Judaism

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Judaism

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  • Judaism

EXODUS Exist in genesis book. Is a human from Egypt. Most important event in Judaism Remembered annually in the various majorholidays of Judaism. Became a part of Jewish history. Little Stor y Of : EXODUS God promised Abraham that a great nation wouldarise from his seed, that this nation would havehomeland (Canaan). Book of Genesis closes with descendant ofAbraham, they were not in Canaan but in Egypt. Where they bound in slavery. Exodus from Egypt and their slavery, journey backto Canaan. Events and characters of the Exodus became theheart and soul of Jewish religion. The Book Of: EXODUS Open with descendants of Abraham , theIsraelites, crying out for deliverance from theirenslavement by the Egyptians. Key figure of this salvation is Moses. The Book Of: EXODUS Moses:-(a) endangered as an infant by the fores of evil.(b) after recognizing his Israelite and killing an Egyptian, Moses exiled to Sinai Desert.(c ) Lived for 40 years as a shepherd.(d) God Of Abraham spoke to Moses through abush. The Book Of: EXODUS God declared his name was YHWH &commanded Moses to lead the Israelites fromtheir slavery. The waters of the sea of Reeds were parted byYHWH and Israelites crossed through the dryland. Egyptians attempted to follow, the watersreturned and Egyptians were trapped anddrowned. Sinai and the Law Next significant event, was giving of the lawon Mount Sinai. Israelites crossing the Sea of Reeds Mt. SinaiCanaan Mt Sinai- YHWH communicated the law to the Israelites through Moses. The Laws-Basic to Jewish life1.I am the Lord your God, who has brought you out of the landof Egypt, out of the house of bondage. You shall have noother gods before me.2.You shall not make any graven image.3.You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain4.Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.5.Honor your father and mother.6.You shall not kill.7.You shall not commit adultery.8.You shall not steal.9.You shall not bear false witness against your neighbors.10. You shall not covet your neighbors property. The Laws-Basic to Jewish life Purported to have been given by God throughMoses, during the wilderness experience. Legal material in the Pentateuch (the firstbooks of the Bible) became the most importantpart of the bible of Judaism. Judaism defined as a religion of the law andJews as a people primarily concerned withobedience to the laws of God. Post-Sinai Religious Institutions In addition to the laws of God, the years in theSinai wilderness gave the Israelites two otherreligious Institutions:- (a) Ark of the Covenant (b) Then of Meeting. Post-Sinai Religious Institutions(a) Ark of the Covenant Was a coffin like box that contained the sacredrelies of the Exodus. May have been the portable throne of YHWH. Box, was the most treasured sacred possession ofthe Israelites. Eventually place in Solomon s temple in Holy ofHolies,10 century B.C.E. Presumably remained until the temple wasdestroyed by Babylonians,586 B.C.E. Post-Sinai Religious Institutions(b) Tent of Meeting Not so popular or long-lived as the Ark. Moved from place to place with nomadicIsraelites After Israelites entered Canaan. It is mentionedonly once in connection with the cult at Shiloh. Religion in the Time of the Hebrew MonarchyThe religion of Israel took more formal turn when David became the first truly effective king of the Israelities. David:-(a) needed a central capital and a cult ti unify his nation.(b) captured Jurusalem and made it his capital(c ) made Jurusalem one of the most important, most disputed cities in the world.(d) as a military leader and administrator helped Israel develop into a fairly powerful and wealthy small nation of the ancient Middle East. (e) Wish to build a magnificent temple in Jurusalem but was forbidden by YHWH. Religion in the Time of the Hebrew Monarchy The Temple(b) Remained for Solomon, Davids son and successor,to build the temple.(c) Designed by Tyrian builders.(d) Naturally took the form of other Canaanite templebuilt for the Baalim.(e) The Ark of the covenant placed on the temple.(f) In the temple, prayers were offered to YHWH. Religion in the Time of the Hebrew MonarchyThe Prophetic Movement(b)danced, sang, breathed incense, and worked themselves into an ecstatic state to hear the voices of their gods.(c)Healed the sick, cursed, blessed and produced food for their followers and worked other miracles.(d)In contemporary English, the word prophet has the connotation of prediction.(e)In the social and political upheavals, the prophetic movement produces for classic figures.I Amos III IsaiahII Hosea IV Micah Religion in the Time of the HebrewMonarchy(e) The prophetic movement of ancient Israelstands out as one of the major moral andliterary contributions to any religion of theworld. - Israel were split into two, Israel (Northern) and Judah (Southern)in 992 B.C.E. after the reign of Salomon-Israel was destroyed by the Assyrians in 721 B.C.E. and its people disappeared from history.