IRW Chapter 8

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Transcript of IRW Chapter 8

In Concert: An Integrated Reading and Writing Approach by Kathleen T. McWhorter

Part Two:Reading, Writing, and Organizing Paragraphs

Chapter 8:Organization: Additional Patterns

PowerPoint by Sarah Gilliam, Instructor of EnglishMountain Empire Community College

Copyright @ 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.In Concert:

An Integrated Reading and Writing Approach

by Kathleen T. McWhorterChapter 8: Organization: Additional PatternsIn this chapter, you will learn how to:Goal 1Goal 2Goal 3Goal 5Goal 4Identify additional patterns of organizationRead and write using definitionRead and write using classificationRead and write using cause and effectRead and write using other patterns of organizationGoal 6Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 7Think critically about patterns of organizationRead and write using comparison and contrast2Important Terms to Remember:

DefinitionClassificationComparison and ContrastCause and EffectCopyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 1: Identify Additional Patterns of OrganizationSee the chart on page 241 for additional examples of these patterns.

Definition: Explains a topic by discussing its characteristicsClassification: Explains a topic by organizing into categories and partsComparison and contrast: Shows how things are similar and/or differentCause and effect: Explains why things happen or what happens as a result of an event or action

Other Patterns (briefly mentioned in Chapter 8):Statement and ClarificationSummaryAdditionSpatial Order3A definition is an explanation of what something is.

The three parts of a definition:The term being definedThe group or category to which the term belongsDistinguishing characteristics

Helpful Tip:Definitions are often combined with examples.

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 2: Read and Write Using DefinitionRefer to pages 242243 for visual and paragraph descriptions of the three parts of a definition.

The term is the word itself.The group is the general category of which something is a part. For example, if you were defining the term Dalmatian, you might categorize it as a dog.Distinguishing characteristics are details that allow you to tell something apart from others in its group or category. If you were to define the distinguishing characteristics of a Dalmatian compared to other dogs, you might note that it has black and white spots and is often used as a mascot for fire departments.

Definitions also have common transitional phrases. See the chart on page 245 for these examples.

Activities:Exercise 8-1 (Classifying Terms) on page 243. Ask students to categorize the terms provided. Then, ask them to list distinguishing characteristics of the terms. This can be done individually or as a quick group activity.

Exercise 8-2 (Understanding the Definition Pattern) on pages 245-247.

4Strategies for Adding Explanatory Details:

Give examplesBreak the term into subcategoriesExplain what the term is notTrace the terms meaning over timeCompare an unfamiliar term to a familiar one

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 2: Read and Write Using DefinitionGive examples: the more descriptive, the better.Break the term into subcategories: this strategy will help organize the definition.Explain what the term is not: provide counter-examples or discuss how the term means something different than one might expect.Trace the terms meaning over time: if the terms meaning has changed or expanded over time, use this to explain the terms current meaning.Compare unfamiliar terms to familiar ones: make clear connections to readers by using a term they can relate to (for example, rugby is a sport somewhat like football).5

Classification explains a subject by identifying and describing its types or categories.

Helpful Tip:When reading a textbook with material that has been classified into categories, be sure to determine how and why it is classified in a particular manner. Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 3: Read and Write Using ClassificationSee pages 249250 for paragraph and visual depictions of classification.

Classification is used in reading and writing to explain a topic by describing its parts. For example, a scientist might classify the different types of plants. Classification is often used to explain difficult or complex topics.

Common classification transitional phrases are listed in a chart on page 251.

Activity:Exercise 8-5 (Analyzing Classification Paragraphs) on pages 251252. Students must identify the topics of passages and the categories/parts in which each is classified. This exercise would be effective as a group or individual activity.

6Writing a Classification ParagraphChoose a general topicBrainstorm ways to break the topic into subgroupsConsider the audienceChoose an uncomplicated basisChoose a familiar basisCopyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 3: Read and Write Using ClassificationChoose a topic that can easily be broken into categories. A narrow topic would be difficult to break down.Think of the different ways to break the subject into categories depending on the focus of your writing.Choose a basis of classification that is interesting to the audience.A basis that is complicated or too long will make your topic difficult to write about.Choose a basis of classification that you are familiar with. An unfamiliar basis may require additional research.7Important Terms to Remember:Comparison focuses on similaritiesContrast focuses on differences

Helpful Tip:When writing a paragraph, it is best to concentrate on either comparison OR contrast.

Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 4: Read and Write Using Comparison and ContrastSee pages 254255 for paragraph and visual depictions of comparison and contrast.

When writing longer works, it is easier focus on similarities and differences; however, in a paragraph it is difficult to accurately cover both.Common transitional phrases/words for comparison and contrast are listed in a chart on page 257.

Activity:Exercise 8-10 (Understanding Comparison and Contrast Patterns) on page 256. Ask students to follow the sample provided to list the similarities and differences between two restaurants.

8

Writing Using Comparison and ContrastCompose a topic sentence identifying the two topics State whether the topic will be compared, contrasted, or bothDevelop points of comparison and contrastOrganize the information subject by subject or point by pointCopyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 4: Read and Write Using Comparison and ContrastPoints of comparison and contrast should depend on what the writer wants the paragraph to showthe purpose of the writing. For example, if the focus of comparing two jobs is to show that one job is a safer working environment than the other, one might want to compare the equipment used on both jobs, the published safety procedures, the enforcement of safety, and how many documented injuries or incidents occurred at each place.Subject-by-subject organization completely covers one subject, then covers the other subject in its entirety. To develop each subject, focus on the same types of details when writing about each. Most to least or least to most arrangement is an effective format for this type of organization.Point-by-point organization means the writer discusses both subjects at each point of comparison or contrast. For example, if you are comparing the two jobs, you might contrast the safety procedures of Job A with those of Job B.Visuals for subject-by-subject and point-by-point organization are located on pages 260261.

Activity: Provide (or ask students to bring) advertisements for two similar products (different brandsfor example, two different perfume ads). Put students in groups and ask them to write a brief comparison and contrast of the two advertisements. In doing this, they must devise a topic sentence and the points of comparison and contrast. At the end of the activity, have the groups present their advertisements to the class so they can see how others have compared and contrasted the information.9Important Terms to Remember:Causes are explanations of why things happen.Effects are explanations of what happens as the result of an action or event.

Helpful Tip:Cause and effect patterns explain why an event or action caused another event or action.Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 5: Read and Write Using Cause and EffectSee pages 261263 for paragraph and visual depictions of cause and effect.

Explanation: Cause and effect patterns explain why one event or action caused another event or action. For example, if there is a car accident, cause and effect could explain that icy road conditions caused a car to slide off the road and hit a guard rail.

Common transitional terms/phrases for cause and effect are listed in a chart on page 264.

Activity: Exercise 8-15 (Understanding Cause and Effect Patterns) on page 264.10

Writing Using Cause and Effect

Distinguish between cause and effectCreate a topic sentenceProvide relevant, sufficient detailsCopyright 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.Goal 5: Read and Write Using Cause and EffectTo determine the difference between cause and effect, ask the following (see visuals on pages 266267):Cause: Why did this happen? Effect: How did this happen?2. To create the topic sentence:Clarify the cause/effect relationshipDecide whether to emphasize causes or effects or bothDetermine whether the events are related or independentwas there a series of even