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Transcript of Islamic Banking
PROJECT AND GROUP PROFILESUBMITTED TO: SIR JAVED KAREEM
GROUP MEMBERS: TNOUREEN MUSHTAQ TSADIA AHMED THAFSA TARIQ TSALIHA ANUM
The importance of banks cannot be denied in the development of the economy of any country.. The involvement of Interest in the current conventional system of banking has closed several doors of opportunities for not only Muslims, but also for the world development of economic sustainability . In such times, the need of an Islamic Ideal Body is obvious. Let us try to know the reasons and basics upon which islamic banking is considered as Halal and different from Interest/conventional banking.
Islamic BankingA S EP FORWARD, OWARDS ISLAMIC ECONOMIC SYS EM
IntroductionIslamic banking has the same purpose as conventional banking except that it operates in accordance with the rules of Shariah, known as:
Fiqh al-Muamalat al(Islamic rules on transactions).
Basics of Islamic BankingThe basic principle of Islamic banking is:
The sharing of Profit and Loss The prohibition of
DefinitionIslamic banking has been defined as banking in consonance with the ethos and value system of Islam and governed, in addition to the conventional good governance and risk management rules, by the principles laid down by Islamic Shariah
What are We Focusing Upon?
We will be focusing on the Concept of Islamic Banking and upon which bases, it has been considered as
Halal and Permissible on the basis of Shariah
History Interest-free banking seems to be of very recent origin. The earliest references to the reorganization of banking on the basis of Anwar Qureshi (1946), Naiem Siddiqi (1948) Mahmud Ahmad (1952) Mawdudi (1950) Muhammad Hamidullah (1962) They have all recognized the need for commercial banks and their perceived "necessary evil" have proposed a banking system based on the concept of Mudarabha - profit and loss sharing
Philosophy of Islamic Banking & Financerisk-sharing owning handling of physical goods involvement in the process of trading leasing and construction contracts using various Islamic modes of finance
Need of a New SystemWhy Islamic Banking needed? Before explaining the concept
what is Islamic Bankingthe elaboration of concept
why Islamic Bankingis very important.
Aqidah (Faith and Belief)
Shariah (Practices and Activities)
Akhlaq (Moralities and Ethics)
Objectives of Islamic Banking Main Objectives of Islamic Banking:
(Banking Without Riba)The main objective of an Islamic Bank is to Prohibit Muslims from dealing with interest or usury (Riba) which has been strictly prohibited by Allah and to protect them from one of the biggest sins.
RibaWhat is Riba or interest? Before moving to an easier definition of riba, for a definition of interest we can refer to the work of J M Keynes:
Interest in economics denotes the price paid on money in exchange for the use of a sum of money, the premium, obtained on current cash over deferred cash(Keynes, 1937)
No Interest than???What to do then? There is nothing wrong in the business of banking. A modern society can not do without it. All we have to do is to change the business as to make it acceptable in Islamic framework. Islam not only stresses on acceptability of what we do how we do (
(The Ends),it also emphasizes on
The Means)certain things.
From Haram to HalalHow to change it? 1st we simply remove those aspects of banking that contradict Islamic standards. 2nd we can keep those elements of banking that don't violate Islamic norms. 3rd while making these changes, we refer to a set of Islamic norms, collectively known as Shariah, which is based on the: Quran and The Sunnah (the Prophets tradition.
Importance of Trade in IslamIslam has given an immense importance to trade. The nobility of this profession is obvious from the fact that it was the chosen profession of prophet Muhammad (S)
Most important Islamic Teachings Related to Business The Prophet (PBUH) said: The
truthful honest merchant is with the Prophets, the truthful and martyrs (in the day of judgment)Narrated by Al-Tirmidhi)
Forms of Businesses Allowed by Islam1. 2. 3. Joint ventures based on sharing of risks & profits Provision of services through trading, both cash and credit, Leasing activities.