-Judah however survived the Assyrian year but was destroyed by the Neo Babylon Empire in 586 B.C.E.-In 538 B.C.E. many Jews were freed and returned to Jerusalem to reestablish their live after the Persians captured Babylon-During the Babylonian conquest, the people of Judah held on totheir identity, customs and religion during captivity, led by Ezekiel, a prophet and a priest. It was during this time that the Jews faced theological changes about YHWH. -Ezekiel answered that YHWH are mobile and can be anywhere for his people either in Babylon or Jerusalem.-Another prophet, Isaiah added that YHWH isnt only the true god for Israelites but also the world.-Ezra, a priest who return from Babylon to Jerusalem, is one of the most influential Jew to return.-It is because he brought together a copy of Scripture, which he read to the people of Jerusalem and they reformed their lives according to the book.-From this time onward, it was believed that god no longer speak to the prophets but through his book. -Means scattering of the Jewish people all around the world-Caused by the destruction of Israel by the Assyrian on 721 B.C.E. and Babylonians, by force. (586 B.C.E.)-As a result, large Jewish community appeared in Alexandria, Egypt (250 B.C.E.) and at cities such as Toledo, Lyon, Cologne, Bonn and other cities throughout the Roman Empire. The Sygnagogue-Derived from greek word synagoge which means assembly-Started after Jewish diaspora around the world forced to accept a new concept for god and institutions for worship.-Sygnagogue can exist when theres a copy of the Scripture (Torah) and ten adult over the age of thirteen. A prayer and instruction can take place if these conditions met.-Can be performed anywhere.-Because of this, there was a need for someone to study the Torah and teach it to the community, thus the Rabbi are born. -The word Rabbi literally means my master and is not considered a priest or minister in a traditional sense.-In addition, the Diaspora communities separate themselves from others such as refusal to work one day out of seven (Sabbath) and refuse to eat foods that other gentiles eat. Besides that, the Jews also practiced circumcision, a ritual which is looked upon with disgust, especially the Greeks.-However the Diaspora Judaism faced theological diversity.Parties such as the Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes differed the belief of death resurrection, authority of temple and priests, and the way Jews should live their religion.-In another hand, the Zealots argued for a rebellion against the Roman government -In 66 C.E, the Jews and Romans fought each other because of hatred. The Jews were successful at first but two years after that, under the commandment of Titus, the Romans captured the land and conquered Jerusalem.-Jewish revolutionaries were slaughtered or enslaved,and their temple were destroyed and never rebuilt.-However, a new Judaism arose during the siege.A rabbi, Yohanan Ben Zakkai,asked permission from Titus to establish an academy on the Mediterranean coast of Israel.-Titus granted his permission, and Yohanan gathered all rabbis of Israel to discuss and debate the future of Judaism.They debated about the authority and inspiration of books that belonged in the sacred Torah.-The books of law (Genesis through Deuteronomy) are accepted, as were most of the books of the prophet. The Mishnah-Is the first major redaction into written form of Jewish oral traditions.-It is created after Judah ha-Nasi (Judah The Prince) brought together all the legal commentary that has been collected since the days of Ezra.This commentary are collected into a series of tractates arranged in six divisions.-The purpose of the Mishnah is to add complementary law as an adjunct to the primary law, so that itll be more suitable for current lifestyle.(Example:Sabbath day) The Talmud-Is a combination of Mishnah and Gemara.-Gemara is a compilation of Mishnah with more additional intepretative, illustrative and sermonic material.-There are two kinds of Talmud, the Palestinian Talmud and Babylonian Talmud.-Both Talmud are written mainly in Aramaic with some Hebrew mixed on.Both are also made up of two kinds of materials, Halachah (The Proper Way) which consists legal matters, discussions and decisions; and Haggadah (Tale, Narrative) which consists history, folklore and sermons.-The Babylon Talmud are more larger and influential of the two -The Talmuds have become the most important non biblical material in Judaism.They have become the object of many commentaries and endless study by all generation of Jews.-During the period of 600-1000 C.E., Talmudic Judaism had become one of the leading religions in Judaism.One of the great Gaon (President of Talmudic Judaism Academy) during that time is Saadiah ben Joseph.-He is best known for speaking against Karaites, a group within Judaism who denied the authority of Talmuds and wanted to live by the legal material within the Hebrew Bible. 