Karl Jakobs Universit¤t Freiburg Germany Planning Activities in Europe

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Transcript of Karl Jakobs Universit¤t Freiburg Germany Planning Activities in Europe

Kein FolientitelKarl Jakobs
Universität Freiburg
Who can speak for Europe ?
CERN was established in 1953 as an intergovernmental Organization and plays a special role and has special status on the European particle physics scene:
Under the terms of the CERN Convention1, its mission is to
“provide for collaboration among European States in nuclear research of a
pure scientific and fundamental character, and in research essentially
related thereto.”
The Convention provides that this mission be implemented through two kinds of activity:
“the construction and operation of one or more international laboratories" with "one or more particle accelerators”
"the organization and sponsoring of international co-operation in nuclear research, including co-operation outside the Laboratories"
1. http://legal-service.web.cern.ch/legal-service/convention.htm/FP3
Initiative from CERN Council
Sept. 2005: Establish an ad hoc Scientific Advisory Group (Strategy Group)
Mandate: produce a Draft Strategy Document (DSD) addressing the main lines
of Particle Physics in Europe
- accelerator-based
In the DSD, the Strategy Group shall aim:
to enhance the visibility of existing European particle physics programmes;
to foster increased collaboration among Europe's particle physics laboratories and institutes;
to promote a coordinated European participation in world-wide projects;
to re-iterate the CERN Council's 2004 position on the European strategy for the International Linear Collider;
to encourage knowledge transfer to other disciplines, industries, and society;
to outline priorities;
K. Jakobs P5 Meeting, SLAC, April 2006
Position of CERN Council in July 2004:
After extensive discussion, the Council agreed that it could go on record with the following statement:
"The Council:
Confirms that the first priority for the world particle physics community is to complete
the LHC and its detectors in order to unveil, as soon as possible, the physics at the
new energy frontier;
Encourages the effort towards the design and development of a linear collider as a
unique scientific opportunity at the precision frontier, complementary to the LHC;
Confirms its endorsement of accelerated R&D activities for CLIC;
Recognises the overall value for the world particle physics community of a decision to construct
a TeV linear collider, and encourages the efforts of the leading players in that direction;
Takes the view that, in the course of this process, it will be appropriate to take stock of the LHC
and accelerator R&D results and produce a new assessment of the physics and the technology
by 2010;
Is of the opinion that, in the initial phase (2004-2007), the organisational structure of the global
design initiative, in particular the Central Design Team, should be light."
K. Jakobs P5 Meeting, SLAC, April 2006
The Strategy Group
Denmark: H. Boggild, Copenhagen
Finland: J. Tuominiemi, Helsinki
France: J. Feltesse, DAPNIA
Germany: G. Herten, Freiburg
Greece: D. Nanopoulos, Athens
Hungary: G. Vesztergombi, KFKI
Italy: L. Cifarelli, Bologna
Norway: S. Stapnes, Oslo
Poland: J. Nassalski, Warsaw
Portugal: G. Barreira, LIP
Spain: M. Aguilar, CIEMAT
Sweden: B. Åsman, Stockholm
Scientific Secretary
+ APPEC, NuPECC, FALC, invited as observers
K. Jakobs P5 Meeting, SLAC, April 2006
Timeline, major milestones
Sept. 2005: Announcement
Web page: http://council-strategygroup.web.cern.ch/council-strategygroup/
Open Symposium in Orsay
available from the web
Workshop in Zeuthen / Berlin
Draft strategy document
14th of July 2006
K. Jakobs P5 Meeting, SLAC, April 2006
Written submissions to the SG (to 15th March)
K. Jakobs P5 Meeting, SLAC, April 2006
Timeline, major milestones
Sept. 2005: Announcement
Web page: http://council-strategygroup.web.cern.ch/council-strategygroup/
Open Symposium in Orsay
available from the web
Workshop in Zeuthen / Berlin
Draft strategy document
14th of July 2006
K. Jakobs P5 Meeting, SLAC, April 2006
The Physics Topics
discussed in Orsay
The physics of the high energy frontier (K. Desch, Freiburg)
High energy frontier: accelerators (P. Raimondi, Frascati)
Oscillations of massive neutrinos (P. Huber, Wisconsin and A. Cervera, Geneva )
Flavour Physics (A. Höcker, CERN)
Precision Measurements (G. Onderwater, Groningen)
Non-accelerator and astroparticle physics (N. Palanque-Delabrouille, Saclay)
Strong Interactions (J. Butterworth, UC London and J. Ollitrault, Saclay)
Theoretical Physics (N. Glover, Durham)
K. Jakobs P5 Meeting, SLAC, April 2006
The Physics of the High Energy Frontier
Klaus Desch
Summary on LHC + upgrades:
First data set with excellent prospects for discoveries (10-30 fb-1) may be expected
for 2009/10.
