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    ISlAM AND SECULARISMby

    Syed Muhammad Naquib \1AttasMA. M c Gill), PhD. London)

    Founder-DirectorInternational Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization

    andUniversity Professor of Islamic Thought and Civilization

    International Islamic University Malaysia

    Ji

    IN{ F N lioN vi. INSI1 I iTt OF ISL MI iHOt ,i ii NI> 1\ tilL IONIS AKUAIA LLTMIi R

    993

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    n liiip ress io ii 197Seuitid Impression 1993

    s\L I M \IMU QIB \i A rI .S ToA nghti rtsennl.Xo part of this book ma be ripiothiied or THE LSLI FJ TJItransmitted in any form or b any means electronic omeihanu l eta lading photoe oi tecording or inJorina

    luinitw age ar retrieval system without permission in writing from

    lie opy right owner

    ip ustakaa a i\ egara Malay na Catalogut ag-inPu bluation Data

    AlAttas Svcd Muhanimad Naquib. 1931Islaris and secularism by Syed uliamitudaquib AlAttas.includes bibliographical references

    iSBN 9839962S68 Islam20ih. century. 2 Seculaiiation3 Christianity. 4 Philosophy Tide.297

    t mwd Art t till in g Works Sdit IIid

    kuaki Luinpm MaLtsia

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    ONTNTSAuthors Note to the First Edition ixPreface to the Second Printing xiThe Contemporary WesternChristian Background

    II Secular Secularization Secularism 5Ill Islam: The Concept of Religion and theFoundation of Ethics and Morality 5V The Muslim Dilemma V The Dewesternization of Knowledge

    Introduction The Nature of Man 9The Nature of Knowledge 43Definition and Aims of Education 49Islamic Sys tem of Order and Discipline 52Concluding Remarks and Suggestions 60

    Appendix: On Islamization: The Case of theMalayIndonesian Archipelago 69Indexes

    General Index 186Index of Proper Names 196

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    AUTHORS NOTEList of Figures TO THE FIRST EDITIONFigure 156 The present book is a development of ideas contained in

    Figure II 157 the many paragraphs of another book in Malay entitled:Risalah Untuk Kaum Muslimin, which wrote and completedFirure o during the first few months of 1974. Due to iiiany

    Figure IV 159 circumstances which demanded my ttention at home andabroad, however, the Risalnh has not yet been seiit to thepress.

    In this book, what is contained in Chapter wascomposed and completed during the niontli of Raiiiaaiiof 1395 1975 , and delivered as a Lecture under the sametitle to the International Islamic Conference held in April1976 at the Royal Commonwealth Society, ondon inconjunction with the World of Islam Festival celebratedthere that year. It was published as a monograph in thesame year by the Muslim buth Movement of MalaysiaABIM , Kuala Lumpur, and in 1978 it appeared, togetherwith other Lectures delivered on the same occasion bvarious Muslim scholars, in a book of one volume entitled:The Challenge of Islam edited by Altaf Gauhar and publishedby the Islamic Council of Europe, London.All the other Chapters of the book were begun in March

    1977 and completed in April of the same rear, during myappointment as Visiting Scholar and Professor of Islamicsat the Department of Religion, Temple University,Philadelphia, U.S.A., in the Winter and Spring of 19761977. What is contained in Chapter V was presented as aPaper entitled: Preliminary Thoughts on the Nature ofKnowledge and the Definition and Aims of Education,addressed to the First World Conference on MuslimEducation held at Mecca in April 1977. It will appeal;together with other selected Papers of the Conference, in abook entitled: Aims and Objectives ofIslamic Education, editedwith an introduction by myself and published by KingAbdulaziz University and Hodder Stoughton, London,1979, as one of a series of seven books.Syed Muhammad Naquib al-AttasKuala Lumpur, Mubarram 1399/December 1978

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    PREFACE TO THE SECONDPRINTING

