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  • https://theartsjournal.org/index.php/site/issue/view/57

    Journal of Arts and Humanities (Print) ISSN:2167-9045 Journal of Arts and Humanities (Online) ISSN: 2167-9053

    Volume 5, Issue 5, May; 2017

  • ArchiveofJournalVolume 5, Issue 5, May; 2017

    Table of Contents Articles

    Ernest Hemingway and His Growth as a Political Activist in the 1930s Anders Greenspan

    PDF 01-07

    Becoming Classical Artemis: A Glimpse at the Evolution of the Goddess as Traced in Ancient Arcadia Olga Albert Zolotnikova

    PDF 08-20

    Integration of Character Values in School Culture at Elementary Schools in Jakarta, Indonesia Arita - Marini

    PDF 21-32

    Motorcycles Health and Traffic Safety: Evidence from Commercial Motorcyclists in Gombe State, Nigeria Nasiru Inuwa, Abdullahi Mohammed Jikan-Jatum, Dr. Hassana Yahya Bello

    PDF 33-41

    The Ancient Chinese Views of Family Education Recorded in Pre-Qin (before 221 BC) Confucian Classics Ho-kin Tong

    PDF 42-54

    The origins of Muslim nationalism in British India Enrique Baltar

    PDF 55-65

    Analysed with Shanghai international fashion the development of creative industry Jinjin Ma, Yue Hu

    PDF 66-69

    Oathing, Law and Order in Colonial Gusiiland Jackson Maranga

    PDF 70-80

    Essay Jewelry Design under Environmental Protection Concept Jinjin Ma, Yue Hu

    PDF 81-83

    Case Study “To Live in Hearts We Leave Behind is Not to Die.” Remembrance Sunday at Pusey House, Oxford University, A Review of Worship at Oxford University Peter L. Kraus

    PDF 84-85

  • Journal of Arts and Humanities

    Journal of Arts and Humanities (JAH) is a double-blind,peer-reviewed, open access refereed journal with an aim of becoming a leading journal in the arts and humanities disciplines.

    The scope of the Journal focuses on theoretical and empirical research in the broader fields of Arts and Humanities areas. JAH publishes original research, creative work, and critical discourse on traditional, contemporary, and popular issues in arts and issues in the field of humanities studies.

    Contributions in the field of arts may include artists’ writings, critical essays, historical documentation, interviews, performance texts and plays and book review. The journal welcomes the submission from the theoretical or empirical aspects of ... view the full scope

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    States 6. Dr. Abdellatif Attafi, College of Charleston, United States 7. Dr. Donna Yarri, Alvernia University, United States 8. Dr. Michael R. Catanzaro, Tennessee State University, United States 9. Dr. Spencer S. Stober, Alvernia University, United States 10. Hezi Brosh, United States Naval Academy, United States 11. Patty K. Wongpakdee, New York Institute of Technology, United States 12. Prof. Dr. Bulent Acma, Anadolu University, Turkey 13. Prof. Mariano de Blas, Complutense University, Spain

  • 14. Sharla Blank, Washburn University, United States 15. Yousef M. I. Awad, University of Jordan, Jordan

    Reviewers Reviewers play a vital role in maintaining the quality of scholarly publishing. Reviewing a paper requires specialized knowledge, skills and the investment of time.The editor of Journal of Arts and Humanities(JAH) typically invites reviewers to complete the review in their respective area. To ensure peer review process editors select the experts in the same discipline as the paper. The journal also welcome young researchers to conduct peer review. Please register in this journal and email the editor writing your area of interest. The reviewers' work is entirely voluntary. Thus, getting, no monetary benefit. However, the JAH always view their work as extremely prestigious and honorary scholarly contribution. Reviewers are important to us. The editorial office issues a certificate of appreciation upon request. Please email at [email protected] to get a certificate of appreciation.

