Introduction to animals Introduction to Animals Copyright cmassengale

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Introduction to animals Introduction to Animals Copyright cmassengale Slide 2 Traits Slide 3 Characteristics of Animals All multicellular (metazoans) Eukaryotes (cells with nucleus & organelles) Ingestive heterotrophs (take in food and internally digest it) Store food reserves as glycogen Slide 4 Lions Feeding (Ingestion) Slide 5 Support Systems Have some type of skeletal support Endoskeleton inside and made of cartilage &/or bone Exoskeletons found in arthropods Cover the outside of the body Limit size Must be molted making animal vulnerable to predators Slide 6 Cicada Molting Exoskeleton Slide 7 Support Systems Worms and echinoderms (starfish) have fluid-filled internal cavities giving them support Called hydrostatic skeletons Slide 8 Movement Animals such as sponges may be sessile (attached & non-moving) Animals that move very little are said to be sedentary (clam) Animals that can move are motile Have muscular tissue to provide energy for movement Slide 9 SESSILESEDENTARY MOTILE Sponge Chiton Cheetah Slide 10 Reproduction in Animals All animals are capable of sexual reproduction Some animals like sponges and earthworms are hermaphrodites producing both eggs and sperm Hermaphrodites may exchange sperm and NOT fertilize their own eggs Slide 11 Leeches Exchange Sperm During Mating Mating leech Slide 12 Reproduction in Animals Females of some animals produce eggs, but the eggs develop without being fertilized Called Parthenogenesis New offspring will be all female Parthenogenesis occurs in some fishes, several kinds of insects, and a few species of frogs and lizards Slide 13 Parthenogenesis in the Komodo Dragon Slide 14 Mating and Mating Behaviors Beetles Mating Male Female Young Courtship Slide 15 Levels of Organization Sponges are the ONLY animals that have just the cellular level All other animals show these levels cell, tissue, organ, and system Cells may specialize (take own different shapes and functions) Cells are held together by cell junctions to form tissues Slide 16 Atom Molecule or compound Organelle CELL Levels of Organization Tissue Organ Organ system Organism Life begins Slide 17 Invertebrate groups Slide 18 Characteristics of Invertebrates Simplest animals Contain the greatest number of different species Most are aquatic (found in water) Do NOT have a backbone Includes sponges, cnidarians, flatworms, roundworms, annelids, mollusks, arthropods, and echinoderms Slide 19 Sponge - Porifera Osculum of Sponge Slide 20 Sea Anemone - Cnidaria Tentacles of Sea Anemone Slide 21 More Cnidarians Brain Coral Red jellyfish Slide 22 Flatworms - Platyhelminthes Planarian Marine Flatworm Slide 23 Roundworms (Nematoda) and Segmented Worms (Annelida) Nematode Leech (segmented worm) Slide 24 Mollusca (With and Without Shells) snailscallop nautilus nudibranch octopus Slide 25 Arthropoda (insects, spiders, crustaceans, horseshoe crab) Dung beetle Horseshoe crab crayfish spider Slide 26 Echinoderms Sea cucumber Sand dollar starfish Brittle star Sea fan (crinoid) Slide 27 Vertebrate Groups Slide 28 Vertebrata More complex animals Most have a backbone made up of individual bones called vertebrae From simplest to most complex, the phylum includes: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals Slide 29 Vertebrate Backbone Slide 30 Vertebrata Vertebrates have endoskeletons (internal) Some vertebrates have skeletons of cartilage (sharks, rays, and skates) Other vertebrates have skeletons of bone and cartilage (reptiles, birds, & mammals) Slide 31 Bone & Cartilage in Fetus Slide 32 Fish lancelet ray anglerfish damselfish Slide 33 Amphibia toad newt frog salamander Slide 34 Reptilia Turtle Snake Alligator Lizard Slide 35 Birds - Aves hummingbird ostrich lovebirds Slide 36 Mammalia Slide 37 Body Areas Slide 38 Surfaces Dorsal back or upper surface Ventral belly or lower surface Anterior head or front end Posterior tail or hind end opposite the head Oral surface (echinoderms) is where the mouth is located (underside) Aboral surface (echinoderms) is opposite the mouth (top side) Slide 39 DORSAL VENTRAL Surfaces (Most Animals) ANTERIOR POSTERIOR Slide 40 Surfaces (Echinoderms) ORAL ABORAL mouth Slide 41 Symmetry Slide 42 Body Symmetry Slide 43 Symmetry is the arrangement of body parts around a central plane or axis Asymmetry occurs when the body cant be divided into similar sections (sponges) Slide 44 Body Symmetry Radial symmetry occurs when body parts are arranged around a central point like spokes on a wheel (echinoderms) Most animals with radial symmetry are sessile (attached) or sedentary (move very little) Slide 45 Slide 46 Body Symmetry Bilateral symmetry occurs when animals can be divided into equal halves along a single plane Organisms will have right and left sides that are mirror images of each other More complex type of symmetry