    Almost twenty years have elapsed since the first printingof this book, but the seminal ideas pertaining to theproblem of Muslim education and allied topics of anintellectual and revolutionary nature, such as the idea ofislamization of contemporary knowledge and a generaldefinition of its nature and method, and the idea of theIslamic University, the conceptualization of its nature andfinal establishment, were formulated much earlier in themid-nineteen-sixties. They were formulated, elaborated,and disseminated here in Malaysia and abroad in academiclectures and various conferences and more than 400 publiclectures, and were born out of the need for creativethinking and clarification of the basic concepts based uponthe religious and intellectual tradition of Islam, and uponpersonal observation and reflection and conceptualanalysis throughout my teaching experience in Malaysianuniversities since 1964 These ideas have also beencommunicated to the Islamic Secretariat in Jeddah in rly1973, at the same time urging the relevant authorities toconvene a gathering of reputable scholars of Islam todiscuss and deliberate upon them. There is no doubt thatthese ideas have been instrumental in the convening of theFirst World Conference on Muslim Education held atMekkah in early 1977, where the substance of Chapter V ofthis book was published in English and Arabic and read asa keynote address at the Plenary Session. In 1980 acommentary of a few paragraphs of that Chapterpertaining to the concept of education in Islam waspresented and read as a keynote address at [he PlenarSession of the Second World Conference on Muslim

    Document sent to the Secretariat dated 15 May 19732 On April 3 1977 see the Conference Book King Abdul Aziz University,

    Jeddah and Mecca al-Mukarramah, 1397/ 1977, pp. 35 and 37 .

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    state calling itself secular does not necessarily have tooppose religious truth and religious education; does notnecessarily have to divest nature of spiritual meaning; doesnot necessarily have to deli religious lues and virtues inpolitics and human aiT hirs But the philosophical andscientific process which call secularization necessarilyinvolves the divesting of spiritual meaning from the worldof nature; the desacralization of politics from humanaffairs; and the deconsecration of values from the humanmind and conduct. Remember that we al c peopleneither accustomed nor pernitted to lose hope andconfidence so that it is not possible for us simply to donothing but wrangle among ourselves and rave aboutempty slogans and negative activism while letting the realchallenge of the age engulf us without positive resistance.The real challenge is intellectual in nature and thepositive resistaaice must be mounted from the fortificationnot merely of political power but of power that is fotindedupon right knowledge.

    e are now again at the crossroads of history andauareiiess of Islamic identity is beginning to dawn in theconsciousness of emergent Muslims. Only when thisawareness comes to full awakening with the sun ofknowledge will there emerge from among us men andwomen of spiritual and intellectual maturity and integritywho will be able to play their role with wisdom and justicein upholding the truth. Such men and women will knowthat they must return to the early masters of the religiousand intellectual tradition of Islam which was establishedupon the sacred foundation of the Holy Quran and theTradition of the Holy Prophet in order to learn from thepast and be able to acquip spiritually and intellectually forthe future; they will realize that they must not simplydplFopriate and imitate what modern secular Westerncivilization has created but must regain by exerting theirown ret ie knowledge will and imagination what is lostof the Muslims purpose in life their history their valuesand virtues embodied in their sciences for what is lost can

    neer be regained by blind imit tion and ie dig ofslogans which deafen with the din of deveiopmnent; thewill discern that development must not invol c acorrespondence of Islam with [he facts of con tcmpol iievents that have strayed far from the path of truth; andthey will conceive and formulate their own defiuiitions andconceptions of go ernment and of the tiattire oidevelopment that will correspond with the hitirliose Islam. Their emergence is conditional not ineiely tll unphysical struggle but more upon the acim ievememit of trueknowledge confidence and boldness of vision that is ableto create great changes in history.

    Sved Muhain mtd Naq nib -\i-A[tasKuala Lumpur

    Muharraml7jul 19931 See my am and the Philosophy oJScience o ii. 2325

    xvi xvii

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    zJiJJ l

    i sLJi

    THE CONTEMPORRYWESTERN CHRISTIN

    CKGROUND

    About ten years ago the influential Christian lihilosopher and one regarded y Christians as among the formost of this century, Jacques Maritain, described howChristianity and the Western world were going through grave crisis brought about y contemporary events arisingout of the experience and understanding and interpreta[ion of life in the urban civilization as manifested in thetrend of neo-modernist thought which emerged fromamong the Christians themselves and the intellectuals philosophers, theologians, poets, novelists, writers, artists who represent Western culture and civilization. Sincethe European Enlightenment, stretching from the 17th tothe 19th centuries, and with the concomitant rise of reasonand empiricism and scientific and technological advancesin the West, English, Dutch, French and German philosophers have indeed foreshadowed in their writings thecrisis that Maritain described, though not quite in the samemanner and dimension, for the latter was describing inconscious and penetrating perception the events of ontemporary experience only known as an adumbrated prdiction in the past. Some Christian theologians in the This w written in 1976See his Le ys n de Ia Garonne Paris 1966