    Tutorial for Reviewers:

    List of valued reviewers of JAH:

    Abhipraya Subedi, MBA, CEM Ahmad Moghaddasi, University of Art,Tehran, Iran Alline Torres Dias da Cruz, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Anders Greenspan, PhD, Texas A&M University Anthony J. Pennings, PhD , St. Edwards University Ayman Talib, D.B.A, DeVry University Arshad J Rizvi. PhD, Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology Christian B. Long, University of Canterbury Esther Rodriguez, University of Oviedo Daniel Akuoko Adjei, Bolgatanga Polytechnic Darakhshan Batool, Fatima Jinnah Women University David A Bosch, Asbury University Dorsía Smith Silva, Ph.D., University of Puerto Rico Dr. Arshad, The Islamia University Dr. Georgia Petroudi, European University Cyprus Dr. A. K. Shukla, Fiji National University Dr. Abhilasha Singh, Dubai International Academic City Dr. Águeda García-Garrido, University of Caen Dr. Archana Sharma, Morgan State University Dr. Atef Odeh AbuSa'aleek, Al Qassim University Dr. Federico Li Bonilla (PhD.), Universdad State Distance Dr. Golam Azam, Dhaka University Dr. Hassen Zriba, University of Gafsa Dr. Hazliza Haron ,Universiti Teknologi MARA Dr. Joe Thompson, University of Illinois Dr. Md. Motiur Rahman, Qassim University

  • Dr. ŢICU Dorina, UAIC, Lasi Dr. Sanjeev Kumar,Department of Elementary Education, H.P. Dr. Vinay Kandpal, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dr.Marwan Mustafa Shammot, King Saud University Dr. Ricardo Alexandre Cardoso Rodrigues (LLB, LLM) - Researcher: IJP; CH – CII; apDC; CINAMIL / Rapporteur: ODH. Dr. Robert R. Daniel Jr. , Saint Joseph's University Dr. Wassim Daghrir, Effat University Eren DURMUŞ-OZDEMIR, Akdeniz University Flaviana Xavier Antunes Sampaio, Southwest Bahia State University Ganesh Deka , Ministry of Labour & Employment, Government of India Herman Shah Hj Anuar, PhD, Universiti Utara Malaysia Holger Briel, UGSM-Monarch Business School JAVIER ANDRÉS GÓMEZ DÍAZ, Universidad EAN Jennie V. Jocson, Philippine Normal University Kate Waites, Nova Southeastern University Kingsley Chigbu, University of Texas Latisha Asmaak Shafie, Universiti Teknologi MARA Man To Tang, The Community College at Lingnan University Maria Emilia Camargo , Universidade de Caxias do Sul Marjorie Och, University of Mary Washington Mayara Cristina Ghedini da Silva Mesut TEKŞAN, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Mohammed Hamood Al-Amri, Sultan Qaboos University Muhammad Iqbal, National University of Malaysia Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab , University Malaysia Pahang Nataša Pomazalová, Ph.D. , Mendel University in Brno Nick Mdika Tembo, University of Malawi Noelia Malla García, Complutense University Peter Lee, Brooklyn College, City University of New York Prof. Annalisa Zanola, Università degli Studi di Brescia, Italy Prof. Dr. ABDUR REHMAN ,Hazara University Prof. Dr. José António Filipe, Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL) Prof. Elisabeth Melguizo Moreno, University of Granada, Spain Prof. Javier Blanco-Encomienda, University of Granada Prof. Madya Hoe Chee Hee, Universiti Utara Malaysia Prof. Michael Akintayo Prof. Pahlaj Moolio , Pannasastra University of Cambodia Prof. Rafael Silveira e Silva, University of Brasilia Prof.Dr. Kemal Özden, Fatih University Puan Sri Fatiany Abdul Kader Jailani, Universiti Teknologi MARA Qi Tang, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Reine Azzi, TEDxLAU Renato F. L. Azevedo,University of Illinois Sahar Bahmani, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin at Parkside Shagufta Parveen, HITEC University Taxila Shuliang, University of Science and Technology of China Starnawska, Sylwia, D'Youville College Supaporn Chalapati, PhD, RMIT University

  • Tom William, PhD, University of Toronto Uqbah Iqbal, National University of Malaysia Vance Cortez-Rucker, PhD, Lamar University x.andrade, FLACSO-Ecuador Yun Li, Standard and Poor's Zeljko Uvanovic, University of Osijek