15th c. Italian depiction of synagogueinteriorHavdalah Service (to mark theend of the Sabbath). 14th c.Spain In the seventh century C.E., a new religion and a newculture sprang from the Arabian desert; the religion wasIslam. Muhammad (570-632), the founder and prophet of Islam,had contact with Judaism through the Jewish tribes inArabia. In the years following the death of Muhammad, the religionof Islam exploded out of Arabia into the entire FertileCrescent and across North Africa. By the end out seventh century and beginning of the eighthcentury, Jews living in Babylon, Palestine, Egypt, Turkey,North Africa and Spain came under the control of Muslimrulers. Muslims treated Jews and Christians better than other non-Muslims under their control. Muslims considered Judaismand Christianity to be God-given faiths. Jews and Christians were not polytheists and had sacredbooks (Scripture), which Muslims accepted as revelationsfrom God. The Umayyad Caliphs, who were the first Muslim dynasty(640-750), sporadically persecuted then tolerated the Jews. The Abbasid dynasty, which followed the Umayyads, wasknown for religious tolerance. Its capital at Baghdad became the center of science,philosophy, and medicine in the Middle Eastern world. Jews became part of a golden society. The golden age did not last long, however. In 874 C.E.heavier taxes were levied against non-Muslims, and someJewish synagogues were converted into mosques. Jews were in Spain as early as the first century C.E., and St.Paul mentions his hopes of visiting the Jewish communitythere. When the Roman Empire converted to Christianity in the latefourth century, Jews in Spain were given the choice ofconversion or expulsion. Apparently, however, this was not evenly enforced; Jewscontinued to survive in Spain as Jews. Judaism probably welcomed the conquest of Spain by theMuslims in 711. With the Muslim conquest began a golden age of freedom andtolerance for Jews. With the decline of the Babylonian community,Spanish Jews became the leaders of worldwideJudaism. Muslim Spain began to decline at the beginning ofthe thirteenth century. The subsequent rise of Christian rulership meanthardship for the Jewish people. Persecutions and forced conversions increased.Thousands of Jews were massacred in 1391. Many accepted conversion rather than endurepersecution, while others converted openly butsecretly continued to practice Judaism. These persons were called Conversos (theconverts). The pressure continued until 1492, whenthe King Ferdinand and his queen, Isabella,not only sent Columbus on his historicmission but also expelled the Jews andMuslims from Spain. Thousands of Jews fled into Portugal, Italy,Morocco, the Balkans, and Turkey from yetanother area that had once been theirhome. Although Jews resided in most of the European regions fromthe time of the Roman Empire onward, Babylon and Spain werethe favored sites for Jewish life in the early medieval period. With the decline of these areas, Jews began to movethroughout Europe in greater numbers. They were found in Italy, Germany, Portugal, and England. There were small, but influential Jewish communities in Indiaand China. However, the condition of Jews in Muslim lands was far betterthan it was in Christian Europe. The Christian Crusades were instituted by Pope Innocent ll in 1096 andset off widespread attacks on Jews in Europe. He urged Christian rulers to attack the Muslims and win back the holyplaces in Palestine. Christian princes and their knights took up the challenge for a variety ofreligious, economic, and political reasons. However, it was easier to attack defenseless Jews who lived in Europethan it was to vanquish Muslim armies in Palestine. Jewish communities all over Europe, particularly those in Rhineland,were ravaged by the Crusaders. Many were killed, others were forced to convert to Christianity, and stillothers committed suicide. A few were hidden by sympathetic Christianbishops. The wave of persecution set off by the crusades was so severe by 1286that many Jews fled to Poland or to Islamic countries, where authoritieswere more tolerant. Kabbalah is a discipline and school of thought discussing themystical aspect of Judaism. Jewish mysticism is as old as Judaism. Elements of the occult in Judaism have been found in the Bible,the Talmud, and in the writings of many of their leading figures. The concern for angels, demons, magical incantations, charms,witches, ghouls, interpretation of dreams, the date of thecoming of the Messiah, numerology, and the name of God havebeen lumped together under the term of Kabbalah (tradition). The codification of these elements in Judaism probably beganin Babylon between approximately 500 and 900 C.E. Sefer Yetzirch Sefer Hazohar( the book of creation ) ( the book of splendor ) Came from the Babylonian Known as the Zohar. Jewish community. Attributed to Tanna Simeon Ben Yohai, a Jewish leader of the 2nd century C.E. Internal evidence has caused modern scholars to attribute the Zohar to Moses de Leon, a 13th century Spanish mystic from