Analysis needs detailed understanding of detectors and backgrounds.
Full LHC luminosity allows for discovery of very broad range of high-PT phenomena
and measurements of new particle properties.
LHC luminosity upgrade (SLHC) increases discovery reach by 20-30%,
better precision for statistically limited processes.
Energy upgrade (DLHC) has larger discovery reach but represents a significantly
larger effort.
New proposal submitted: supplement LHC by a 70 GeV e± storage ring to allow for
ep collisions at s = 1.4 TeV (4x HERA) and L = 1033 cm-2 s-1 (20x HERA)
physics motivation: unique for eq resonances (Leptoquarks, squarks in RPV-SUSY,…)
precise analysis of LQ quantum numbers would be possible over the full
LHC discovery range
LHC machine status and a “likely” startup scenario
See : http://lhc-new-homepage.web.cern.ch/lhc-new-homepage/DashBoard/index.asp
A “likely” startup scenario: (HEP06 conf., Lyn Evans, ATLAS Coll. Meeting, Feb.06)
Late 2007: Proton run ~ 10 - 100 pb-1 (for 10 pb-1: number of tt events comparable to
Tevatron with 1 fb-1)
By end 2008: Physics runs: ~ 1 – 10 fb-1
By end 2009: Physics runs: > 15 fb-1
Plan: terminate installation in
beam in Summer 2007
Mention crash program initialized by CERN management.
Showed the commitment to the project, and that CERN can cope with difficult situations
K. Jakobs P5 Meeting, SLAC, April 2006
Summary on LHC + upgrades:
First data set with excellent prospects for discoveries (10-30 fb-1) may be expected
for 2009/10.
Analysis needs detailed understanding of detectors and backgrounds.
Full LHC luminosity allows for discovery of very broad range of high-PT phenomena
and measurements of new particle properties.
LHC luminosity upgrade (SLHC) increases discovery reach by 20-30%,
better precision for statistically limited processes.
Energy upgrade (DLHC) has larger discovery reach but represents a significantly
larger effort.
New proposal submitted: supplement LHC by a 70 GeV e± storage ring to allow for
ep collisions at s = 1.4 TeV (4x HERA) and L = 1033 cm-2 s-1 (20x HERA)
physics motivation: unique for eq resonances (Leptoquarks, squarks in RPV-SUSY,…)
precise analysis of LQ quantum numbers would be possible over the full
LHC discovery range
Examples of SLHC improvements
Summary on LHC + upgrades:
First data set with excellent prospects for discoveries (10-30 fb-1) may be expected
for 2009/10.
Analysis needs detailed understanding of detectors and backgrounds.
Full LHC luminosity allows for discovery of very broad range of high-PT phenomena
and measurements of new particle properties.
LHC luminosity upgrade (SLHC) increases discovery reach by 20-30%,
better precision for statistically limited processes.
Energy upgrade (DLHC) has larger discovery reach but represents a significantly
larger effort.
