Kant, The Pure Intuitions Of Time And Space And Knowledge Formation

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  • 1. I liked this article and then using google Tolkit did the translation of the text. The author of the text has not been contacted to review the text. enjoy Kant, the pure intuitions of time and space and knowledge formation. Srgio Camargos Introduction Reading the young doctoral thesis Kant (Thoughts on the true estimation of living forces) have learned not to be afraid to expose my opinion on complex issues and does not look like this to be arrogant or conceited. With the old Kant learned the importance and need to leave the minority and especially to make public use of reason. As a result assure that: I can sometimes be heard in the tone of a man who is very sure of the correctness of his theory, which does not fear being rejected or that their conclusions can fool you. I am not so foolish to think that really also have no reason to eliminate so diligently all the appearance of error in my thesis, since, after all the slips that have been submitted at all times the human understanding, not a disgrace to be wrong (Kant, 1988, p.24 translation). In this paper I seek only to analyze the design accepted by Kant to the "concepts" (intuition) of time and space as possible or influence the acquisition of knowledge. Statements and conclusions to be correct and about complex philosophical systems are always accompanied by long studies, juxtaposing various texts in different periods of life of the author etc. When it occurs is not common to have misunderstandings. To illustrate the need for a thorough investigation and without hasty statements let us see if we have too-familiar quotes about Kant's life, perhaps one of the most repeated is that the people of Knigsberg (now Kaliningrad - Russia) Set your clocks when the always punctual tours of the philosopher. However comparing this information with the book of Manfred Kuehn - Kant: A Biography - we have what is said there that the mechanical and repetitive tours of no more than myth. Myth also be his reclusive life, away from society, without friends and parties and their isolation to write his works. Another thing is quite repeated the passage in which Kant says that David Hume awakened him from his dogmatic slumbers. Drawing simple conclusions could be said that Hume had importance in the Kantian work. However the influence of Hume, especially in the Critique of Pure Reason, appears to be minimal, and infinitesimal compared with the influence of Leibniz. Throughout the critique, Kant cites Hume and Leibniz 12 times 21, not counting the 8 citations to Wolff, disciple and systematizing the work Leibniz. However, even such statements are based on numbers, may be precipitated and even incorrect if there is a thorough and consistent research and understanding of the system being studied, so as to allow such conclusions. To illustrate this thought see what Kant says in the Critique of Pure Reason about
  • 2. Wolff: In implementing the plan prescribes that criticism, that is, the future system of metaphysics, then we have to follow the rigorous method of the celebrated Wolff, the greatest of all dogmatic philosophers. Wolff was the first who gave the example (and this example was the founder and the spirit of the depth it has not yet extinct in Germany) how, by the principles of self-determination, a clear definition of concepts, the accuracy required in the financial and prevention of reckless leaps in establishing the consequences, you can follow the secure path of a science. (Kant, 2001, B XXXVII) After reading this excerpt on the apressssemos the conclusions probably would be that Kant appreciates leibnizio-wolffian system, however despite this pompous concession to Wolff, because we care what Kant says is considered that: "The Philosophy of Leibniz and Wolff pointed out a totally wrong in all the investigations about the nature and origin of our knowledge "(Kant, 2001, A 44) Done these considerations and due to the lack of adequate time to study, this text is more than paraphrase and under review. The scenario that Kant found in the epistemology XVVIII was quite controversial. The one hand rationalism, especially Leibniz and Wolf, Hume's empiricism and Newtonian physics. Rationalism thought possible universal knowledge and necessary counting only on the use of reason, not requiring experiments. Already the limited empirical knowledge to the fields of experience, it could not establish the value and necessity of the universal scientific laws, and the rationalists came to dogmatism, the empiricist skepticism in the fall. But where Kant discovered the synthetic a priori was in Newtonian science, which starting from observation and experimentation came to universal truths and necessary. When talking about mathematics and physics is possible judgments such as "The line is the shortest distance between two points" which is a synthetic statement (expands our knowledge, the predicate is not included in the subject) and also a priori (and universal necessary). This "membership" Newton is not the total is one more way in which Kant held a survey among the ideas of Leibniz and Newton and reaches its own conclusions, especially on issues over time and space. In his dissertation in 1747 where he completed a doctorate (Thoughts on the true estimation of living forces) influenced by the Leibnizian admits that the objects are pre- space, then tending to the ideas of Newton reversed its position and argues that space is pre - all things, and finally leaves these theses conceivably the time and space are a priori forms of sensibility.
  • 3. Time, space and the possibility of knowledge. Kant check carefully investigate the principles and rules to underpin the knowledge in a solid and secure. Systematized theory of knowledge. Inquire about what is and what are the conditions of possibility of knowledge. Kant says that "All our knowledge begins with the senses" we must emphasize the term begins or knowledge only and is not only a consequence of the senses, the complete sentence is: "All our knowledge begins with the senses, there is an understanding and ends in reason, beyond which nothing is in us to produce higher matter of intuition and bring the highest unity of thought. " (Kant, 2001, A299) knowledge begins with experience, but still gets to make up their training, modeling for print inner faculties of man. Here there is more than just a synthesis of empiricist and rationalist ideas, there is a clear improvement over these systems. If all knowledge begins with the senses may ask, what is before the experience? There is a priori what is prior to experience, to put it another way, before the experiment is the guy who through a priori elements (sensitivity, understanding) can know things that are presented. It should be noted that this form of the subject know the world is not a subjective manner in the individual sense, but that is the only way mankind can perceive the world, better to say something like "transcendental subjectivism." Says Kant We are completely unknown nature of the objects in themselves and independently of all this receptivity of our sensibility. We know only our way of perceiving them, so we are distinctive, but may well not necessarily that of all beings, although it is of all men. (Kant, 2001, A 42) As the aim of this paper is the consideration of the notion of time and space in the formation of knowledge, there will be steps ahead of how they can be aware. There will be a purposeful disregard of issues such as the types of statements: Analytic known without trial (the line is the shortest distance between two points) a priori information have a universal and necessary, but do not show any enrichment of knowledge for the predicate is contained in the subject. Synthetics, known through experience (The plane took off) are a posteriori and add new information, but are contingent and particular. Synthetic a priori, present new information, and, moreover, universal and necessary information. Before reaching this kind of knowledge is needed to order something and make conceptually inconceivable to the intellect the chaotic maelstrom of data that is presented. The pure forms of time and space makes the subject knowledge possible. The idea of Newton, which still prevails in many parts of it (say in a very simplistic) that space is a large container that exists independently of the universe, God created space and also the time and then thrown into this cosmic container, the stars, galaxies, the entire universe. Newton admitted beyond this time real, absolute and mathematician, a kind of relative time used for things like an appointment, days, months etc.
  • 4. Leibniz defines the space and time as "Far from being a substance, the space is not even a being. It's an order, as the time an order of coexistence, as time is an order among the stocks that are not fulfilled "(Leibniz, 2009, p.79). In fact, time and space and even food for Leibniz there. Leibniz accepts relations, for example, that space would be the set of relationships between objects in the world possible. In one classroom there may be students and teachers and various types of relationships between these people, the idea of Leibniz is that to be possible to have such relations is first necessary to have students and teachers, there is a set of teacher-student relationship that there by itself, stop at any point in the world waiting for a joint student- teacher. However these relationships are effective and real what is unreal is that there is this relational space waiting to be occupied by people. There is no absolute space, prior, after which God has placed all beings in the universe.