Introduction to Storage Infrastructure

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    Introduction to StorageInfrastructure

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    Outline

    Typical San Setup Storage Networking Components

    Block devices, Char devices

    Disk based devices (HDD, JBOD, RAID) Tape Drives and Libraries

    Storage Lab Visit

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    Typical SAN SetupLINUX Servers with Qlogic

    / Emulex HBAsSunFire V240

    with Qlogic HBAs

    IBM FastT200

    FC-SANBrocade SAN Switch (3200) Brocade SANSwitch (3800)

    Windows server withQlogic / Emulex HBAs

    Tape Library StorageTek /

    Quantum

    McData / CNT switch

    LSI ProFibre JBOD

    Serial ATA

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    Storage Networking Components

    Cables and connectors

    Gigabit Link Model (GLM) Gigabit Interface Converters (GBIC) Media Interface Adapters (MIA) Adapters Extenders

    Multiplexers Hubs Routers Bridges

    Gateways Switches Directors

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    Side Bar - Block and Character Devices

    All I/O devices are classified as either

    block orcharacter (raw) devices.

    The block special device causes the I/O to

    be buffered in large pieces.

    The character (raw) device causes I/O to

    occur one character (byte) at a time.

    Some devices, such as disks and tapes,

    can be both block and character devices,

    and must have entries for each mode.

    Terminals operate in character mode.

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    Side Bar - Block and Character Devices

    In Unix all physical devices are accessed

    via device files; they are what programsuse to communicate with hardware. Files

    hold information on location, type, and

    access mode for a specific device. Device files are found in the/devdirectory.

    The first entry in the permission field

    indicates eitherb-->block, orc-->character.

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    Side Bar - Block and Character Devices

    So what about a device that could be

    accessed in character or block mode?

    How many device files would it have?

    One.

    Two.

    There are no such devices.

    http://www.uwsg.iu.edu/usail/concepts/questions/four/a.htmlhttp://www.uwsg.iu.edu/usail/concepts/questions/four/b.htmlhttp://www.uwsg.iu.edu/usail/concepts/questions/four/c.htmlhttp://www.uwsg.iu.edu/usail/concepts/questions/four/c.htmlhttp://www.uwsg.iu.edu/usail/concepts/questions/four/b.htmlhttp://www.uwsg.iu.edu/usail/concepts/questions/four/a.html
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    InterconnectsLINUX Servers with Qlogic

    / Emulex HBAsSunFire V240

    with Qlogic HBAs

    IBM FastT200

    FC-SANBrocade SAN Switch (3200) Brocade SANSwitch (3800)

    Windows server withQlogic / Emulex HBAs

    Tape Library StorageTek /

    Quantum

    McData / CNT switch

    LSI ProFibre JBOD

    Serial ATA

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    Storage Networking Components HBA A Host Bus Adapter is a card that connects data peripherals and

    server host buses like PCI. A software device driver for each

    model of HBA is required by the operating system. Types: FC and GigE

    QLogic, Emulex, McData

    Storage Networking ComponentsHBA

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    Storage Networking ComponentsCables - FC

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    Storage Networking Components - Cables

    Similar to parallel SCSI and traditional

    networking, there are different types of cables ofvarious lengths for use in a Fiber Channelconfiguration.

    Two types of cables are supported: copper andoptical (fiber).

    Copper cables are used for short distance (up to30m) and can be identified by their DB9 (9-pin)connector.

    Fiber cables come in two distinct types: Multi-

    Mode fiber (MMF) for short distances (up to2km) and Single-Mode Fiber (SMF) for longerdistances (up to 10km).

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    Storage Networking Components Switches

    Types: FC & Ethernet

    Cisco, Brocade,

    McData

    Storage Networking ComponentsSwitches

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    Storage Networking ComponentsSwitches

    Used for interconnecting large numbers of

    devices, increasing bandwidth, reducingcongestion, and providing aggregate throughput.