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    traditions. What is now happening is that these separate God itself is now becoming problematic for them, to suchand indeed mutualh conflicting concepts, artificially fused an extant that they even contemplate discarding ittogether nto n ambiguous whole, are each coming apart, altogether and leaving it to history to coin new name forthus creating the heightening crisis in their belief in a God connoting more relevant and adequate concept to referwhich has already been confused from the very beginning, to the ultimate presence and reality in which they believe.Furthermore they understand Christianity as historical,aiid since the doctrine of the Trinity is an integral part ofit, their difficulty is further augmented by the necessity thatwhatever be the formulation of any new Christian theismthat might possibly emerge, it must be cast in the Trinitarian crucible. The notion of person in the Augustinianconcept of the Trinity is left vague, and although Boethiusand Aquinas and others through the centuries till thepresent time have attempted to define it the problem, likethe Gordian Knot, has naturally become more complicatedand elusive. In spite of their concession that very reallimitations inhere in Hellenism and that modern Westernculture has transcended Scholasticism, they argue that,rather than succumb to the philosophical reduction ofGod to mere concept, or to vague and nebulous rsence, the vagueness of their early predecessors must beinterpreted as indicating the direction in which development is to be pursued. In this way the Hellenic thoughtstructure is conveniently made to appear as open endedand not closed or impeding development, so that itmight readily be adapted to the equally open endedChristian theism that may be envisaged from time to timeas human evolution in line with historical developmentdemands. Thus as long as God is conceived of as Three ofSomething it would w ys allow for future change with thechanging world in relativistic fashion; and this relativismallows t m believer to be free to conceive whatever notionof God fancies him most, that is the scriptural, or thepatristic hellenic , or the mediaeval scholastic , or themodern existential? in such wise that it also allows him orher to align with contemporary experience, which ishistorically minded. Aside from this and because of theproblematic nature of their concept of God, the very name

    2 3

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    II

    SECULRSECULRIZTIONSECUL RISM

    In the preceding pages have tried to convey in briefoutline and cursory sketch the real contemporary situationin the Western Christian world Although the sketch is verybrief I believe that it has at least captured in summary andtrue perspective the essential components comprising thefundamental problems that beset Western Christiansociety We must see in view of the fact that secularizationis not merely confined to the Western world that theitexperience of it arid their attitude towards it is mostinstructive lbr Muslims Islam is not similar to Christianityin this respect that secularization in the way in which it isalso h pp ning in th e Muslim world has not and will notnecessarily affect our beliefs in the same way it does thebeliefs of Western man For that matter Islim is not thesame as Christianity; whether as a religion or as a civilization But problems arising out of secularization thoughnot the same as those confronting the esthae certainlycaused much confusion in our midst It is most significantto us that these problems are caused due to the introduction of Western ways of thinking and judging and believingemulated by some Muslim scholars and intellectuals whohave been unduly influenced by the West and overaeits scientific and technological achievements who by virtueof the fact that they can be thus influenced betray theirlack of true understanding and full grasp of both theislamic as well as the Western world views and essential

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    III

    ISL M THE CONCEPT OFRELIGION ND THE

    FOUNDTION OF ETHICSND MORLITY

    The concept couched in the term din which is generail>understood to mean religion is not the same as the conceptreligion as interpreted and understood throughout Westernreligious history. When we speak of Islam and refrr to it inEnglish as a religion we mean and understand by it thedin n which all the basic onnot tions inherent n theterm din are conceived as gathered into a single unity ofcoherent me ning as reflected in the Holy Quran and nthe Arabic language to which it belongs.

    The word din derived from the Arabic root YN hamany primary siguifications which although secinilig lycontrary to one another are yet ll conceptually in terconnected so that the ultimate meaning derived 1mm them allpresents itself as a clarified unity ol the s hole. B theho1e mean that which is 1escrihe as the Religion uiIslam i ontins within itself all the rele ant40 In this chapter my interprettion of the basic O lflOLttiOilS

    inhei ent in the tr m din is based on Ibn Manzurs standardclassic the Lian al rnb Beyt outhi 68 l5 . hereafiercited as A. orwhat is stated in this pge n the next eevol. 13: lm6 col 2-171 col 2.