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  • Journal of Arts and Humanities (JAH)

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    Integration of Character Values in School Culture at Elementary

    Schools in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Arita Marini1

    ABSTRACT Character values can be integrated not only in the classroom, but also in the school culture. Some teachers are not familiar with the ways of integrating these values in the school culture. The purpose of this study was to find out about implementation of character values integration in school culture at elementary schools in Jakarta. This research was conducted in Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. A quantitatively descriptive method was used for this study. Questionnaires related to integration of character values in school culture consists of religious, honesty, discipline, clean and healthy, tolerance, working ethos, and nationalism culture. A total of 63 principals from 63 elementary schools in Jakarta were involved in the study. The result showed that means of character values integration in religious, honesty, discipline, clean and healthy, tolerance, working ethos, and nationalism culture were achieved 13.40, 6.16, 17.71, 13.24, 11.81, 12.33, and 10.49 or 83.75 %, 68.44 %, 98.39 %, 88.27 %, 98.42 %, 94.85 %, and 95.36 % from theoretically maximum scores. This study concludes that character values has already been integrated effectively in religious, discipline, clean and healthy, tolerance, working ethos, and nationalism culture at 63 elementary schools in Jakarta. On the other hand, integration of character values in honesty culture hasn’t been effective at 63 elementary schools in Jakarta.

    Keywords: Character Values, Elementary School, Integration, School Culture. This is an open access article under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

    1. Introduction There is much impact of globalization era and Information, Communication, and Technology on students’ character. This will bring world progress to multiculture civilization leading to students being adaptable selectively with multicultural situation in order that they don’t lose their identities. Character values should be integrated in school leading to positive student behavior. Kamaruddin (2012); Gusnardi, Riadi, and Muda, (2016) stated that character values can be integrated formally and informally. It is very essential that character values should be given not also academically 1 Department of Elementary School Teacher Education, Faculty of Education, The State University of Jakarta, Indonesia. E-mail : [email protected]

    Journal of Arts & Humanities

    Volume 06, Issue 05, 2017, 21-32 Article Received: 09-04-2017

    Accepted: 14-04-2017 Available Online: 24-04-2017

    ISSN: 2167-9045 (Print), 2167-9053 (Online) DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18533/journal.v6i5.1171

    http://dx.doi.org/10.18533/journal.v6i5.1171

  • Marini, JAH (2017), Vol. 06, No. 05: 21-32

    Journal of Arts and Humanities (JAH)

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    but also in cultures. School culture is very important to establish good moral values. Elementary schools have responsibility to educate the students related to moral education leading to build community for moral values. However, this study only found that character values can be integrated informally to establish moral values but not in detail research findings regarding to the school culture. Thompson, (2002) said that character values should be integrated with the curriculum. School culture should be based on good character principles. The teacher can be a model of a good character observed by the students. The students can be taught with hands-on service activities contributing to the school and the community leading to improve the student behavior. In this study, the research findings only about implementation of character values integrated in the classroom to improve the students’ behaviors. Nevertheless, it is not described in more detail explanation about integration in all aspects of school culture. Cubukcu, (2012) found that hidden curriculum is important to integrate values within character education context. Activities of motivating hidden curriculum consist of social and cultural activities. These internalizing values can develop indicidual’s character. School environment is urgent in the process of character values integration. This research only found that school culture can improve the character education but it was not investigated the integration of character values in a detail of school culture’s aspects. Larson, (2009) stated that the teachers is necessary to promote character education in order to create an optimal learning environment. Students can develop their character through schools with a more enriched environment leading to succeed academically, personally, and socially. However, this study didn’t investigate about different aspects of school culture integrated with character values. Marini, (2016) found that teachers’ competences at elementary school in Jakarta related to character values integration in teaching learning process, school culture, extracurricular activities, and society involvement were already good. This research finding only discussed about teachers’ competences in school culture as a whole not in separate aspects. The study of Montonye, Butenhoff, & Krinke, S. (2013); Branson, (2004); Senior-Gay, (2004); Dalimunthe, et al (2016); Gra, Chelsea (2012) found that character education can influence the student positive behavior in the classrooms. They investigated that there was an effect of character education on student behavior by teaching students in order to know about character leading to positive behaviors and In these studies, there was a relationship between character education and students’ character. This study only researched developing character education in the classrooms through teachers implementing the curriculum leading to motivate the students about building character skills. However, this study didn’t investigate character building integrated in school culture. This study was conducted to investigate that the previous studies did not do. This study researched integrating character values in the school culture for seven aspects consisting of religious, honesty, discipline, clean and healthy, tolerance, working ethos, and nationalism culture. Integration of character values in religious culture is related to religious values. Honesty culture is integrated into the student behavior to be trusted. Discipline culture is integrated into students obeying the rules. Integrated of clean and healthy culture is related to hygiene and good physical condition. Tolerance culture is described by doing respect for other people. Working ethos is integrated into being responsible in working. Finally nationalism culture is related to students having commitment in giving priority of national importance. 2. Literature review Al Farra, Samia (2012) stated that a positive school culture can enhance teaching and learning process as well as students’ achievement. School culture giving the school its unique character produces values at school. School culture can influence the learning atmosphere at school consisting of moral and