    When a Fiber Channel switch is implemented ina SAN, the network is referred to as a fabric, or

    switched fabric. Each device is connected to aport on the switch, enabling an on-demandconnection to every connected device.

    Various FC switch offerings support both fabric

    and/or loop connections. As the number ofdevices increases, multiple switches can becascaded for expanded access.

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    Disk Based DevicesLINUX Servers with Qlogic

    / Emulex HBAsSunFire V240

    with Qlogic HBAs

    IBM FastT200

    FC-SANBrocade SAN Switch (3200) Brocade SANSwitch (3800)

    Windows server withQlogic / Emulex HBAs

    Tape Library StorageTek /

    Quantum

    McData / CNT switch

    LSI ProFibre JBOD

    Serial ATA

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    Disk Based Devices - HDD

    Hard Drives

    Interface: IDE, USB, SCSI, FC

    Seagate, IBM, Maxtor,

    Capacity: 20- 180 GB

    Data Transfer Rate: over 100MB/s

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    Disk Based Devices

    Disk Based Devices

    JBOD (Just a Bunch Of Disks)/Spanning

    RAID (Redundant Array of

    Inexpensive/Independent Disks)

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    Disk Based Devices JBOD

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    Disk Based Devices JBOD

    JBOD can be thought of as the opposite ofpartitioning: while partitioning chops singledrives up into smaller logical volumes,

    JBOD combines drives into larger logicalvolumes.

    It provides no fault tolerance, nor does itprovide any improvements in performance

    compared to the independent use of itsconstituent drives.

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    Disk Based Devices JBOD

    Advantages:

    Avoiding Drive Waste: If you have a number ofodd-sized drives, JBOD will let you combine them

    into a single unit without loss of any capacity

    Easier Disaster Recovery: If a disk in a RAID 0

    volume dies, the data on every disk in the array isessentially destroyed because all the files are

    striped; if a drive in a JBOD set dies then it may be

    easier to recover the files on the other drives (but

    then again, it might not, depending on how theoperating system manages the disks.)

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    Disk Based Devices RAID

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    Disk Based DevicesSingle RAID Levels

    Level 0: Provides data striping(spreading out

    blocks of each file across multiple disks) but noredundancy. This improves performance but

    does not deliver fault tolerance.

    Level 1:

    Provides disk mirroring.

    Level 2: Bit-level striping with Hamming codeECC.

    Level 3: Same as Level 0, but also reserves one

    dedicated disk for error correction data. Itprovides good performance and some level of

    fault tolerance.

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    Disk Based DevicesSingle RAID Levels

    Level 4: Block-level striping with dedicated

    parity.

    Level 5: Provides data striping at the bytelevel and also stripe error correction

    information. This results in excellentperformance and good fault tolerance.

    Level 6: Block-level striping with dual

    distributed parity. Level 7: Asynchronous, cached striping

    with dedicated parity.

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    Disk Based DevicesNested RAID Levels

    Nested RAID levels typically provide better

    performance characteristics than either ofthe single RAID levels that comprise them.

    The most commonly combined level is

    RAID 0, which is often mixed withredundant RAID levels such as 1, 3 or 5 to

    provide fault tolerance while exploiting the

    performance advantages of RAID 0.

    T D i

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    Tape DevicesLINUX Servers with Qlogic

    / Emulex HBAsSunFire V240

    with Qlogic HBAs

    IBM FastT200

    FC-SANBrocade SAN Switch (3200) Brocade SANSwitch (3800)

    Windows server withQlogic / Emulex HBAs

    Tape Library StorageTek /

    IBM/Adic

    McData / CNT switch

    LSI ProFibre JBOD

    Serial ATA

    Tape Drive StorageTek /

    HP/IBM

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    Basic Storage Devices

    Tape Drives

    Interfaces: SCSI, FC,

    FICON, ESCON

    StorageTek, IB