Slide 47 Body Symmetry Animals with bilateral symmetry are usually motile Animals have an anterior and posterior ends Show cephalization (concentration of sensory organs on the head or anterior end) Slide 48 Slide 49 Segmentation Slide 50 Segmentation Occurs whenever animal bodies are divided into repeating units or segments Found in more complex animals Earthworms show external segmentation Humans show internal segmentation (backbone) Segments may fuse (cephalothorax) Slide 51 Segmentation cephalothorax Slide 52 Tissues Slide 53 Tissue Development Zygote (fertilized egg) undergoes rapid cell divisions called cleavage Forms a hollow ball of cells called the blastula Slide 54 Blastula The blastocoel is the center cavity of the blastula with 1 germ layer (blastoderm) Slide 55 Tissue Development The blastula INVAGINATES (folds inward at one point) Called Gastrulation The opening is called the blastopore The center is the primitive gut or Archenteron blastopore Archenteron Slide 56 Tissue Development Blastopore may become the mouth (Protostome) or anus (Deuterostome) Protostomes (mollusks, arthropods, & annelids) Deuterostomes (echinoderms & vertebrates) Some animals form a middle germ layer called mesoderm Slide 57 Embryonic Development Slide 58 Germ Layers Form tissues, organs, & systems NOT present in sponges Ectoderm (outer) forms skin, nerves, sense organs Endoderm (inner) forms liver and lungs Mesoderm (middle) forms muscles & other systems Slide 59 Body Layers Sponges have NO tissues or organs, only specialized cells Cnidarians like jellyfish & coral have only two body layers & one body opening (mouth/anus) into gastrovascular cavity Cnidarians have outer epidermis & inner gastrodermis with jelly- like mesoglea between the layers Slide 60 Slide 61 Body Layers All worms, mollusks, arthropods, echinoderms, and vertebrates have three cell layers Ectoderm Endoderm mesoderm Slide 62 Embryonic Cleavage Slide 63 Cleavage Cleavage rapid mitosis (cell division) of zygote Radial Cleavage cells divide parallel or perpendicular to axis to each other Slide 64 Cleavage Spiral Cleavage cellular divisions occur diagonally, in a twisting pattern Slide 65 Slide 66 Stages of Development Slide 67 Larval Forms Animals with Indirect development Go through immature (larval) forms Larva does NOT resemble adult Cnidarian (jellyfish, coral, & sea anemone) larva called Planula Slide 68 Larval Forms Mollusk (squid & octopus) larva called trochophore Echinoderm (starfish) larva is called Dipleurula Slide 69 Metamorphosis Usually found in arthropods May be complete or incomplete Incomplete Metamorphosis: egg nymph adult Complete Metamorphosis: egg larva pupa adult Slide 70 Metamorphosis COMPLETE INCOMPLETE Slide 71 Body Cavities Slide 72 Coelom - Body Cavity Internal body cavity fully lined with mesoderm Body organs suspended in this cavity Slide 73 Coelom - Body Cavity Acoelomate animals have solid bodies filled with cells Acoelomate animals include sponges, cnidarians, & flatworms Slide 74 Coelom - Body Cavity Pseudocoelomate animals (roundworms) have a functional body cavity NOT fully lined with mesoderm Slide 75 Animal Systems Slide 76 Support Systems Spongin & spiculesSpongin & spicules (sponges) Limestone casesLimestone cases (corals) Exoskeletons ChitinExoskeletons of Chitin (arthropods) Limits Limits size molted Must be shed or molted to grow vulnerable Animal vulnerable to predators during molting Slide 77 Support Systems Hydrostatic skeletonHydrostatic skeleton fluid filled body cavity (worms) Calcium plates or TestInner Calcium plates or Test (echinoderms) Bone cartilage endoskeletonBone and/or cartilage endoskeleton (vertebrates) Slide 78 Exoskeletons Must Be Molted Slide 79 Endoskeletons Grow with the Animal Slide 80 Digestive Systems All animals are ingestive heterotrophs Choanocytes (specialized cells) capture & digest food for sponges Gastrovascular cavity with one opening in cnidarians and flatworms for food to enter & leave; called two-way digestive system Slide 81 Gastrovascular Cavity with Mouth Only (Cnidarians) Slide 82 Two-Way Digestion Slide 83 Digestive Systems Animals with a one-way digestive system have a mouth and an anus Food enters the mouth, continues in one direction through the digestive tract, and wastes leave through the anus Includes annelids, arthropods, & vertebrates Slide 84 One-Way Digestion Mouth anus Slide 85 Circulatory Systems Transports oxygen & nutrients to cells Carries away wastes & carbon dioxide from cells Sponges, cnidarians, & flatworms do NOT have circulatory systems Slide 86 Circulatory Systems In closed circulation, blood remains inside blood vessels until it reaches cells (annelids & vertebrates) In open circulation, blood is pumped out of blood vessels to bathe tissues in the body cavity or hemocoel (arthropods & mollusks) Slide 87 Open Circulation Closed Circulation Slide 88 Respiratory System Taking in O 2 & releasing CO 2 d