  • Integration of character values in school culture …

    Journal of Arts and Humanities (JAH)

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    performance character. The students treat others well with kindness, honesty, and respect through moral character. They do everything well with critical thinking and have a commitment to quality through performance character. School with school culture committed with good character requires the students and teachers to do the best works and being their best ethical self. Best school culture will create performance excellence and ethical excellence leading to the students’ achievement and character. Successful schools have demanding culture such as hunger to improve, promote excellence and hold hope for everyone. High productivity teachers and students’ achievement is related to positive school culture. Elbot, Charles & Fulton, (2008) said that improvement of students’ academic achievement and personal growth needs to shape intentional school culture building excellence and character. The school culture can affect the students’ chances to be successful and implementation of successful school reform. Building excellence for the students, schools should have intentional culture on the basis of shared values, beliefs, and behaviors. This school culture can serve as a medium for students and teachers to grow. The quality of relationship among students, parents, teachers, and administration is a central aspect of school culture. Al Farra, (2012), Elbot, & Fulton, (2008); Carter, (2011) stated that great school culture harness students’ characters leading to drive achievement and school’s outcomes. School cultures should be intentional that they have to be constructed leading to particular outcomes. Great school cultures can form strong character that the students benefit from these environments. Al Farra, (2012), Elbot, & Fulton, (2008); Carter, (2011); Bulach, Lunenburg, & Potter, (2011) said that new control school culture can make the students becoming more accustomed to controlling each other’s behavior. It was found that school culture positively affected the students’ character behavior. It was also found that a correlation between character and student achievement was existed.

    3. Methodology Survey was conducted to find out about implementation of character values integration in school culture at 63 elementary schools in Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. The method of this research used quantitatively descriptive method distributing school culture questionnaires to 63 principals from 63 elementary schools in Jakarta. These questionnaires were related to religious, honesty, discipline, clean and healthy, tolerance, working ethos, and nationalism culture. Questionnaires of school culture are about the students’ habits in daily activities at schools describing about school situation, values system, belief and group norms, natural behaviour and students habits. Indicators of religious culture are related to behaviour of religious values, tolerance to other religious service, and having harmonious with other religions. Indicators of honesty culture are related to the behaviour on the basis of an effort to be trusted in working. Indicators of discipline culture are related to behaviour of obeying rules and having a system of rules of conduct. Indicators of clean and healthy culture are related to behaviour of beeing free from dirt, being attentive to personal hygiene, and having good physical condition. Indicators of tolerance culture are related to behavior of respect for other people, being equal, and not doing discrimination at schools. Indicators of working ethos are related to having working spirit, being diligent, and having responsibility in working. Indicators of nationalism culture are related to the behavior of having commitment to give priority of national importance, being loyal to the country, and having patriotic feeling (Muda, et al, 2015 and Muda, et al, 2017). 4. Results