Cordova. The Zohar is concerned with such themes as the nature ofGod, the theory of the emanations from God, cosmogony,the creation of humankind and of angels, the existence ofevil, and the work of angels in the world. The nature of God is truly incomprehensible to humanity. Therefore, God reveals himself through ten emanations,named for the various attributes of God, such as wisdom,strength, and beauty. Through the work of these ten forces, the sensual world wascreated. Humans are the highest of all creation and are endowedwith three souls. These souls are pre-existent and immortal. The Kabbalahists also taught that evil is non-existent. Thatwhich is called evil is but the negative side of good. By such teaching, Kabbalahism differed markedly fromOrthodox Judaism. By the end of the fifteenth century, Jews had been officiallyexpelled or made to feel unwelcome in nearly every Europeannation. Many fled the persecution of Christian governments and foundhomes in the Muslim states of the Ottoman empire. Other refugees turned to Eastern European. By the end of the sixteenth century, it is estimated that therewere more than a half million Jews in Poland, the largestconcentration of Jews in the world. Jews in Eastern European became known as Ashkenazim. In the sixteenth century, Christianity was seized bya revolution that became known as the ProtestantReformation. The leader of this movement in Germany wasMartin Luther. The Counter-Reformation of the Catholic Churchagainst the Protestant movement in the sixteenthcentury reinstituted the Inquisition, and the Jewsagain became its victims. Another feature of the Counter-Reformation inRome was the formation of the Ghetto. Jews of that city were forced to move into a specialsection, known as the Ghetto, where they wereconfined. In the seventeenth century, Jews living in Polandsaw the end of their sheltered existence. Between 1648 and 1656, an estimated 300,000to 500,000 Jews were slaughtered. Many of thosewho survived fled into Western European. Prayer at the Western Wall in Jerusalem Born in Smyrna 1626declared MessiahEntered Constantinople to dethroneSultan of Turkey in 1665Caughtand imprisoned him convertto Islam or dieHe converted = FAIL Arrived in Berlin in 1743 Passion for learning Wrote essays in German making himwidely accepted Encouraged Jews to leave the ghettos andenter the modern world 1750,Podolia, Isreal ben EliezerPreachedthat God was not to be found inscholarly research in the Bible or Talmundbut in simple, heartfelt faitWidely accepted by the Jews of EasternEuropeStrong dissaproval from Orthodox rabbisCompleteopposite of Moses Mendelssohn Mendelssohn encouraged the Jews of WesternEurope to come out of the ghettos and joinChristian societies in the adventure of modernity Baal Shem Tov and his followers in the Hasidicmovement encouraged the jews of Eastern Europeto strive to maintain Judaism within Christiansocieties Revolution in North America and a subsequentconstitution which stated that all people are to betreated equally under the law.France: 1789 Declaration of the Rights of ManWhereverthe armies of France went in thefollowing years, ghettos were torn down and Jewswere given civil rights Jews were admitted into European universities Many felt that some of the historical practices ofJudaism were out of place 1843: German Jewish leaders met up and made thefollowing declarations (basis of Reform Judaism):- There is a continuation in the development ofJudaism- The Talmud has no authority for the modern Jew- We seek no Messiah, and we know no homeland butthe land of our birth - Kosher food laws were relaxed- Choirs and organs were introduced-Many of the Jewish Immigrants in the US wereReform ews in Western Europe enjoy new freedom but EasternEurope had scarcely changed in 200 years.zarist Russia allowed fierce pogroms against its Jewishpopulation (harassment & second class citizenship). After the assassination of Alexander II, pogromsescalated. Thousands of Jews fled to other countries;mostly to the US. Civil rights granted, Jews making greatcontributions in every profession; but anti-Jewishfeeling still resided in Christian Europe Dreyfus Case, 1894: - Hostility of French towards Jewish peopleerupted Theadore Herzl:- covered the Dreyfus trial from his newspaper- believed that regardless of the liberal facade ofEuropean countries, Jews will never be treated fairly untilthey had a land of their own.- Herzl and others pleaded the case for a Jewish state New Land Early 1900s, Jews began buying land and developingsettlements in Palestine. 