

    33 3

    B 74

    4 B

    77 L

    A 34

    3 A

    31 9

    B 78

    9 B

    78 8

    A 35

    9 B

    E 9L

    S U

    95 A T

    76 A

    32 0

    E 19

    0 B

    73 5

    G LF

    5 B

    74 8

    0

    10

    20

    30

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 11 / 26

  • Coverage area of the system

    Examples of bistatic coverage area

    Rotatable horizontal four-element Yagi, height of about 9m above the ground, horizon of 368 km for aircraft at cruising altitude of 10 km;

    Power of the Nyandoma transmitter 5 kW;

    Aircraft detections range up to and partially beyond the horizon.

    MR,Y6E

    N

    F 10

    0 B

    74 8

    G LF

    5 B

    74 4

    B 73

    8 A

    33 3

    B 76

    3 B

    78 8

    A 32

    0 B

    77 W

    A 38

    8 B

    77 2

    A 34

    3 A

    33 2

    B 77

    L

    0

    10

    20

    30

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 11 / 26

  • Coverage area of the system

    Overall coverage map of the system

    Coverage map created out of every dis- covered plane with use of the system.

    The system includes 5 antennas located at 3 different locations and 3 transmit- ters: Nyandoma, Saint Petersburg and Arkhangelsk.

    The total coverage area of 241 091 km2.

    FA 7X

    B 77

    W B

    77 2

    G LF

    6 A

    33 3

    A 33

    2 A

    38 8

    A 34

    3 B

    78 8

    B 77

    L A

    31 9

    B 74

    4 B

    78 9

    A 35

    9 B

    E 9L

    S U

    95 A T

    76 A

    32 0

    B 74

    8 F 10

    0 G

    LF 5

    B 73

    8 B

    76 3

    E 19

    0 B

    73 5

    0

    50

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 12 / 26

  • Tracking capabilities

    Table of Contents

    1 Motivation

    2 Recorded data types

    3 Coverage area of the system

    4 Tracking capabilities

    5 Antennas and equipment

    6 High Flying and Highly Manoeuvring Objects

    7 Conclusions and future goals

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 13 / 26

  • Tracking capabilities

    Estimated trajectory of aircraft

    FR24

    RSD

    Aircraft position was recovered to an apparent precision of 1500m.

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 14 / 26

  • Tracking capabilities

    Estimated trajectory of aircraft

    FR24

    RSD

    Aircraft position was recovered to an apparent precision of 1500m.

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 14 / 26

  • Tracking capabilities

    Estimated trajectory of aircraft

    FR24

    RSD

    Aircraft position was recovered to an apparent precision of 1500m.

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 14 / 26

  • Tracking capabilities

    Estimated trajectory of aircraft

    20 :1 8: 43

    1. 03 km

    20 :1 9: 03

    1. 35 km

    20 :1 9: 13

    0. 34 5 km

    20 :1 9: 25

    1. 12 1 km

    20 :1 9: 38

    1. 54 2 km

    20 :1 9: 51

    1. 03 3 km

    20 :2 1: 00

    0. 24 5 km

    FR24

    RSD

    Aircraft position was recovered to an apparent precision of 1500m.

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant targets MATINE seminar 2016 14 / 26

  • Antennas and equipment

    Table of Contents

    1 Motivation

    2 Recorded data types

    3 Coverage area of the system

    4 Tracking capabilities

    5 Antennas and equipment

    6 High Flying and Highly Manoeuvring Objects

    7 Conclusions and future goals

    Piotr Ptak (LUT) Doppler tracking of distant target