Introduction to the topic Anatomy of the elbow joint Define Epicondylitis Signs and symptoms Causes...

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Tennis ElbowObjectivesIntroduction to the topic Anatomy of the elbow joint Define Epicondylitis Signs and symptoms Causes Pathophysiology Prevention Diagnosis Treatment Surgical Treatment Introductionthe first description of the condition, in 1873 The term tennis elbow first appeared in an 1883 paper by Major called Lawn-tennis elbow.

Other names: Lateral epicondylitis lateral epicondylalgia known as :(tennis elbow, shooter's elbow, and archer's elbow or simply lateral elbow pain)

elbow joint is made up of three bones: upper arm bone (humerus) and the two bones in forearm (radius and ulna). There are bony bumps at the bottom of the humerus called epicondyles. The bony bump on the outside (lateral side) of the elbow is called the lateral epicondyle.

Muscles, ligaments, and tendons hold the elbow joint together.

AnatomyEpicondylitis: inflammation or microdamage to collagenous tissues on either lateral or medial side of the distal humurus.

Lateral epicondylitis is known as tennis elbow. This injury is caused by chronic inflammation of the attachment of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor digitorum to the lateral epicondyle.

Definition

Signs and symptoms

Pain on the outer part of the elbow (lateral epicondyle)

Point tenderness over the lateral epicondylea prominent part of the bone on the outside of the elbow

Pain from gripping and movements of the wrist, especially wrist extension and lifting movements

Morning stiffness

Causes overexertion trauma such as direct blows to the epicondylea sudden forceful pull, or forceful extension cause more than half of these injuries.Unknown

Decrease the amount of playing time if already injured or feeling pain in outside part of the elbow.

Stay in overall good physical shape. Strengthen the muscles of the forearm: (Pronator quadratus,pronatorteres and supinator muscle)the upper arm: (Biceps,triceps,deltoid muscle)and the shoulder and upper back (trapezius). Increased muscular strength increases stability of joints such as the elbow.

Like other sports, use equipment appropriate to your ability, body size, and muscular strength.

Prevention

DiagnosisPhysical examiation: the physician performs a battery of tests in which he places pressure on the affected area while asking the patient to move the elbow, wrist, and fingers.

X-rays: can confirm and distinguish possibilities of existing causes of pain that are unrelated to tennis elbow, such as fracture or arthritis.

Medical ultrasonographyand and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Clinical signs and symptoms

Treatment Equipment check: (in a racquet sport)

Physical therapy: -Specific exercises are helpful for strengthening the muscles of the forearm. Your therapist may also perform ultrasound, ice massage, or muscle-stimulating techniques to improve muscle healing. - Wrist stretching exercise with elbow extended.

Brace: can reduce symptoms by resting the muscles and tendons.

Treatment contExtracorporeal shock wave therapy: -These sound waves create "microtrauma" that promote the body's natural healing processes. - Shock wave therapy is considered experimental by many doctors, but some sources show it can be effective.

However, Tennis elbow left untreated can lead to chronic pain that degrades quality of daily living

Steroid injections: Steroids, such as cortisone, are very effective anti-inflammatory medicines.PrognosisResponse to initial therapy is common, but so is relapse (18% to 50%) and/or prolonged, moderate discomfort (40%).

Surgical Treatment

If your symptoms do not respond after 6 to 12 months of nonsurgical treatments, your doctor may recommend surgery.

Most surgical procedures for tennis elbow involve removing diseased muscle and reattaching healthy muscle back to bone.

The surgical approach depend on : - the scope of your injury -your general health and personal needs.

Open surgery. The most common approach to tennis elbow repair is open surgery. This involves making an incision over the elbow.

Arthroscopic surgery. Tennis elbow can also be repaired using tiny instruments and small incisions.

Surgical risks:InfectionNerve and blood vessel damagePossible prolonged rehabilitationLoss of strengthLoss of flexibilityThe need for further surgery

Rehabilitationarm immobilized temporarily with a splint.

About 1 week later, the sutures and splint are removed.

Light, gradual strengthening exercises are started about 2 months after surgery (to stretch the elbow and restore flexibility)

return to athletic activity is usually 4 to 6 months after surgery.