JURNAL TERJEMAHAN

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Transcript of JURNAL TERJEMAHAN

THE IMPACT OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FACTORS ON FARMERS' PERCEPTION AND PARTICIPATION IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CONSERVATION

Nuraeni1)*, Sugiyanto2), Zaenal Kusuma3), Syafrial4)

1) Faculty of Agriculture, UMI Makassar, 2) Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, 3) Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, 4) Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University

* Corresponding author: Nuraeni ([email protected])

Abstract: This research aims to study the impact of internal factors (knowledge, attitude and skill) and external factors (social, economic and culture) on the perception and participation of farmers in the conservation effort in the upstream area of the river bank area of Jeneberang river in South Sulawesi. The data was analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) using AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structure) version 6.

The result obtained from this research is that internal factors have significant influence on the perception and participation of farmers in agricultural conservation effort. This shows that farmer perception and participation can be improved by improving their knowledge and skill in conservation in commercial cultivation of vegetable crops. External factors do not have significant impact on the perception and participation of farmers, since they are experienced as community forest holder before changing to vegetable cultivation.

Keywords: conservation agriculture, internal factors, external factors, conservation, perception, participation.

1. INTRODUCTION

The cultivation of dry field are mostly carried out in the upstream part of the river bank area, where the hilly terrain has high level of precipitation. This results in erosion, which can reduce the productivity of the soil. Therefore conservation technique is necessary to optimize the use of dry field in upstream part of the river bank area.

The effort to apply the principles of conservation of resources in cultivation system is principally dependent upon the perception and participation of the farmers as autonomous actors in their cultivation effort. However, it is realized that the farmers are generally in lacking in means so that the fulfillment of short-term needs have more priority than the long-term concerns such as the application of conservation in their agricultural effort. Based on this consideration, the farmers need information, education and edification from the government through the empowerment and instruction so that it requires an approach to change the mental attitude of the farmers.

The bank area of the Jeneberang river is one of the three river bank area in the South Sulawesi which receive priority. The bank area in the Jeneberang river has been damaged by the change in the use of land and by the fact that the cultivation system practiced by the people does not follow the soil and water conservation techniques which is necessary for areas with high level of declination.

The result of analysis by Zubair and Djoehartono (2001) on the erosion for each kinds of land use in the bank area of Jeneberang river shows that use of land which gives large contribution on the pace of soil erosion is dry field paddy cultivation (tegalan), bushes (belukar), garden (kebun) and dry field cultivation (ladang). The dry field cultivation (tegalan and ladang), especially in the upstream area, is concentrated on vegetables, mostly potato and cabbage. The potato cultivation seems to produce the highest level of erosion due to the method of cultivating steep pieces of land.

The erosion for all upstream river banks area of Jeneberang river, based on the amount of dry fields, is 10,680 ha, where in the upstream area, the land with 8-15% downward slope is 2,150 ha (20%) and those with 15-35% slope is 3,750% (35%). These area are estimated to lose their fertile top soil due to the erosion from dry field cultivation which is equivalent to 4.8 billion rupiah per year (Yudono, 2002).

Considering that the upstream river bank area is mostly used for agriculture, then conservation agriculture is one alternative for agricultural enterprise which can be developed in the upstream river bank area of Jeneberang river. According to Arsyad (2006), conservation agriculture is basically an integrated approach in agriculture which focuses on the development of dry field cultivation combined with soil conservation techniques (vegetative and mechanic) in an effective manner to achieve conservation of soil, water and vegetation in sustainable and profitable manner.

The awareness of the farmers on environmental problems has been growing but this awareness has not been translated into direct action. Theoretically, the deplorable behavior of farmers towards their environment is due to the relation between the two, which is affected by several factors. Therefore, the impact of internal and external factors on the perception and participation of farmers in the implementation of conservation in vegetable cultivation should be studied.

Winkel in Sumarni (2006) has stated that the psychology on internal aspects of human beings can be grouped into three categories, that is: (1) cognitive aspect, which includes knowledge and understanding, (2) affective aspect, which includes feeling, interest, motivation, attitude and values, and (3) psychomotor aspect, which includes observation and motor or movements.

Bloom in Sudijono (2009) has divided the cognitive aspect into six hierarchical process of thinking, which from the lowest to the highest are: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Krathwohl in Sudijono (2009) has divided the affective aspect into five categories, that is: receiving, responding, valuing, organization and characterization by value.

While the psychomotor aspect, according to Simpson in Sudijono (2009), can be divided into seven categories, that is: perception, set, guided response, mechanism, complex overt response, adaptation and origination.

