Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180) ... ignation System for Wrought Aluminum and...

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Transcript of Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180) ... ignation System for Wrought Aluminum and...

  • Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

    J. Gilbert Kaufman

    ASM International® Materials Park, OH 44073-0002

    www.asminternational.org

    © 2000 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180)

    www.asminternational.org

  • Copyright © 2000 by

    ASM International® All rights reserved

    No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner.

    First printing, November 2000

    Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this Volume, but it should be made clear that NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASM’s control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information in this publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase price of this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THE EXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER, AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULT- ING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE OF SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Therefore, specific testing under actual conditions is recommended.

    Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement.

    Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International.

    ASM International staff who worked on this project included Veronica Flint, Manager, Book Acquisitions; Bonnie Sanders, Manager, Production; Carol Terman, Copy Editor; Kathy Dragolich, Production Supervisor; and Scott Henry, Assistant Director, Reference Publications.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Kaufman, J. G. (John Gilbert), 1931- Introducton to aluminum alloys and tempers / J. Gilbert Kaufman.

    p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index.

    1. Aluminum alloys. 2. Metals—Heat treatment. I. Title. TA480.A6 K36 2000 620.1’86—dc21 00-056544

    ISBN 0-87170-689-X SAN: 204-7586

    ASM International® Materials Park, OH 44073-0002 http://www.asminternational.org

    Printed in the United States of America

    © 2000 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180)

    www.asminternational.org

  • Contents

    Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

    CHAPTER 1: Introduction: The Nature of the Problem . . . . . . . 1

    The Keys to Understanding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Characteristics of Wrought Aluminum Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Characteristics of Cast Aluminum Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Definitions for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Applications of Aluminum Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Microscopy of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Units and Unit Conversion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    CHAPTER 2: Aluminum Alloy and Temper Designation Systems of the Aluminum Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    Wrought Aluminum Alloy Designation System . .. . . . . . . . . . . 10 Cast Aluminum Alloys Designation System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Designations for Experimental Aluminum Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Aluminum Alloy Temper Designation System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    Basic Temper Designations .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Subdivisions of the Basic Tempers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

    CHAPTER 3: Understanding Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    The Wrought Alloy Series. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 How the System is Applied. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Principal Alloying Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Understanding Wrought Alloy Strengthening

    Mechanisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Understanding Wrought Alloy Advantages and

    Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Other Characteristics Related to Principal Alloying

    Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Understanding Wrought Alloy Variations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Links to Earlier Alloy Designations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Unified Numbering System (UNS) Alloy Designation

    System for Wrought Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 The Cast Alloy Series . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

    iii

    © 2000 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180)

    www.asminternational.org

  • How the Current Aluminum Cast Alloy Designation System is Applied. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

    Understanding Cast Alloy Strengthening Mechanisms. . . . . . . 33 Understanding Cast Alloy Advantages and Limitations. . . . . . 34 Examples of the Use of Variations in Cast Alloy

    Designations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Alloys for Different Casting Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Other Characteristics Related to Composition. . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Evolution of the Aluminum Cast Alloy Designation

    System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 UNS Alloy Designation System for Cast Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . 36

    CHAPTER 4: Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

    Tempers for Wrought Aluminum Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Review of the Basic Tempers for Wrought Alloys. . . . . . . . . 57 Subdivisions of the Basic Tempers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Tempers Designating Residual Stress Relief of Heat

    Treated Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Temper Designations Identifying Modifications in

    Quenching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Designations Indicating Heat Treatment by User. . . . . . . . . . 68 Tempers Identifying Additional Cold Work between

    Quenching and Aging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Tempers Identifying Additional Cold Work Following

    Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Tempers Designating Special Corrosion-Resistant

    Tempers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Temper Designation for Special or Premium Properties. . . . . . 71

    Tempers for Cast Aluminum Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Review of the Basic Tempers for Cast Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Subdivisions of the Basic Temper Types for

    Cast Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Importance to Understanding Aluminum Tempers. . . . . . . . . . . 76

    CHAPTER 5: Understanding Aluminum Fabricating Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

    Ingot and Billet Casting . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Strip and Slab Casting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Hot and Cold Rolling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Extrusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Forging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Cast Parts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

    Permanent Mold Casting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Sand Casting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

    iv

    © 2000 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180)

    www.asminternational.org

  • Investment Casting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Die Casting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

    Combinations of Casting and Forging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . .