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Introduction to VLSI Design Introduction to VLSI Design Instructor: Steven P. Levitan [email protected] TA: Gayatri Mehta, Jose Martinez Book: Digital Integrated Circuits: A Design Perspective; Jan Rabaey Lab Notes: Handed out http://infopad.EECS.Berkeley.EDU/~icdesign/ ECE 1192 © 2006, Steven Levitan, University of Pittsburgh

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  • EE1411

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    Introduction to VLSI Design Introduction to VLSI Design

    Instructor: Steven P. Levitan [email protected]: Gayatri Mehta, Jose MartinezBook: Digital Integrated Circuits: A Design Perspective; Jan RabaeyLab Notes: Handed outhttp://infopad.EECS.Berkeley.EDU/~icdesign/

    ECE1192 2006,StevenLevitan,UniversityofPittsburgh

  • EE1412

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    Course Outline (approximate)Course Outline (approximate) Introduction and Motivation The VLSI Design Process Details of the MOS Transistor Device Fabrication Design Rules CMOS circuits VLSI Structures System Timing Real Circuits and Performance

    ECE1192 2006,StevenLevitan,UniversityofPittsburgh

  • EE1413

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    Reference BooksReference Books Digital Integrated Circuits: A Design

    Perspective Rabaey et. al CMOS VLSI Design A Circuits and Systems

    Perspective (3rd Edition) Neil Weste and David Harris Addison Wesley

    Introduction to VLSI Circuits and Systems Uyemura

    More on reserve in the LibraryChen, Smith, Sedra & Smith, etc.

    ECE1192 2006,StevenLevitan,UniversityofPittsburgh

  • EE1414

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    SoftwareSoftware Cadence icfb

    Schematic and Layout editorsUnix BasedSome Auto-Layout generation Batch Design Rule CheckingCircuit Extraction - LVSMany Supported Technology files

    HSPICEBased on well known SPICE (HSPICE is better)Good support/documentationInterface with both schematic and Layout

    Verilog / (later)High level design and evaluationFast functional validationSynthesis from Verilog to circuit to layout

    OthersMicro Magic Max and Sue and Data Path CompilerEtc.

    ECE1192 2006,StevenLevitan,UniversityofPittsburgh

  • EE1415

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    Digital Integrated Digital Integrated CircuitsCircuitsA Design PerspectiveA Design Perspective

    IntroductionIntroduction

    Jan M. RabaeyAnantha ChandrakasanBorivoje Nikolic

    July 30, 2002

  • EE1416

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    What is this book all about?What is this book all about?Introduction to digital integrated circuits.

    CMOS devices and manufacturing technology. CMOS inverters and gates. Propagation delay, noise margins, and power dissipation. Sequential circuits. Arithmetic, interconnect, and memories. Programmable logic arrays. Design methodologies.

    What will you learn?Understanding, designing, and optimizing digital circuits with respect to different quality metrics: cost, speed, power dissipation, and reliability

  • EE1417

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    Digital Integrated CircuitsDigital Integrated CircuitsIntroduction: Issues in digital designThe CMOS inverterCombinational logic structuresSequential logic gatesDesign methodologiesInterconnect: R, L and CTimingArithmetic building blocksMemories and array structures

  • EE1418

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    IntroductionIntroduction

    Why is designing digital ICs different today than it was before?Will it change in future?

  • EE1419

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    The First ComputerThe First Computer

    The BabbageDifference Engine(1832)25,000 partscost: 17,470

  • EE14110

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    ENIAC ENIAC -- The first electronic computer (1946)The first electronic computer (1946)

    Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer

    cost: ~$500,000

    17,468 vacuum tubes, 7,200 crystal diodes, 1,500 relays, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors30 tons8 feet by 3 feet by 100 feet 150 kW of powerI/O via IBM cards

    Patch cords, NOT a stored program

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuum_tubehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diodehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resistorhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitorhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short_tonhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kilowatt

  • EE14111

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    The Transistor RevolutionThe Transistor Revolution

    First transistorBell Labs, 1948

  • EE14112

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd IntroductionCopyright 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.

  • EE14113

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    The First Integrated Circuits The First Integrated Circuits

    Bipolar logic1960s

    ECL 3-input GateMotorola 1966

    6 Transistors5 ResistorsTrue and complement outputs

  • EE14114

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd IntroductionCopyright 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.