New proposal submitted: supplement LHC by a 70 GeV e± storage ring to allow for
ep collisions at s = 1.4 TeV (4x HERA) and L = 1033 cm-2 s-1 (20x HERA)
physics motivation: unique for eq resonances (Leptoquarks, squarks in RPV-SUSY,…)
precise analysis of LQ quantum numbers would be possible over the full
LHC discovery range
The ILC physics case (K. Desch in Orsay)
0. Top quark at threshold
1. ‘Light’ Higgs (consistent with precision EW)
verify the Higgs mechanism is at work in all elements
2. ‘Heavy’ Higgs (inconsistent with precision EW)
verify the Higgs mechanism is at work in all elements
find out why precision EW data are inconsistent
3. 1./2. + new states (SUSY, Extra Dimensions, little H, Z’, …)
precise spectroscopy of the new states
precision measurements of couplings of Standard Model & new states
properties of new particles above kinematic limit
4. No Higgs, no new states (inconsistent with precision EW)
find out why precision EW data are inconsistent
look for threshold effects of strong/delayed EWSB
Early LHC data likely to guide the direction
choice of ILC options and upgrade to 1 TeV depends on LHC+ILC(500) results
LHC + ILC data analyzed together synergy
K. Jakobs P5 Meeting, SLAC, April 2006
Accelerator and Detector R&D in Europe
CARE: Integrated Infrastructure Initiative supported by the European Commission (EC)
withîn Framework Program FP6 (2004 – 2008)
built around three network activities (8 institutes, including CERN & DESY):
ELAN = Electron Linear Accelerator Network
BENE = Beams in Europe for Neutrino Experiments
HHH = High energy, High intensity Hadron beams
EUROTeV: European Design Study towards a Global TeV Linear Collider (28 institutes)
EUROTeV addresses some of the high ranking issues identified by the ILC
Technical Review Committee
→ input to the ILC Conceptual Design Report (CDR) and thereafter
the ILC Technical Design Report (TDR)
Items: Beam delivery system, damping rings, diagnostics, metrology, ….
Activities are expected to be complemented by studies in the US and in Japan
EUDET: Detector R&D towards the ILC (31 institutes + 20 associated institutes)
2006 - 2010
provides framework for ILC detector R&D with larger prototypes
Main items: Tracking (large TPC prototype, Silicon TPC readout, Silicon tracking)
Calorimetry (scalable ECAL and HCAL prototypes, readout…)
K. Jakobs P5 Meeting, SLAC, April 2006
Physics case for a 3-5 TeV e+e- CLIC
Viewpoint (i): Candidate machine for the ILC
Viewpoint (ii): Natural upgrade path of ILC program if physics demands;
Physics justification needs TeV-scale data
Physics highlights (ii):
2. Improve on Higgs self coupling + extend mass range
3. More complete SUSY spectrum
4. Extending mass reach new resonances, scans
5. Study resonances of strong EWSB if within kinematic reach
Technology: significant R&D needed,…., Experimentation more difficult.
K. Jakobs P5 Meeting, SLAC, April 2006
n Roadmap (A. Cervera, Geneva Univ.)
1st step: transition era
Improve the precision on the atm. parameters looking at nm disappearance
Confirm (atm. osc) = (nm → nt ) and first look at nm → ne
2 nd step: q13 era
Demonstrate visibility of sub-leading transitions: nm → ne , ne →ne
Explore q13 down to 20 (today <100)
Existing facilities could reach it
… but with very small sensitivity to
dCP and mass hierarchy
q13> 3 0
q13< 3 0
Known by 2011
Double-Chooz (2008)
CERN to GS (2006)
Major contribution to near detectors ND280 (2009) and 2Km (2011)
120 people from 23 European institutes
CERN recognised experiment
Liquid Argon TPC (experience from ICARUS)
Silicon PMTs
Accelerator: HARP, MERIT, MICE
Options for a Precision Neutrino Facility:
Low-energy (sub-GeV to GeV) avenue: high intensity nm superbeam combined with a
b beam and a megaton detector (water Cherenkov or Liquid Argon)
(ii) High-energy avenue: Neutrino factory
K. Jakobs P5 Meeting, SLAC, April 2006
Improved Super-beams (A. Cervera @ Orsay)
Increase by one order of magnitude
beam power: ~4MW
SPL neutrino beam
E~250 MeV
Beta-beam (A. Cervera @ Orsay)
Pure ne or ne beam small beam systematics and backgrounds
missing feasibility study
Performace
Performance increases with beam energy if L/E is kept at oscillation max:
Higher flux and cross section. Better energy binning (no Fermi motion)
Smaller systematics from cross section and detector efficiency
(Burget et al.)
Efficient ion production: C. Rubbia et al.
LHC
EURISOL design study
How does the maximum energy depend on the gamma factor?
How does the luminosity depend on the gamma factor?