    Questionnaires related to character values in school culture of religious culture for 63 principals from 63 elementary schools used observation instruments consisted of 16 items with dichotomy scale 0 and 1 describing worship facilities, opportunities to do worship, praying together, religious motto, religious song for each Friday, religious gatherings, slaughtering qurban, infaq culture, religious boarding school,

  • Marini, JAH (2017), Vol. 06, No. 05: 21-32

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    and moslem clothes uniforms. Score 0 means that items of religious culture are not existed at school. Score 1 means that items of religious culture are existed at school. In other words, character values has already been integrated in school culture specifically for religious culture. Descriptive statistics of character values integration in religious culture based on survey done to 63 principals from 63 elementary schools in Jakarta can be seen in Table 1. Based on Table 1, mean of character values integration in religious culture is 13.40 or 83.75 % of the maximum score. It means that integration of character values in religious culture at 83.75 % from 63 elementary schools has already been effective. Table 1: Descriptive statistics of character values integration in religious culture Types of Descriptive Statistics Scores Mean 13.40 Standard Error of Mean 0.255 Median 14 Mode 14 Standard Deviation 2.02 Sample Variance 4.082 Curtosis 2.577 Std. Error of Kurtosis 0.595 Skewness -1.584 Std. Error of Skewness 0.302 Range 9 Minimum 7 Maximum 16 Sum 844 Count 63 Integration of character values in religious culture observed in 63 elementary schools can be seen in frequency distribution in Table 2. Based on Table 2, character values integration in religious culture reaching 93.7 % of 63 elementary schools has scores higher than average score and 6.3 % has scores lower than average scores. It can be seen from the movement of observation scores leading to the right direction (positive) in Figure 1. Table 2: Frequency distribution of character values integration in religious culture No Scores Frequency (fi) Relative frequency (%) Cumulative frequency (%) 1 7 2 3.2 3.2 2 8 1 1.6 4.8 3 9 2 3.2 7.9 4 11 4 6.3 14.3 5 12 4 6.3 20.6 6 13 10 15.9 36.5 7 14 22 34.9 71.4 8 15 14 22.2 93.7 9 16 4 6.3 100 Total 63 100

  • Integration of character values in school culture …

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    Questionnaires related to character values in school culture of honesty culture for 63 principals from 63 elementary schools used observation instruments consisted of 9 items with dichotomy scale 0 and 1 describing honesty canteen, honesty clocks, honesty library, lost and found, transparency in financial report, suggestion box, prohibition of cheating. Score 0 means that items of honesty culture are not existed at school. Score 1 means that items of honesty culture are existed at school. In other words, character values has already been integrated in school culture specifically for honesty culture. Descriptive statistics of character values integration in honesty culture based on survey done to 63 principals from 63 elementary schools in Jakarta can be seen in Table 3. Based on Table 3, mean of character values integration in honesty culture is 6.16 or 68.44 % % of the maximum score. It means that integration of character values in honesty culture at 68.44 % from 63 elementary schools has already been effective. Table 3: Descriptive statistics of character values integration in honesty culture Types of Descriptive Statistics Scores Mean 6.16 Standard Error of Mean 0.195 Median 6 Mode 5 Standard Deviation 1.547 Sample Variance 2.394 Kurtosis -0.091 Std. Error of Kurtosis 0.595 Skewness 0.374 Std. Error of Skewness 0.302 Range 7 Minimum 2 Maximum 9 Sum 388 Count 63 Integration of character values in honesty culture observed in 63 elementary schools can be seen in frequency distribution in Table 4. Based on Table 2, character values integration in honesty culture reaching 79.4 % of 63 elementary schools has scores higher than average score and 20.6 % has scores lower than average scores. Frequency histogram can be seen in Figure 2. Table 4: Frequency distribution of character values integration in honesty culture No Scores Frequency (fi) Relative frequency (%) Cumulative frequency (%) 1 2 1 1.6 1.6 2 4 3 4.8 6.3 3 5 22 34.9 41.3 4 6 16 25.4 66.7 5 7 8 12.7 79.4 6 8 5 7.9 87.3 7 9 8 12.7 100 Total 63 100

    Questionnaires related to character values in school culture of discipline culture for 63 principals from 63 elementary schools used observation instruments