    51

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    By the heaven that Itath raii1.lsthe word interpreted as rain is raj, which means literallyreturn. It is interpreted as rain because God returns ittime and again anti it refers to good return in the sense obenefit, /irofit, and gain. Raf is therefore used synonymouslyin this sense with rabah, meaning gain, which is theopposite or contrary of khu .si; loss, to which reference hasalready been made above. Nos it is appropriate to mentionhere that one of the basic meanings of din which has notbeen explained above is recurrent rain, rain that returnsagain and again; and hence we perceive that din here, likesuch a raimi, alludes to benefit and gain rabat . When we s ythat in order to repay his debt man must return himselfto God, his Owner, his returning himself is,like thereturning raiii a gain unto him. And this is the meaningof the saying:

    lie who ensles himself gaimis rubiia whose infinitive mun is inba lt)

    11w expression risslaves himself dana na/.sahu) meansgi es himself up in service), and hence also returnshimself to his Owner) as explained. The same meaningIS fI-iauzqhG:ll; LA ol 8:120, col.2.49 Theme is a close conneciion between the concept here de scubed am id time application of tilt verb laja in its v rious forms

    iii the k Quran with relereilce to mans re t urn to God.50 IA vol 2:442, col. 2445, col. 151 Ti ue dii miims lift to a body otherw ise dead just as the mainv loch sod sends down from time skies, and time life s hich hees thmeres s ith to an earth that is l ead. Sec LIBaqa;ah2) :164.52 LA sot 13:1667 , O l. 153 Ii clearl reters to the man who, has ing consciously realitedthat lie is lumseif time subject of his own debt to I us Creatorand Sustainer and Cherisher, enslaves himself to his self andhemire returns hnmasell to his true Lord.

    is expressed in the words of t m Holy Piophiet. may Godbless and give him Peace :

    The intelligent one is he who enslaves himself aunarmaJsahu) and works for that which shall be afterdeath.

    That siiicli shall be alter death is that ssh ichi hahl bereckoned good, the requital, the good return. his goodreturn is like the returning rain which brings benefit to theearth by bringing life to it and by causing goo l growthbeneficial to life to grow from it. In like manner that raingives life to the earth which would otherwise be dead, sodoes din give life to man, without which man would be asone who is, as it were, also dead. This is aptly sysmiboliielby Gods Wt)rds the Ho ly Quran, where He says:

    .In the rain which God sends dow I romil the skius. iidthe life which He gives therewith to an earth that isdead

    By returning himself to his Lurch and Master, b lox aikand truly Ibllowing and obeying Gods Commands andProhibitions and Ordinances and Law, the man thus t tingwill be requited and will receive his good i titril multipliedmany dines over, as God says in the Holy Quran:

    L_ JJI

    54 LA vol. 13:169, cot. 2.55 .41- iqaruh 2 1:16 459

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    slate. When in old age all tills is gUile, so likewise hisidentity which is in fact nioulded by the secular role he

    lie pa tterned the next iii su ise tha[ I gp 1k crises of identity occur etween them , but that ach

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    plays is lost. The three generations that in such wisecomprise Western society are forever engaged in the searchfor identity and meaning of life are forever moving in thevicious circle of unattainment; each generation dissatisfiedwith its own self-evolved values of life each generationfind ing itself a misfit. And this condition , we maintain, iswhat we meaii by injustice ;ulrn). This condition is furtheraggravated by the fact that in Western society there existsalso a crisis of identity between the sexes, in that women areengaged, as women, in the search for their own, separateidentit) Islamic society is not beset by such condition. Theindividuals within the generations that comprise it whethermale or female, hake already established their identity andrecognized their ultimate destiny; the former throughrecognition and confirmation of die Covenant, and thelatter through affirmation and realization of that Covenantby means of sincere submission to Cods Will andobedience to His Law such as enacted as Islam. Tile maimwho brought to us the Holy Quran as it was revealed tohim by Cod, who thus brought to us the Knowledge of ouridentity and destinwhose o life is the most excellentand perfect interpretation of the Holy uran so that hislife becomes for us the focus of emulation and trite guidingspirit, is the Holy Prophet, may God bless and give himPeace y his tcaching and example he has shown us theright and true practice of Islam and of Islamic virtues; he isthe perfect model not merely for one generation, but forall generations; not merely for a time, but for all time.indeed, we sy that tile on pt p rf t model n fulfi llits true meaning only if lie who is thus described, such asMuhammad alone is embodies within his self all theperm anent hunian and spiritual v lues neess ry fo r mansguidance in life whose validity is such that they serve mannot only for the span of his individual lifetime, but for aslong as man lives in this world. So every generation ofMuslims, emulating his example, passes on the way of life

    94

    preceding generation gu ides the next onin midug ainhff irm ing his example in their Iies.