  • EE14115

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    Intel 4004 MicroIntel 4004 Micro--ProcessorProcessor

    19711000 transistors1 MHz operation

  • EE14116

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    Intel Pentium (IV) microprocessorIntel Pentium (IV) microprocessor

    200140M Transistors100MHz (?)

  • EE14117

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    MooreMoores Laws Law

    In 1965, Gordon Moore noted that the number of transistors on a chip doubled every 18 to 24 months.

    He made a prediction that semiconductor technology will double its effectiveness every 18 months

  • EE14118

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    MooreMoores Laws Law16151413121110

    9876543210

    1959

    1960

    1961

    1962

    1963

    1964

    1965

    1966

    1967

    1968

    1969

    1970

    1971

    1972

    1973

    1974

    1975

    LOG

    2 OF

    THE

    NU

    MB

    ER O

    FC

    OM

    PON

    ENTS

    PER

    INTE

    GR

    ATE

    D F

    UN

    CTI

    ON

    Electronics, April 19, 1965.

  • EE14119

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd IntroductionCopyright 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.

  • EE14120

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    Transistor CountsTransistor Counts

    1,000,000

    100,000

    10,000

    1,000

    10

    100

    11975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

    808680286

    i386i486

    PentiumPentium Pro

    K 1 Billion 1 Billion TransistorsTransistors

    Source: IntelSource: Intel

    ProjectedProjected

    Pentium IIPentium III

    Courtesy, Intel

  • EE14121

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    MooreMoores law in Microprocessorss law in Microprocessors

    400480088080

    8085 8086286

    386486 Pentium proc

    P6

    0.001

    0.01

    0.1

    1

    10

    100

    1000

    1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Year

    Tran

    sist

    ors

    (MT)

    2X growth in 1.96 years!

    Transistors on Lead Microprocessors double every 2 yearsTransistors on Lead Microprocessors double every 2 years

    Courtesy, Intel

  • EE14122

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    Die Size GrowthDie Size Growth

    40048008

    80808085

    8086 286386

    486 Pentium procP6

    1

    10

    100

    1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Year

    Die

    siz

    e (m

    m)

    ~7% growth per year~2X growth in 10 years

    Die size grows by 14% to satisfy Moores LawDie size grows by 14% to satisfy Moores Law

    Courtesy, Intel

  • EE14123

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    FrequencyFrequency

    P6Pentium proc

    48638628680868085

    8080800840040.1

    1

    10

    100

    1000

    10000

    1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Year

    Freq

    uenc

    y (M

    hz)

    Lead Microprocessors frequency doubles every 2 yearsLead Microprocessors frequency doubles every 2 years

    Doubles every2 years

    Courtesy, Intel

  • EE14124

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    Evolution in ComplexityEvolution in Complexity

  • EE14125

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    Power DissipationPower DissipationP6

    Pentium proc

    486386

    2868086

    808580808008

    4004

    0.1

    1

    10

    Pow

    er (W

    atts

    )100

    1971 1974 1978 1985Year

    1992 2000

    Lead Microprocessors power continues to increaseLead Microprocessors power continues to increase

    Courtesy, Intel

  • EE14126

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    Power will be a major problemPower will be a major problem5KW

    18KW

    1.5KW 500W

    400480088080

    80858086

    286386

    486

    Pentium proc

    0.1

    1

    10

    100

    1000

    10000

    100000

    1971 1974 1978 1985 1992 2000 2004 2008Year

    Pow

    er (W

    atts

    )

    Power delivery and dissipation will be prohibitivePower delivery and dissipation will be prohibitive

    Courtesy, Intel

  • EE14127

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    Power densityPower density

    400480088080

    8085

    8086

    286 386 486Pentium proc

    P6

    1

    10

    100

    1000

    10000

    1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Year

    Pow

    er D

    ensi

    ty (W

    /cm

    2)

    Hot Plate

    NuclearReactor

    RocketNozzle

    Power density too high to keep junctions at low tempPower density too high to keep junctions at low temp

    Courtesy, Intel

  • EE14128

    Digital Integrated Circuits2nd Introduction

    Not Only MicroprocessorsNot Only Microprocessors

    Digital Cellular Market(Phones Shipped)

    1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

    Uni