Individual perception is shaped not only by internal factors but also by external factors, that is the condition outside the individual which can stimulate the individual to form perception. Based on interactionist approach according to Soekanto in Harihanto (2001), individual behavior is generally affected by internal and external factors. The internal factors which is psychic in nature includes perception, personality, mental intellectual aspect, ego, morality, belief and motivation, while the external factor which can affect behavior is sociocultural, socioeconomic and physical factors.

Community participation in this research is understood as the involvement of the people in the development of their own self, their lives and their environment (Nasution, 2009). It is further stated that there are four kinds of participation, that is: (1) participation in decision making, (2) participation in action, (3) participation in partaking the results and (4) participation in evaluation.

Participation in this research is to see how far the involvement of farmers in the upstream river banks area of Jeneberang river in implementing conservation in their cultivation voluntarily. Based on this, then participation is measured from (1) the involvement of farmers in meetings, (2) involvement in the implementation of conservation and (3) involvement in the maintenance of the existing conservation practices.

Based on the discussion above, this research aims to: (1) identify the impact of internal factors (knowledge, attitude, skill) on the perception and participation of farmers in the conservation agriculture, (2) identifying the impact of external factors (social, economic, culture) on the perception and participation of farmers on conservation agriculture.

2. RESEARCH METHOD

This research was carried out in the upstream river bank area of Jeneberang river in the district of Pattapang, Regency of Gowa, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, which is chosen as the center of vegetable cultivation in the area. The population of this research is 182 vegetable farmers, which is chosen randomly, using sample determination formula.

The variable in this research is two exogenous variables (internal and external factors) and two endogenous (perception and participation) with 35 indicators. Data was collected with questionnaire which is formulated based on the indicators which form each variables and these are measured with Likert scales.

This research aims to test and analyze the causal relation between independent and dependent variables. Therefore, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is applied here using AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structure) version 6. The variables and indicators and data collection method is shown in the following table.

Table 1. Variables and Data Collection

VariablesIndicatorsCodeData Collection

Internal Factors

Knowledge (X1)1. Knowledge

2. Comprehension

3. Application

4. Analysis

5. Synthesis

6. EvaluationX1.1

X1.2

X1.3

X1.4

X1.5

X1.6Questionnaire with close-ended question

Attitude (X2)1. Receiving

2. Responding

3. Valuing

4. Organization

5. Characterization by valueX2.1

X2.2

X2.3

X2.4

X2.5Questionnaire with close-ended question

Skill (X3)1. Perception

2. Set

3. Guided Response

4. Mechanism

5. Complex Overt Response

6. Adaptation

7. OriginationX3.1

X3.2

X3.3

X3.4

X3.5

X3.6

X3.7Questionnaire with close-ended question

External Factors

Social (X4)1. Formal education

2. Non-formal education

3. Organization

4. Information through mediaX4.1

X4.2

X4.3

X4.4Questionnaire with close-ended question

Economics (X5)1. Household income

2. Area of landX5.1

X5.2Questionnaire with close-ended question

Culture (X6)1. Religious norms

2. Government regulation

3. Local customX6.1

X6.2

X6.3Questionnaire with close-ended question

Community perception (Y1)1. Improving production

2. Reducing erosion

3. Improving fertility

4. Improving water supply

5. Preventing flood and landslideY1.1

Y1.2

Y1.3

Y1.4

Y1.5Questionnaire with close-ended question

Community participation (Y2)1. Presence in meetings

2. Implementation

3. MaintenanceY2.1

Y2.2

Y2.3Questionnaire with close-ended question

3. DISCUSSION

3.1 Result of Goodness-of-Fit Test

In the SEM analysis, before the model is tested, we first test the goodness-of-fit of the model. Theoretical model in the conceptual framework of the research, will be considered to be have sufficient fit when it is supported by empirical data. The test result are presented as follows.

Table 2. Goodness-of-Fit Results

CriterionCut-Off ValueResultComment

P0.050.000Lacking fit

Chi Square/DF2.001.599Sufficient fit

GFI0.900.773Lacking fit

AGFI0.900.739Lacking fit

TLI0.950.747Lacking fit

CFI0.950.767Lacking fit

RMSEA0.080.058Sufficient fit

Source: primary data, processed 2011

The result of overall goodness-of-fit test presented in the table and figure shows that not all criterion shows fit with the model. Only chi-square/DF and RMSEA which fulfill the cut-off value, where the value of chi-square/DF is 1.599, which is lower than 2 and RMSEA is 0.058, which is lower than 0,08.