    Figure 1: Frequency histogram of character values integration in religious culture

    Figure 2: Frequency histogram of character values integration in honesty culture

  • Marini, JAH (2017), Vol. 06, No. 05: 21-32

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    consisted of 18 items with dichotomy scale 0 and 1 describing marching orderly, joining Monday ceremony on time, wearing complete uniforms, school regulation, rewards for students who discipline, obligation to finish the homework, regular picket, students’ records of tardiness. Score 0 means that items of discipline culture are not existed at school. Score 1 means that items of discipline culture are existed at school. In other words, character values has already been integrated in school culture specifically for discipline culture. Descriptive statistics of character values integration in discipline culture based on survey done to 63 principals from 63 elementary schools in Jakarta can be seen in Table 5. Based on Table 5, mean of character values integration in discipline culture is 17.71 or 98.39 % % of the maximum score. It means that integration of character values in discipline culture at 98.39 % from 63 elementary schools has already been effective. Table 5: Descriptive statistics of character values integration in discipline culture Types of Descriptive Statistics Scores Mean 17.71 Standard Error of Mean 0.073 Median 18 Mode 18 Standard Deviation 0.58 Sample Variance 0.336 Kurtosis 7.309 Std. Error of Kurtosis 0.595 Skewness -2.446 Std. Error of Skewness 0.302 Range 3 Minimum 15 Maximum 18 Sum 1116 Count 63

    Integration of character values in discipline culture observed in 63 elementary schools can be seen in frequency distribution in Table 6. Based on Table 6, character values integration in discipline culture reaching 76.2 % of 63 elementary schools has scores higher than average score and 23.8 % has scores lower than average scores. It can be seen from the movement of observation scores leading to the right direction (positive) in Figure 3. Table 6: Frequency distribution of character values integration in discipline culture No Scores Frequency (fi) Relative frequency (%) Cumulative frequency (%) 1 15 1 1.6 1.6 2 16 1 1.6 3.2 3 17 13 20.6 23.8 4 18 48 76.2 100 Total 63 100 Questionnaires related to character values in school culture of clean and healthy culture for 63 principals from 63 elementary schools used observation instruments consisted of 15 items with dichotomy scale 0 and 1 describing students’ habits to throw the garbage in place, availability of trash can, availability of washstand, cleanliness of the toilet, weekly community service, availability of School Health Unit, morning gymnastics, healthy canteen, periodically medical check-up, drainage waste, separation of organic and

    Figure 3: Frequency histogram of character values integration in discipline culture

  • Integration of character values in school culture …

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    anorganic garbage, and little doctor at school. Score 0 means that items of clean and healthy culture are not existed at school. Score 1 means that items of clean and healthy culture are existed at school. In other words, character values has already been integrated in school culture specifically for clean and healthy culture. Descriptive statistics of character values integration in clean and healthy culture based on survey done to 63 principals from 63 elementary schools in Jakarta can be seen in Table 7. Based on Table 7, mean of character values integration in clean and healthy culture is 13.24 or 88.27 % % of the maximum score. It means that integration of character values in clean and healthy culture at 88.27 % from 63 elementary schools has already been effective. Table 7: Descriptive statistics of character values integration in clean and healthy culture Types of Descriptive Statistics Scores Mean 13.24 Standard Error of Mean 0.185 Median 13 Mode 13 Standard Deviation 1.467 Sample Variance 2.152 Kurtosis 0.066 Std. Error of Kurtosis 0.595 Skewness -0.681 Std. Error of Skewness 0.302 Range 6 Minimum 9 Maximum 15 Sum 834 Count 63 Integration of character values in clean and healthy culture observed in 63 elementary schools can be seen in frequency distribution in Table 8. Based on Table 8, character values integration in clean and healthy culture reaching 76.2 % of 63 elementary schools has scores higher than average score and 23.8 % has scores lower than average scores. Frequency histogram can be seen) in Figure 4. Table 8: Frequency distribution of character values integration in clean and healthy culture No Scores Frequency (fi) Relative frequency (%) Cumulative frequency (%) 1 9 1 1.6 1.6 2 10 2 3.2 4.8 3 11 5 7.9 12.7 4 12 9 14.3 27 5 13 17 27 54 6 14 14 22.2 76.2 7 15 15 23.8 100 Total 63 100