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    THE MUSLIM DILEMMThe major problems that beset Muslim society todaymust be understood against the background of historicalconfrontation which Western culture and civilization hadperpetuated against Islam and whose causes are to betraced from the earliest periods in the formation of ristianity before the advent of Islam One of the delimtions ofknowledge is to know the cause of the existence of a thingfor knowledge of the cause leads to knowledge of thenature of the thing caused Thus knowledge of the causeor causes of the dilemma in which w find ourselves today

    is itself a partial solution to the problem For this reason it import nt o r u to discern the underlying causes thatpose critical problems for us today of which some havetheir origins within our own world and our own intellectualhistory and some originated from without s effects of theconfrontation alluded to above From the point of vi w oftheir critical impact upon our lives it matters little whetherthese problems originated from within or without s thall create equally destructive consequences for our societyand Community It is important to know whether there issuch confrontation and if so to know why and how ithappened and what its nature is that it should persist iiihistory and in the present and futureThat Western culture and civilization inluesChristianity s an integral part of it has been assuming theposture of confrontation against Islam there can he nodoubt The root cause of the confrontation is to be iscerned in the origins of Christianity and the rise of Islam

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    i espeti to niari as an indiidual to the inipro\elnent aiididentification and elevation of his personality and thedesire to learn about the Divine order of the world andsalvation to tills most important purpose and hence truenature of knowledge the West no longer attaches aaisignificance anti reality. [his has been so by virtue of Knosd ol SClCli s

    Fig. II. ktoivledg sl an

    l5,iB,I tt .ll C ,

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    the fact that the West acknowledges no single Reality to lixits vision on no single valid Scripture to confirm andaffirm in life; no single human Guide whose words anddeeds and actions and entire mode of life can serve asmodel to emulate in life as the Vniersal Man. We cannotas Muslims alThrd to overlook this important fact; t Islamembodies within iu lf all the three fundamentals ofkiiodedge and action mnetitiotied above and for thatreason alone classifies kno1edge into two kinds aridclarifies the concept of the knowledge of prerequisitesjaniavn that must form the basic core of all educationThe following simple diagrams sill help summarize in barefIgurative franwwoi k the main subject of this chapter:

    edgerepresents tlt 1111 1 flitah knusledgehuse parts have beendeployed a onlitig topror t s ot s fl 0sell, stl and so leO Inthe Muslini otninunit

    ris iaktl ti i io lgt it epleseill the not ukiaolcdgs ioi pLl Ishas e been lot egi std tolo in tli o kin slril Onindisiiluais in lsl n iieducaUon.

    Fig. 1:Mnn

    His at ions ld uloes andsenses , built ual andphsskal

    Os soul atiul ln n ti being

    6 7

    Fig ill: I he lsliniic f ni ser sity as mic ro c osiniCepiesentaiion of the Universal Man in te rm s of knosdedge

    Fig. l\ iiiim,il m ii ii iic il K ii0itilC tU it is isi tit iilof icier and dft iphrit

    .U iK lion it

    I/ni

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    Knowledge of Prerequisites Ja id Ayn must reflectinner being of manruina/s-qa1baqt and hisspiritual senses in terms offacu lt ie s and dcpai tin clits.Must contain sp eci aiiz aio li.

    Projects Islamic Vision ofRealits and Tauth, andremains ts pc i nm neimibeing of the unit ci Sit

    ,ocls FiiiinIc dgi is not tlw siih t of thi s Pic i Iioi is titittilit itciii is unit toti fn iwledge is io until amid it it iiUi.