According to Arbuckle and Wothke in Solimun (2009), the best criterion for model fit is a value of chi-square/DF which is less than 2, and RMSEA should be lower than 0,08. In this research, the value of CMIN/DF and RMSEA has fulfilled the cut-off value, and therefore the SEM model for this research is appropriate and hence will be used for further analysis.

Figure 1. Goodness-of-Fit Model

(gambar: persepsi = perception, partisipasi = participation, f. internal = internal factors, f. external = external factors)

Figure 1. Goodness-of-Fit Model

Further test is then applied for measurement model and structural model. The measurement model in SEM is equivalent to confirmatory factor analysis. Factor loadings show the weight of each indicators as the measure of each variables. The indicator with highest loading factor is the most dominant measurement of variable. While the structural model tests the relation between research variables, which is identical with hypothesis testing.

3.2 Testing The Structural Model

In this structural model, there are six relations among variables which are tested. The result of the relations among variables is presented below.

Table 3. Structural Model of SEM: Direct Impact

Relation Among VariablesCoefficientP-valueComment

Internal factors external factors0.1520.070Non-significant

Internal factors community perception0.5000.001*Significant

Internal factors community participation0.4010.001*Significant

External factors community perception 0.0630.438Non-significant

External factors community participation0.0960.240Non-significant

Community perception community participation0.3570.006*Significant

Source: primary data, processed 2011

Note: * signifies significance with 5% error

The result can be presented graphically as follows:

(gambar: persepsi = perception, partisipasi = participation, f. internal = internal factors, f. external = external factors)

Figure 2. SEM Structural Model

Note: red line represents non-significant paths

Based on the table and figure above, the result of structural model is presented as follows.

1. Relation between Internal Factors and External Factors

Table 3 shows that internal factors are not related with the external factors. This is evident from the p-value which is greater than 0.05. This means that the external factors, no matter how supportive, would not have any impact on the internal factors, and vice versa.

The absence of relation between the internal factors of the respondents, which includes knowledge, attitude and skill, with their external factors, that is social, economic and culture, is caused by their background before they cultivate vegetables. Most respondent farmers had formerly worked in the pine forest to supply firewood for the Paper Mill of Gowa (Pabrik Kertas Gowa).

This experience has shaped the knowledge, attitude and skills of the respondents as a resource for themselves. Without the impact from the outside or their environment such as social, economic and culture, they are already aware about the advantage and impact of conservation and they have even applied some of the conservation techniques in the areas, though still in simple way and not perfect yet.

2. The Impact of Internal Factors on Community Perception

Table 3 shows that internal factors have significant impact on community participation. This is evident from the p-value, which is smaller than 0.05. This shows that better internal factors would result in greater participation by the community.

Perception on the benefit of agricultural enterprise is strongly influenced by the internal factors, which includes the knowledge, attitude and skills that they have acquired during the times before they cultivate vegetables. As the holder of the rights to exploit community forest, the respondents had often received instruction or education from the local Agency of Forestry (Dinas Kehutanan) concerning the function and impact of logging.

This is marked by the award of the Kalpataru for one of the local public figure in the early seventies. The primary motivation of the community in those times were not only for environmental protection but also to supply firewood for the Paper Mills of Gowa. This ecological-economical effort was carried out based on the belief that planting pine trees for the supply of the paper mill would guarantee the continuity and improvement of their livelihood. Therefore, improvement in the knowledge, attitude and skill in the implementation of conservation for the vegetable cultivation will impact the improvement in their perception on the benefit of conservation on vegetable cultivation.

3.The Impact Of Internal Factor On Community Participation

Internal factors have significant impact on community participation in the implementation of conservation agriculture. This is evident from the p-value which is smaller than 0.05.

This shows that the effort to improve community participation in the conservation agriculture should be accompanied by improvement in their knowledge, attitude and skills, especially in relation to the conservation in vegetable cultivation. This is due to the fact that the benefit of conservation can only be felt in longer term, and in the short-term, conservation can even reduce the productivity of the cultivation.

4. The Impact Of External Factors On Community Perception

Table 3 shows that there are no positive and significant impact from external factors to community perception, as evident from the p-value which is above 0.05. This means that the best improvement on external factors would not affect community perception.

This shows that the high level of perception on the benefit of agriculture is not affect by the external factors, which include social, economic and cultural aspects. Respondents' perception on the benefit of conservation agriculture includes the improvement in production, reduction of erosion, improved soil fertility, improved water supply and prevention of flooding and landslide, based on the knowledge and experience that they have acquired before cultivating vegetables and from their older generation and fellow farmers.