    Questionnaires related to character values in school culture of tolerance culture for 63 principals from 63 elementary schools used observation instruments consisted of 12 items with dichotomy scale 0 and 1 describing avoiding discrimination, service for students with special needs, prohibiting to open canteen in fasting month, activities to help victims of natural disasters, acceptance of individual differences, respect for others, facilitating social activities, and language manners. Score 0 means that items of tolerance culture are not existed at

    Figure 4: Frequency histogram of character values integration in clean and healthy culture

  • Marini, JAH (2017), Vol. 06, No. 05: 21-32

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    school. Score 1 means that items of tolerance culture are existed at school. In other words, character values has already been integrated in school culture specifically for tolerance culture. Descriptive statistics of character values integration in tolerance culture based on survey done to 63 principals from 63 elementary schools in Jakarta can be seen in Table 9. Based on Table 9, mean of character values integration in tolerance culture is 11.81 or 98.42 % % of the maximum score. It means that integration of character values in tolerance culture at 98.42 % from 63 elementary schools has already been effective. Table 9: Descriptive statistics of character values integration in tolerance culture Types of Descriptive Statistics Scores Mean 11.81 Standard Error of Mean 0.055 Median 12 Mode 12 Standard Deviation 0.435 Sample Variance 0.189 Kurtosis 4.357 Std. Error of Kurtosis 0.595 Skewness -2.205 Std. Error of Skewness 0.302 Range 2 Minimum 10 Maximum 12 Sum 744 Count 63 Integration of character values in tolerance culture observed in 63 elementary schools can be seen in frequency distribution in Table 10. Based on Table 10, character values integration in tolerance culture reaching 82.5 % of 63 elementary schools has scores higher than average score and 17.5 % has scores lower than average scores. It can be seen from the movement of observation scores leading to the right direction (positive) in Figure 5. Table 10: Frequency distribution of character values integration in tolerance culture No Scores Frequency (fi) Relative frequency (%) Cumulative frequency (%) 1 10 1 1.6 1.6 2 11 10 15.9 17.5 3 12 52 82.5 100 Total 63 100 Questionnaires related to character values in school culture of working ethos culture for 63 principals from 63 elementary schools used observation instruments consisted of 13 items with dichotomy scale 0 and 1 describing healthy competition condition, challenging school climates and working hard spirit, working ethos motto, creative behaviour and thinking, challenging tasks, students’ independence, communication media for students to express their ideas, rewards for student achievement, display of trophies and awards, records of students’ visits to library, activities report, and morning breafing for the teachers. Score 0 means that items of working ethos culture are not existed at school. Score 1 means that items of working ethos culture are existed at school. In other words, character values has already been integrated in school culture specifically for working ethos culture. Descriptive statistics of character values integration in working ethos culture based on survey done to 63 principals

    Figure 5: Frequency histogram of character values integration in tolerance culture

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    from 63 elementary schools in Jakarta can be seen in Table 11. Based on Table 11, mean of character values integration in working ethos culture is 12.33 or 94.85 % % of the maximum score. It means that integration of character values in working ethos culture at 94.85 % from 63 elementary schools has already been effective. Table 11: Descriptive statistics of character values integration in working ethos culture Types of Descriptive Statistics Scores Mean 12.33 Standard Error of Mean 0.104 Median 13 Mode 13 Standard Deviation 0.823 Sample Variance 0.677 Kurtosis 2.864 Std. Error of Kurtosis 0.595 Skewness -1.414 Std. Error of Skewness 0.302 Range 4 Minimum 9 Maximum 13 Sum 777 Count 63