1909: Jewish city of Tel Aviv was founded 1920: Approx 50,000 Jews had migrated toPalestine End of WWI, Palestine became governed bymandate by the British 1917, Chaim Weizmann persuaded British ForeignSecretary Lord Balfour to issue a declaration thatstated that the British government approvesPalestine as a national home for Jewish people Arab Christians & Muslims threatened by the Jewsand put pressure on the British to restrictimmigration British government issued a white paper setting aquota to limit Jewish immigration. (when Jews wererunning from the Nazis) 1933:Adolf Hitler established Nazi dictatorshipRights of Jews taken awayNuremberg Laws 1935Jews tried fleeingNon-Jewishcitizens happy to cooperate with NazisGhettos of the Middle Ages were restored Hitlerwanted to exterminate JewsFirst solution: - Concentration camps - work until to deathFinal solution: - Extermination camps - Cheapest and most efficient death by Zyklon B gas- first they will be killed in gas chambers- then their valuables are taken- skin, bones and even body fat were put to use by the thorough Nazis - Bodies were then cremated Approx 6 million Jews killedSuggested explanations for the Nazi Holocaust:-German racism:~race superiority-German troubles following WWI:~Defeated in WWI, claimed that a Jew betrayed them~Economic inflation, accused Jews~Jews were also accused of being the Marxist enemyof capitalist economies - Nazi madness:~ sometimes the destruction of Jews was top priority.- Modern ef ficiency:~technology made it possible for the mass killings- The silence of the rest of the world:~ when Jews needed refuge, other countries refused~ little was done to help the JewsThe holocaust reduced the Jewish populationby 1/3 Israel came quickly after WWII Palestinian Arabs threatened UN voted to partition Palestine into a Jewish & Arabstate British left Palestine in May 1948 and Israelimmediately proclaimed its statehood Israel attacked by 5 neighboring Arab states butsurvived Thousands of Palestinian Arabs fled Israel andlived in refugee camps Arab-Israel war, 1967, more Arab territories occupied byIsraelmuchremains to be done before true peace isestablished in the regionThefact that Muslims & Jews regard Jerusalem assacred territory makes it more difficult Approx 14 million Jews in the world 1.8 million in NYC, largest concentration Variations:OrthodoxReformConservativeReconstructionist The most important and distinctive of all Jewishholidays. The Sabbath begins on Friday at sundown andcontinues until sundown on Saturday. They belief blessings are recited over candles,wine, bread, children and more. Blessing the children This tradition gently reminds parents to expresstheir love for their children out loud and giveschildren a feeling of warmth that they can carrywith them throughout their lives. Blessing the wine Thisblessing is called Kiddush, which meanssanctification. Blessing the bread This blessing praises God and thanks God for"bringing forth bread from the earth." Bread, in thisblessing, is the symbol of all food Pesach begins on the 15th day of the Jewish month of Nissan. It is the first of the three major festivals with both historical andagricultural significance. Agriculturally, it represents the beginning of the harvest seasonin Israel, but little attention is paid to this aspect of the holiday. The primary observances of Pesach are related to the Exodusfrom Egypt after generations of slavery. The fifty days after Pesach the celebration ofShavuot occurs. This holiday called the Pentecost in the NewTestament. Shavout was the orginally a festival celebratingthe first grain harvest Rosh Hashanah occurs on the first and second days ofTishri. In Hebrew, Rosh Hashanah means, literally, "head ofthe year" or "first of the year." The new year is celebrated by special prayers and byeating sweets in the hope of a good year to come. Yom Kippur is probably the most important holiday of theJewish year.Many Jews who do not observe any other Jewish custom willrefrain from work, fast and/or attend synagogue services onthis day. Yom Kippur occurs on the 10th day of Tishri. "Yom Kippur" means "Day of Atonement," that explains what theholiday is. It is a day set aside to "afflict the soul," to atone forthe sins of the past year. The Festival of Sukkot begins on Tishri 15, the fifthday after Yom Kippur. This a celebration of autumn harvest. Sukkot has became attached to the Exodusexperience and is now kept as remembrance of thetimes when Israelites wandered in the Sinai wildness. The Jewish festival of rededication, alsoknown as the festival of lights, is an eight dayfestival beginning on the 25th day of theJewish month of Kislev. Judas retook the Temple from the SyrianGreeks and rededicated it. Judas retook the Temple from the SyrianGreeks and rededicated it. There was only one light available to light thetemple and it should lasted for only one day. But than, it lasted for eight days. In rememberance of that event, Jews light acandle each day for eight days. Thus, it is festival of lights as well as afestival of dedication. Purim is one of the most joyous and funholidays on the Jewish calendar. This festival celebrated on the fourteenth ofAdar9 Feb-march). As a remembrance of the victory over gentilefoes. At the beginning the twenty first century, one of thepimary tasks of Judaism continues to be interpretingthe holocaust. Judaism has understand the Exodus experience. The Mishnah and Talmud seek to reinterpret Jewishlife after the destruction of the temple.