joshua presentation

download joshua presentation

of 22

  • date post

    13-Feb-2017
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    33
  • download

    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of joshua presentation

PIGLET USE OF THE CREEP AREA AND PIGLET MORTALITY-EFFECTS OF CLOSING THE PIGLETS INSIDE THE CREEP AREA DURING SOW FEEDING TIME IN PENS FOR INDIVIDUALLY LOOSE-HOUSED SOWS

PIGLET USE OF THE CREEP AREA AND PIGLET MORTALITY-EFFECTS OF CLOSING THE PIGLETS INSIDE THE CREEP AREA DURING SOW FEEDING TIME IN PENS FOR INDIVIDUALLY LOOSE-HOUSED SOWSPRESENTED BY: JOSHUA NII BORTIEHSUPERVISOR: PROF. ELK OSAFOINDEX NUMBER: 7030012DATE: 15TH OCTOBER, 2015Source: official journal of the British society Of Animal Science

INTRODUCTIONBarnett et al.(2007),reported 12 to 13% in the pre-weaning piglet mortality in the UK.

Some experiments by Marchant et al.(2000),(Cronin and smith,1992) reveal that keeping sows in farrowing crates reduces the piglet mortality, because fewer piglets are crushed.

INTRODUCTION CONTDHowever, it is possible to achieve the same or a better result when sows are kept loose in individual pens(schm d,1992.Weber and schick,1996; Cronin et al.,2000)

INTRODUCTION CONTDStarvation and crushing also accounts for 50 to 80% of the mortality(dyck and swiestra,1987;marchant et al 2001)Piglets are kept inside the creep area while the sows are being fed to prevent the sows from crushing the piglets when lying down after feeding.

INTRODUCTION CONTD

Sows are given concentrates at a restricted level before farrowing.

During the first 3days after parturition the piglets increase their lying time in the creep area and decrease their lying time in contact with the sow .(Bomber and Bourne ,1987).

To reduce the incidence of crushing, it is important that the piglets start using the creep area as soon as possible after farrowing .

INTRODUCTION CONTD

Latency to use the creep area after birth and the extent of the use on the first days after farrowing will depend strongly on how attractive the creep area is.

It was hypothesized that closing the piglets inside an attractive creep area while feeding the sow will increase the piglet use of the creep area in general, make the sow more attractive towards the piglets after feeding and thereby reduce piglet mortality caused by crushing when the sow is lying down.

OBJECTIVESThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of closing the piglets inside the creep area during the first two or four feeding on piglet mortality from birth until weaning and piglet use of the creep area within the first 3 days after farrowing.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study was conducted in a commercial pig unit in Norway. Ninty-six litters from three batches of healthy ,landrace Yorkshire sows with parity 1 to 6 were used. The sows within each batch were randomly assigned to the following treatments.(1)Control group no piglet close inside the creep area during the first two feedings after farrowing, day1(C2)-(3)piglets closed inside the creep area during the first four feedings after farrowing ,day1 and 2 (C 4).In treatment C2 and C4, then piglets were closed inside the creep area immediately before feeding and let out again after 20mins.

HOUSINGDuring pregnancy, the sows were housed in pens with 20 to 30 sows and individual self-closing feeding stalls.

Two weeks before expected farrowing, the sows were moved from the pregnant sow section and into individual farrowing pens where they were kept loose both during farrowing and lactation. The farrowing pens (width length:2.2m 0.8m) in the dunging area in the rear end of the pen, and a piglet creep area in one of the front corners. The sow feeder was placed in the other front corner of the pen. The creep area was triangular in shape (with sides:1.50.8). The size of the creep area made it possible for all piglets to lie simultaneously in the first 2 weeks of age.

The concrete floor was water heated(25 c) with a layer of sawdust and straw covering the concrete floor, a solid, wooden roof with skirt (to reduce inlet of cold air),and a solid wooden wall that could be manually closed to keep the piglets inside the creep area.

FEEDING AND MANAGEMENTThe sows were offered a standard concentrated diet. After parturition the ration was slowly increased from 2.45kg per sow, reaching the maximum amount of food 2weeks after farrowing(2.45kg+ 0.55kg per live born piglet).