    Jh 1/oh i ii til t

    Iii iiltit t

    Jibm Ink ii ,iii1 iisu i mu a it i ,i until iples iii lsi iii

    olun -i moo loon ofttite lt oplict. Su nt inIIinfitn ,i iii i iii, titait itSct tiiais thu iiiil uii is iti li isdl Jamd 5i

    \oim A i di t to tiit ty stttt iii ordci and lisiptii it sj tiit C lit aSc lit ma clesuetids to ti it u n it ers it> nit it It is the h il i t s t ii Ct I tilttdtic mhjoil sss te ni, itaweser, tfit sam e pimttt in is outlined mr the 00 1w si tsipphes io the lunci levels iii grad,ii ot is r uin the lowest In I hit hug liut

    9

    km tin ledge ,f Sci eu t es;its sajious fau lties andd p a r t iii e n t scoitespouctitig to mdli spht Sit iii fmt nines andsenses

    flU Ssistitillt ,tilil spi t tundkuowit tige hikntah i/in l l ,uns,y IIAlt mm

    -- hi I,, St ti ithUS U/i

    iiti ii iitl t nj S It t w liiiit tHat , lhi> si d ppl itd

    Iii unan Si ien Cs, tic ai idAesthetics, Acquisition isohmhigatorv to some JonimmJi smuli

    HIlhc t f lhi iiSi t

    8

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    ppen ix

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    ON ISL MIZ TIONTHE SE OF THE ML\

    INDONESIN RHIPELGO

    About tn y rs ago*, writing on the historical andcultural impact of Islam upon the Malay world whichrevolutionized the Malay vision of reality and existence into distinctly Islamic world view referred to the process thatbrought about this phenomenon as islamization, theintegral components of which form part of the dimensionsof Islam. I wrote then S.M.N. alAttas Preliminary Statementon a eneral Theory of the Islamization of the lalay-IndonesianArchipelago Kuala Luanpur, 1969 , that

    the coming of Islam seen from the perspective olmodern times [that is s n from the p rsp ti of ourpresent time when we can look back into the effects ofhistorical processes which are found to have radicallychanged the lives and worlds of men, and discern theircauses and specific and general infiuencesj, was themost momentous event in the history of the Archipelago.p.2.

    In this connection I also drew attentioll to the...similarities that exist between the doiiiiiiaiii role otIslam in influencing the beginnings of the EuropeanMiddle Ages as Pirenne pointed out [11 Pirenneohammed and Gharl emagttc London, 1958], and thu

    ejn 1967.169

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    IN X S

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    eneral Index and Index ofProper NamesPrepared y

    Mubammad Zainiy UthnianResearch Fellow

    ISTAC

    ,7u. brahaniic tradition 31

    )UWIfl iii himbanianali trUst 66, 140Ante-Nicene Fathers 25Antiquity 33arche33Aristotelian 9

    philosophy 35and Western worldvies 105

    Cape of (,oud Hope 1 4Catolingian lu 102Cartesian revolutionCatholic 3, 6Celtic 134certainty 75, 86, also q n(Thalcedun 29Chinese 99

    eneral n dex

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    bd 61 130afid 61adad atm sta a it ii. 57adl jus ce 75, 76

    implies knowledge 78as core knowledge 163see also justice

    ahd see ovenaiitSla n ku/ar (Macrocosinos) b7, 142U itfl wighzr (iluicrocOsilloS) 67, 142ui,ial (action, ss ork u ith rel

    erence to ibadall) 141u,nal (deed and work) 72fulfilling the Co cHant 111

    see also ibaduhand Islamic sstem of eclucanon 160as core knoss ledge 163

    qlas intellect and reason 34mind 72seat of knossledge 139intelligence 175

    crud (accident) 139uriJ 71 n.76, also murijun

    see also ibudahuwumin (the masses) 129ayah (nurd sentence, sign.

    symbol) 117p1. uyat 154

    uliaqin (certainty by dii ectslsnm) 135 n. 112

    a prwH 10

    aduband education 1-19, 150-152and hieraich 107-108and Islamic ssteni of edu

    cation 160and justice 108, 149and tasuwwuj 123and sisclom 150consists in 115-116loss of udab 105, 123

    and cot ruptinil ofknowledge 1 8

    cause of degenerationand decline 124

    due to ignorani_e ofIslam 126

    implies loss of justice 1 6implies loss of abilin torecognize true leaders 129restriction on know

    ledge 118rapid propagation of 127symptoms of loss 110

    towards God, authority 1 7ui,auruuniento 6Ahi al-K itab People of the

    Book) 21 , 65A/il al- an quiz 123AhI aI-Tasawwuf 112

    see also tasawwujal-akiuruh (the llercalter) 41, 42

    see also vawm ul z and

    arkan principlesal-i man 79al-is/am (essentials of

    Islam) 79and essentials of Islam 146

    asla,na 62 63, 70 ii 74subjugation and submission of the animal soulto the rational soul 141

    al-mind th e names 139Atman 171awliya (Friends of God)