5.The Impact Of External Factor On Community Participation

Table 3 shows that there are no significant impact from external factors on community participation, as evident from the p-value which is greater than 0.05. This means that no matter how conducive the external factors are, it would not affect the improvement of community participation.

The low level of conservation implementation in the vegetable cultivation is caused by the farmers' lack of understanding on the long term benefit agriculture, and also by the fact that vegetable commodity requires conditions which is incongruous with the implementation of conservation. There are several reasons on the part of respondent farmers which cause the low level of application for conservation techniques: (1) based on their understanding and experience, planting in line with the contour of the field will increase the chance of disease due to lack of drainage, (2) production of vegetable would decrease to the reduced area for planting, (3) vegetables will be under the shade of perennial trees and their growth will be stunted, (4) the farmers do not have enough time and labor to build and maintain the infrastructure necessary for conservation purpose, and (5) they do not feel that such effort would bring direct benefit for them.

6. The Impact Of Perception On Community Perception

Table 3 shows that perception variable has a significant impact on community participation with a p-value smaller than 0.05. This shows that better perception would result in improved participation by the community.

It is clear that the respondent farmers are still amenable to the idea of implementing conservation in their vegetable fields, with the expectation that their understanding of conservation for vegetable cultivation can be improved. This means that deeper understanding on the conservation in vegetable cultivation would improve the farmers' participation in the implementation of conservation.

4. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

4.1 Conclusion

1. Internal factors have direct and significant impact on the perception and participation of the farmers. This shows that perception and participation of farmers in the implementation of conservation agriculture can be improved by increasing their knowledge and skills in conservation for the vegetable cultivation.

2. External factors, which includes social, economic and cultural factors, do not have significant impact on internal perception, perception and participation of the community in the implementation of conservation agriculture. This is due to the background of the farmers who had worked in the community forest before cultivating vegetables. These experiences have shaped their knowledge, attitude and skill so that even without the impact of external factors (social, economic, culture), they are already aware and have applied the conservation techniques, though in limited fashion.

4.2 Recommendation

1. In the effort to improve the participation of farmers, external factors should be improved (social, economic and cultural factors) for the community in the upstream river bank areas of Jeneberang river. This is important considering that external factors can directly and indirectly improve the awareness of the farmers which will motivate them to participate in the implementation of conservation in its agricultural enterprise.

2. In order to prevent further damage to the river bank area of Jeneberang river, a regional regulation should be issued concerning the provision of incentives for the farmers who apply conservation techniques in their fields. The incentive may take the form of tax cuts so that the additional cost expended by the farmers for conservation purposes can be compensated by the cuts of land tax (PBB) and vice versa.

REFERENCES

Arsyad, S. 2006. Konservasi Tanah dan Air. IPB Press, Bogor.

Azwar, S. 2009. Sikap Manusia; Teori dan Pengukurannya. Pustaka pelajar Press, Yogyakarta.

Dariah, A., Rachman, A. dan Kurnia, U. 2004. Erosi dan Degradasi Lahan Kering di Indonesia. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanah dan Agroklimat, Bogor.

Kurnia, U., Suganda, H., Deddy, E. dan Kusniadi, H. 2004. Teknologi Konservasi Tanah pada Budidaya Sayuran Dataran Tinggi. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanah dan Agroklimat. Departemen Pertanian, Bogor

Nasution, Z., 2009. Solidaritas Sosial dan Partisipasi Masyarakat Desa Transisi: Suatu Tinjauan Sosiologis, UMM Press. Malang.

Sudijono, A., 2009. Pengantar Evaluasi Pendidikan.PT. Raja Grafindo Persada. Jakarta.

Tambunan, R. 2008. Perilaku Konservasi pada Masyarakat Tradisional. Jurnal Harmoni Sosial, 2. (2).

Yudono, H. 2002. Pola Usahatani Konservasi Hortikultura di Buluballea Malino. Departemen Kehutanan Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan. BP2TP DAS Indonesia Bagian Timur, Makassar.

Zubair dan Djoehartono., 2001. Model Pengendalian Sedimen untuk Mempertahankan Kapasitas Waduk Bili-Bili, Sulawesi Selatan. Profiling Wilayah DAS Jeneberang. Pusat Penelitian Lingkungan Hidup (PPLH)-UNHAS. Makassar.

_1384111537.vsdInternal F.(X1)

External F. (X2)

Perception (Y1)

Participation (Y3)

0.152

0.500

0.401

0.063

0.096

0.357