Uniqueness of Islamic BankingCommingling between Finance and Religion and ethics
Sharia Supervisory Boards (SSB) Studies Articles of associations and by laws Approval of all contracts Audit the actual implementations Issuance of Fatwas (Responses) Conferences Research - TrainingIslamic Banking
Structure of HierarchyShariah Supervisory Board
Shariah Advisory Council/Consultant
Basis of Shariah Approval
Terminologies Bai' al 'inah Bai' bithaman ajil Bai' muajjal Musharakah Mudarabah Murabahah Musawamah Bai salam Hibah Ijarah Musharakah Qard hassan/ Qardul hassan Sukuk Takaful Wadiah Wakalah
Major Contracts Used in Islamic Banking Mudaraba: Investment management Musharaka: Partnership Ijarah: Leasing Ijarah: Wakalah: Wakalah: Agency Istisna: Contract of works Wadiah : safekeeping
Basic Difference between Islamic and Conventional Modes of Finance
Conventional BankMoney Bank Client
Money + Money (interest)
Islamic BankIslamic Bank Goods And Services Client
Islamic Banking1) Functions and operations are based on Shariah principles 2) Promote risk-sharing between provider of capital (investor) and user of funds (entrepreneurs) 3) Aim at maximizing profit but subject to Sharia'h restrictions 4) Partners, investor and traders, buyer or seller relationship 5) Encourage asset-based financing and based on commodity trading 6) No right of profit if there is no risk involved. The profit and loss sharing depositor may lose money in case of loss.
Conventional Banking1) Functions and operations are based on fully man made principles 2) Investor is assured of pre-determined rate of interest 3) Aim at maximizing profit without any restrictions 4) Creditor-Debtor relationship 5) Based on money trading. Money is a medium of exchange and not a commodity, its sale and purchase is prohibited in Islam. 6) It is almost risk free banking and depositor has no risk of losing its money because interest is guaranteed.
Current Account It is organized as wadiah or safe-keeping. The deposits are held in trust and utilized by the bank at its own risk. There is no big difference here between conventional and Islamic banks, as normally no interest is paid on such account.
Savings Account This account is based on Mudharaba principle. Depositors are owners of funds and the bank is owner of labor. Profits are shared by both parties as per pre-agreed ratio fixed through negotiation. If loss occurs, it is borne by depositor only as owners of fund. The bank loses its effort.
Investment AccountCore deposits of an Islamic bank. Based on the concept of Mudharaba Islamic counterpart of the Islamic counterpart of the conventional fixed deposit products. 1. General Investment Deposits: Open to any project as selected by the bank. 2. Special Investment Deposit: Tied to any specific project agreed upon by both parties.
Islamic Banking Global Scenario
Interest Vs. RentProfit and Fees Not every known income is interest. Rent is a known payment to use a leased item. Fees are a known payment to buy services. Interest is a known payment to use money. Profit is the difference between revenue and costs. It is, however, not known in advance. It is therefore not fixed, but variable. Interest forms part of production costs. Profits are the difference between revenues and costs.
So Loan cant be a business tool! Islam does not allow anyone to give and take anything extra on a loan. But, today banks make money from the loan business. Depositors receive interest on their loan to banks. Banks receive interest on their loans to Entrepreneurs (Financeseekers). Islamic banks cant make use of such loans.
FatwaatJamia Darul 'Ulum Karachi remains firm upon its previous fatwa. It is permissible to perform financial transactions with banks which are not based on interest that are working under the supervision of authentic scholars while keeping with the principles of the Shari'a. The profit earned from such transactions is halal (lawful) and it is not interest or haram (unlawful). Mufti Taqi Usmani Mufti Afzal Ali Rabbani Mufti Abdurrauf Sakkharwi Mufti Mahmud Ashraf Usmani Mufti Muhammad Abdul Mannan
Dr. Zakir Naik In Islam there is no different entity such as capital and organization, on land you pay rent, to labour, you pay wage, capital has profit and loss sharing and same is for organization while modern banking defines interest for capital. This is the basic difference of modern banking and Islamic banking
Guidance from Rules of Islamic Jurisprudence- Rule of Positive Approach:
Everything in this world is Halal except that which is declared as Haram
And then we looked at the Pakistani scenario now.
The Islamic Banking CustomerDefinition: People who dont want to compromise on their principles, But they want Top Quality, High Standard Shariah Compliant Products/Services from Institutions that care for the community as a whole
Professor Saleem says"There is a good future for Islamic banks, provided they improve services and focus on real economy, infrastructures and do not invest in credit cards and derivatives," "Conventional banks encourage people to sp