What is the maximum gamma achievable with existing facilities ?
SPS -> 60/100
Tevatron -> 350/580
LHC -> 1500/2500
RCS is a Rapid Cycling Sincrotron
At the final energy the lifetime of the ions becomes minutes rather than seconds. Then stacking is required to load the decay ring with enough ions to get an acceptable neutrino flux.
CERN low gamma layout
K. Jakobs P5 Meeting, SLAC, April 2006
Neutrino factory (A. Cervera @ Orsay)
50% nm 50% ne small beam systematics … but charge required
High energy beam small cross section systematics
A wide variety of studies are possible:
Challenging Ongoing R&D: MICE, HARP, MERIT
CERN layout
India
Bronze is only for liquid argon because NOvA will have very few points to measure the charge (interaction length ?)
What is the phase rotation?
What is the problem with the target ?
Phase rotation R&D is similar to MICE
Recalculating linacs (RLAs) is not the preferred option FFAG
K. Jakobs P5 Meeting, SLAC, April 2006
Summary: Main “wishes” of the European n Community
Strong support should be made available to make success of the
present and near-future program.
The involvement of European neutrino physicists in the neutrino physics
program abroad (e.g. T2K, NOnA) should be supported in a way that would
assure a viable and significant contribution.
Europe should get ready to host a major neutrino facility for the precision era,
or to play a major role in the preparation and construction of this facility should
it be located elsewhere.
Other important experiments with a significant European contribution
KATRIN in Karlsruhe / Germany (worldwide collaboration, Mainz, Troitzk, US,….)
Measurement of tritium b decay endpoint → absolute value of n mass
Sensitivity: ~ 0.2 eV
Experiments to search for neutrinoless double b decay:
GERDA (Gran Sasso, Ge)
Gotthard (Xe-TPC)
l
CRESST: Gran Sasso Lab.
(CaWO4, PbWO4, BGO)
Multi target approach: Ge (phonon, ionization)
CaWO4 (phonon, scintillation)
Detector R&D ongoing
ArDM, WARP: Use Liquid Argon as detector material, feasibility study ongoing
…. many proposals for detectors of that scale (US, Japan, Europe)….
calls for an international collaboration
CRESST, EDELWEISS
Dark Energy, Future plans in Europe ?
(N. Palanque-Delabrouille @ Orsay)
Space projects
to reduce intrinsic dispersion
> 2015 (NASA : Beyond Einstein)
DUNE: Dark Universe Explorer
on geometry of universe
Dark energy modifies: expansion rate of the Universe supernovae
growth rate of structures gravitational distortions
SNAP
Gravitationally
distorted
galaxies
Proton decay experiments, future initiatives
(N. Palanque-Delabrouille @ Orsay)
p e+ 0
Mine in US 440 kT
MEMPHYS (MEgaton Mass PHYSics)
? 100 kT
Time Projection Chambers
Underground sites : none existing, have to be made, at huge cost
K. Jakobs P5 Meeting, SLAC, April 2006
Manpower situation
ECFA survey of European Particle Physics (Apr. 2006)
K. Jakobs P5 Meeting, SLAC, April 2006
ECFA survey (cont.)
ECFA survey (cont.) – a few examples-
Germany
France
Results for q13
If q13 is not measured by ~2011, the probability to measure it with ongoing experiments would be very small
Building new facilities will take more than 5 years
100
This is for delta=0
Take into account beam power as a function of TIME (back up trans)
What is the systematic for each experiment ?
K. Jakobs P5 Meeting, SLAC, April 2006
q13 era: Reactors (A. Cervera @ Orsay)
High rate ne by inverse beta decay
Unambiguous determination of q13
… but cannot test mass hierarchy or CP violation
Reduce systematic errors by a factor 5 with two identical detectors
Still pending for full funding
Double-Chooz (2008)
Europe: Double-Chooz
Chooz site (France)
Far site: ready for integration (2007)
Near site: 40 m shaft to build (2009)
Collaboration
With ne disappearance
Systematics = statistical error
K. Jakobs P5 Meeting, SLAC, April 2006
Activities and Plans on Dark Matter Search
Detection principle: elastic scattering of WIPS on detector nuclei
1evt / kg / day