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    November 26, 2009BY: SAEBANI HARDJONO

    Class : Islamic Banking Networking & Micro EnterpriseProf. Nurul Alam, Ph.D

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    Islamic Bank An Islamic bank may be defined as a financialintermediary whose objectives and operations as

    well asprinciples and practices must conformto the principles of Islamic Law (Shariah); and,consequently, is conditioned to operate all itsactivitieswithout interest.

    Islamic bank is not only a financier but alsoa partner in business. The system essentially

    involves sharing of risk between the ownerof capital and the entrepreneurs, as well assharing the result of the collective efforts.

    In other way we can callIslamic

    bankingas participatory banking.

    An interest-based system in which

    the risk is mainly borneby the entrepreneur

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    Islamic Banks Around the-WorldThe Islamic Society of North AmericaCanada (ISN A, 2000), has initiated Islamicbanking activities in recent years and startedlending interest-free funds.

    Western banks such as, the KleinworteBenson, Citibank and ANZ Grindlays alsostarted to adopt the pattern of Islamicbanking in cost-plus financing.

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    Modes of Investment of Islamic BankThe modes or techniques of accepting deposits and lending funds to

    customers differ from conventional banks.

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    Microfinance...(continue)Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) are now innovating to help meet these needs,

    empowering the world's poor to improve their own lives.

    The global repayment rate for microcredit loans is higher than 95 percent,which allows MFIs to re-lend these funds to even more clients.

    By giving the world's poor a hand up, a not a hand out,

    microfinance can help break the cycle of poverty

    in as little as a single generation.

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    Microfinance...(continue)

    The World Bank, among others, indicates that gender inequalities inhibitoverall economic growth and development. A recent World Bank report confirms

    that Societies that discriminate on the basis of gender pay the cost of greaterpoverty, slower economic growth, weaker governance, and a lower living standard

    for all people.

    Women have a higher unemployment rate than men in virtually every countryand make up the majority of the informal sector of most economies. They constitute

    the bulk of those who need microfinance services.

    Women have become the

    primary target of

    microfinance services.

    At a macro level,

    it is because 70 percent of

    the world's poor arewomen.

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    IslamicMicrofinanceIsla ic icr fi a ce as ar ly ee e ti e i t is c text, i.e., t e c llectif s all savi gs a t e r visi f s all l a s ase S aria .

    In Iran Islamic finance is mandatory

    Islamic microfinance: some have been mandated by the state, but lackpopular demand; others have emerged in response to popular demand, butlack regulatory support by the state. Paradox

    Indonesia is probably the country with the greatest diversity of both

    conventional and Islamic microfinance.

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    IslamicM

    icrofinance (...continue)Islamic microfinance represents the confluence of two rapidly growing industries:microfinance and Islamic finance.

    Today, the total assets of Islamic financialproducts is estimated at US$500.5 billion(The Banker 2007) and the Islamic financeindustrys 100 largest banks have postedan annual asset growth rate of 26.7percent, outpacing the 19.3 percentgrowth rate of their conventionalcounterparts (Kapur 2008).

    IMF has the potential to not only respond to unmet

    demand but also to combine the Islamic social

    principle of caring for the less fortunate with

    microfinances power to provide financial access

    to the poor.

    Unlocking this potential could be the key to

    providing financial access to millions ofMuslim poor

    who currently reject microfinance products that

    do not comply with Islamic law. IMF is still in its

    infancy, and business models are just emerging.

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    Isla ic Micr fi a ce (...c ti e)

    The supply of Islamic microfinance is veryconcentrated in a few countries, with the top threecountries (Indonesia, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan)accounting for 80 percent of global outreach.Nevertheless, demand for Islamic microfinanceproducts is strong. Surveys in Jordan, Algeria, andSyria, for example, revealed that 2040 percent ofrespondents cite religious reasons for not accessingconventional micro loans.

    Islamic microfinance has the potential to expand access to finance tounprecedented levels throughout the Muslim world.

    An estimated 72 percent of people living in Muslim-majority countries do not use formal financial services

    (Honohon 2007).

    In recent years, some microfinance institutions (MFIs) have stepped in to service low-income Muslim clients who demand products consistent with Islamic financialprinciples leading to the emergenceof Islamic microfinanceas a new market niche.

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    IslamicMicrofinance (...continue)The most widely available types of Islamic microfinance contracts :

    Murabaha Sale (cost plus markup sale contract). The most widely offered Sharia-compliant

    contract is murabaha, an asset-based sale transaction used to finance goods needed

    as working capital. Typically, the client requests a specific commodityfor purchase, which

    the financier procures directly from the market and subsequently resells to the client, after

    adding a fixed mark-up for the service provided.

    Ijarah (leasing contract). Ijarah is a leasing contract typically used for financing equipment,

    such as small machinery. Duration of the lease and related payments must be determined

    in advance to avoid any speculation. For the transaction to be considered Islamic (and not

    a sale with camouflaged interest), the ijarah contract must specify that the ownership of

    the asset, and responsibility for its maintenance, remains with the financier.

    Musharaka and Mudaraba (profit and loss sharing). The profit and loss sharing (PLS) schemes

    are the Islamic financial contracts most encouraged by Sharia scholars. Musharaka is equity

    participation in a business venture, in which the parties share the profits or losses according to

    a predetermined ratio. Mudaraba denotes trustee financing, in which one party acts

    as financier by providing the funds, while the other party provides the managerial expertise

    in executing the project.

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    IslamicMicrofinance (...continue)

    In Indonesia, the government has actively promotedIslamic microfinance. In 2002, Bank Indonesia prepared

    A Blueprint of Islamic Banking Developmentin Indonesia in which it developed a nine-year planfor development of the Islamic finance sector, includingsupport for the 105 Sharia rural banks. Indonesia nowprovides a supportive regulatory framework and haslicensed 35 new Islamic rural banks in the past five

    years. Bank Indonesia also is spearheading effortsin capacity building by establishing a center in Medanto offer training and certification on Islamic financialoperations to Sharia rural bank staff, managers, anddirectors.

    Indonesia

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    EconomicActors

    IFS

    CFS

    TMLS

    MBFSMarket BasedFinancing Systems

    Islamic Financing Systems

    Traditional Money Lending System

    Cooperative

    Financing Systems

    M

    ajorF

    inancial Institutions

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    EconomicActors

    (FOs & SCIs)

    PoliticalSystems

    LegalSystems

    Govern-ment

    FamilyClan

    Religion

    CountryCulture

    How each of those factors influence the lending & borrowing systemSociety

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    Creates The UniverseConnection

    Buyer & Seller

    Network of humanbeing in the world

    Network man to the God

    Position of human

    NETWORK

    How s all we are

    What is Network

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    IndustrialNetwork

    ctors

    ctivity

    Resources

    PersonalNetwork

    NETWORK

    1 Instrumental Network

    2 Personal or (affective) network

    3 Symbolic or (moral) network

    Instrumental network: e.g. in supply and sales contacts, PR relationsPersonal (affective) network : rooted in sympathy or mutual support.Symbolic (moral) network : a rooted in common attitude/goal (political,ethnic, religious, moral)

    Different Types of Networks

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