    Integration of character values in working ethos culture observed in 63 elementary schools can be seen in frequency distribution in Table 12. Based on Table 12, character values integration in working ethos culture reaching 84.1 % of 63 elementary schools has scores higher than average score and 15.9 % has scores lower than average scores. It can be seen from the movement of observation scores leading to the right direction (positive) in Figure 6. Table 12: Frequency distribution of character values integration in working ethos culture No Scores Frequency (fi) Relative frequency (%) Cumulative frequency (%) 1 9 1 1.6 1.6 2 11 8 12.7 14.3 3 12 22 34.9 49.2 4 13 32 50.8 100 Total 63 100 Questionnaires related to character values in school culture of nationalism culture for 63 principals from 63 elementary schools used observation instruments consisted of 11 items with dichotomy scale 0 and 1 describing the ceremony of national great days, historic landmark visits, national great days celebration, president and vice president, state emblem, the flag state, Indonesia map, and picture of community lives in Indonesia display, domestic products use, appropriate Indonesian Language use, availability of Indonesian culture and natural resources information, and national song. Score 0 means that items of nationalism culture are not existed at school. Score 1 means that items of nationalism culture are existed at school. In other words, character values has already been integrated in school culture specifically for nationalism culture.

    Figure 6: Frequency histogram of character values integration in working ethos culture

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    Descriptive statistics of character values integration in nationalism culture based on survey done to 63 principals from 63 elementary schools in Jakarta can be seen in Table 13. Based on Table 13, mean of character values integration in nationalism culture is 10.49 or 95.36 % % of the maximum score. It means that integration of character values in nationalism culture at 95.36 % from 63 elementary schools has already been effective. Table 13: Descriptive statistics of character values integration in nationalism culture Types of Descriptive Statistics Scores Mean 10.49 Standard Error of Mean 0.09 Median 11 Mode 11 Standard Deviation 0.716 Sample Variance 0.512 Kurtosis 7.857 Std. Error of Kurtosis 0.595 Skewness -2.154 Std. Error of Skewness 0.302 Range 4 Minimum 7 Maximum 11 Sum 661 Count 63 Integration of character values in nationalism culture observed in 63 elementary schools can be seen in frequency distribution in Table 14. Based on Table 14, character values integration in nationalism culture reaching 93.6 % of 63 elementary schools has scores higher than average score and 6.4 % has scores lower than average scores. It can be seen from the movement of observation scores leading to the right direction (positive) in Figure 7. Table 14: Frequency distribution of character values integration in nationalism culture No Scores Frequency (fi) Relative frequency (%) Cumulative frequency (%) 1 7 1 1.6 1.6 2 9 2 3.2 4.8 3 10 24 38.1 42.9 4 11 36 57.1 100 Total 30 100 Recapitulation of character values integration in school culture observation at 63 elementary schools in Jakarta can been in Table 15. Average score of character values integration in school culture is 75.58 %. Scores of character values integration in school culture higher than average scores are religious, discipline, clean and healthy, tolerance, working ethos, and nationalism culture scores. It means that integration of character values in religious, discipline, clean and healthy, tolerance, working ethos, and nationalism culture has already been optimal. Score of character values integration in school culture lower than average scores is honesty culture. It means that integration of character values in honesty culture has not been optimal.

    Figure 7: Frequency histogram of character values integration in nationalism culture

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    Table 15: Recapitulation of character values integration in school culture observation at 63 elementary schools in Jakarta No. School Cultures Theoretical

    Scores Average Scores (Observation)

    Achievement

    (%) 1. Religious Culture 16 13.40 83.75 2. Honesty Culture 9 6.16 68.44 3. Discipline Culture 18 17.71 98,39 4. Clean and Healthy Culture 15 13.24 88.27 5. Tolerance Culture 12 11.81 98.42 6. Working Ethos Culture 13 12.33 94.85 7. Nationalism Culture 11 10.49 95.36 Average Scores 75.58

    5. Conclusion It can be concluded that integration of character values in religious, discipline, clean and healthy, tolerance, working ethos, and nationalism culture has already been optimal with the scores 83.75 %, 98.39 %, 88.27 %, 98.42 %, 94.85 %, 95.36 % higher than average scores 75.58 %. Character values in honesty culture has not already been optimal with the score 68.44 % lower than average scores 75.58 %. References Al Farra, Samia. (2012). School Culture and Students’ Achievement. IB the Culture of Learning Madrid.

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