BEHAVIOURAL OBSERVATIONS33 out of the 96 litters were observed by a present observer, using instantaneous sampling every 10 min for 6hr on day 1,2 and 3 after farrowing. The percent of piglets within each litter that was (1) active(not lying) or (2) lying in the creep area,(3) close to the sow (less than 20 cm from the sow), (4) in the centre of the pen(when the piglets were more than 20cm away from the sow, the wall of the creep area)or (5) close to a pen wall(less than 20cm from the wall), was calculated. The sows state (lying or active) was recorded for every observation.Behavioural observations were recorded for 33 of the 96 litters. To test the effects of treatments, the behaviour of sow and piglets in groups Co (no=14) and C2(no=8) were compared on day 2 after farrowing, and Co and C4 (no=11) were compared on day 3.

Total number of observations per litter and day in Co was 36, whereas this was only 33 on day 1 for C2 and day 1 and 2 for C4. the reason for this was that the piglets were closed inside the creep area during three observation.

PRODUCTION PARAMETERS

Production parameters were included for all 96 sows.STATISTICSTreatment differences between groups In production parameters and piglet use of the creep area were analysed by using a one-way analysis with sow defined as a random effect was used to investigate the effects of day after parturition on piglet use of the creep area (Hatcher and Stepanski,1994). Spearman correlation analysis was conducted (Hatcher and stepansk,1994) to investigate the relationship between piglet mortality and sow or piglet activity in the pen.RESULTSClosing the piglets inside the creep area the first two or four feedings after farrowing had no effect on the piglet mortality(Table 1).There were no significant differences between the three treatments in parity of the sows, litter size, number of live born piglets, piglet mortality or number of weaned piglets(Table 1)

Table 1 PRODUCTION VARIABLES (MEAN )Control(Co)Closed inside twoFeedings(C2)Closed inside fourFeedings (C4)P valuemeanmeanmeanNo. Of litters333132parity2.42.72.60.2Litter size(live and still born)13.514.313.40.7Live born(no.)12.913.412.50.6Piglet mortality(%)15.817.317.50.0

EFFECT OF TREATMENT ON PIGLET AREA USEThere were no significant effects of closing the piglets inside the creep area the first two or four feedings after farrowing on mean percent of the litter that was lying in the piglet creep area during the 6h on days 2 and 3(day 2:C0) (no=14),337.8;C2(no.=8),44.1 9.5,F,=0.7,P>0.05;day3:C0(no.=11),54.3 7.7;C4(no.=7),51.4 10.4,F,=0.1,P>0.05).

The percent of piglets lying in the creep area increased significantly the first 3 days after farrowing (F40=21.5,P0.05; Figure 1).There was a significant effect on both parameters (lying in creep area :P 0.05).

Sow activity did not change during days 1,2 and 3 after farrowing (day1,11.0 1.8; day 2,10.5 1.6; day3, 8.52.3; F,=0.4,P>0.05)

DISCUSSION In a production system with individually loose-housed sows, the only option to let the sow eat without being disrupted by her piglets is to close them inside the creep area during feeding time.

This is also a common routine for many farmers with individually loosed-housed sows to protect the piglets from being crushed when the sows are lying down after feeding.Most studies reveal that death caused by crushing occur when lying down from a standing position or when rolling over during lying(Wechsler and haggin,1997).The present experiment showed that there were no significant effects of closing the piglets inside the creep area during the first two or four feedings after farrowing on piglet mortality and use of the creep area.

DISCUSSION CONTDIn the present experiment, piglet closed inside the creep area for longer time may disturb colostrum intake by the new born piglets.The creep area in this study was rather lager, had a solid roof and a floor heating with a layer of litter covering the concrete floor.The piglets increased time spent lying in the creep area from day 1 to day 3 after farrowing, whereas the time spent lying close in proximity with the sow declined in the same time period.How much the piglets used the creep area differed strongly between sows, which are quite surprising.The result may indicate that consistency in activity pattern of the sow and her ability to communicate with the piglets may have strong effects on piglet area use.

CONCLUSION

We did not find any effects of closing the piglets inside the creep area on piglet mortality or piglet use of the creep area in the present study. However to make this conclusion reliable, this should be tested for a larger number of litters and preferably in several herds with different types of creep area. The piglets increased the lying time in the creep area from day 1 to day 3 and decreased the lying time in close proximity of the mother.

RECOMMENDATIONFuture studies should thus focus on the consistency of the sow activity-nursing, and resting pattern in relation to sow-piglet communication and piglet mortality.

There should also be a further investigation for lager number of litters and preferably in several commercial herds with different creep areas.

THANK YOU.