    122, 145baqa (subsistence) 86bayah (buying and selling) 67bayl al-iikmah 153being,

    affirmation of 90Contingent 8, 9in thought 9necessary 9necessity of 8of the world 8, 9of man 9or existence, see zuujudperfection of 9Islamic vision of Reality 86and Covenant 89

    Biahman 171Byzantine 1 2

    Chiistianinyand Western civilization 134dehellenization of 6doctrines of Trinity,

    Incarnation andRedemption 21, 23, 27

    early 22, 27introduction into Europe ?new teligion 28religion of cultui 28secularized 3, 5traditional 2true 20Western 21, 23, 25, mflu

    ences of 29, syot Id view 35westernization of 20, 22

    cagily 10colonization 104coming of age 5Confuciajis 99Constantinople 29, 102Copernican revolution 35Covenant 71 , 73 , 74 , 77 , 85

    mithaq, ahd 139binding and cle ternziniiig

    of man in religion 139and forgetfulness 140maim fulfilling th t Coseziaiit

    with amall4lnot a social contract 142

    is. 118

    186 187

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    Abu iiravrali 165 de Coulanges 99

    Iminaituel Rant 11 37Soren Kierkegaard 5al Kindi 102Arend vai t Leeusen 3JC. van Leur 171Raymond Lull 103Joseph Marechal 7Jacques Maritain 1 4 7

    W. Ramli 40 35Fakhr al-Din al Raz i 114 120John AT. Robinson 4 8o usseu 113Betrand Russell 13Freidrich Schiller 18 n 2 Moritz Schlick 7 n. 13Duos Scorns 102

    ndex oper ames

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    Adam 69 73 129Abmad Muiiamtnad 2 73 89

    91 94 117Aladdin 130Albert the Great 102Alt onso dAibuquerque itMi 111Dante Alighieri 103al-Amidi 144 n.1 19Ihomas Aquinas i2 35 39

    102 103Aristotle 33 39al Ashari 112Ausha 172Augustine 35 39Avicenna9, 102 103Bonaven ture of Bagnoregio 39.40 n. 35 102St. Barnabas 25Karl Barth 3aI Bavdawi 177Boethius 12Deitrieh Bonhoefler 2[H. Bridges 2 n. 2Rudolph Bulunann 3Paul van Bureti 3WE. Carlo 10 ri. 15Pierre Tielhard de Chardiii 2Christopher Columbus 104Auguste Cointe 2 113Numa Denis Fustel

    Haney Cox 3. 17 n. 17 19 25R. Descartes 7 11 22Leshe Dewart 3 7 35 34Dharmakirti 172W. Durant 2 n. 3Meister Eckhart 102Albert Einstein 8 n. 13al-Farabi 102Sigmund Freud 4Vasco da Gama 104al-Ghazali 112 144 n. 120Henri of Ghent 102Etienite Gilson 7Friedrich Gogarten 3Adolf von Harnack 6 7Martin Heidegger 7Edmund Htisserl 7thus 129lbn Abbas 146Ibn Arabi 103lbn Ha zns 144 n. 120Ibn KhaldOn 113lbn ManzOr 51 n 40Ibn Masud 150lbn Rushd 102lbn Sina see AvicenttaProphet Ibrhtm Abraham

    57 n.47,64,65Adud al Din al Iji 144 119T. Izutsu 10 15ProphetJesus 21 27 28 100Pope John XXIII 6

    H. Martineau 2 n. 2EL. Niascall 5H.L. Meitcken 2 n 3Mill 113P.Morewedge 10 n 15SII Nasr 32 n 22Otto Neurath 7 n 13Friedrich Nietzsche 2William of Ockham 10 35Parmenides 8Paul 28Cornelius van Peursen 17 n. 17Henri Pirenise 101 169Gerhard von Rad 3GA. Rauch 28 r. 29

    Sisvphtts 137Nathan SderblomSpencer 113al-Tahanawi 143n. 11Paul Tillich 2J.H. Tufts 11 16ITniar 111Ainerigo Vespucci 104Max Weher W. Windelband hit 16Ludwig Wittgenstein 8 is. 13W.H. Wright li ii 16Zarathustra 2

    2 n.

    9 197