Intro to WeatherIntro to Weather Clip Weather by Brainpop 1) What cycle is the basis of our weather?...

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Transcript of Intro to WeatherIntro to Weather Clip Weather by Brainpop 1) What cycle is the basis of our weather?...

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Slide 2 Intro to WeatherIntro to Weather Clip Slide 3 Weather by Brainpop 1) What cycle is the basis of our weather? 2) What causes precipitation to occur? 3) Where do storms usually occur? Slide 4 Weather Temporary behavior of atmosphere (whats going on at any certain time) Small geographic area Can change rapidly Slide 5 Weather --The study of weather is meteorology --Someone who studies weather is called a meteorologist Slide 6 Climate Long-term behavior of atmosphere (100+ years) Large Large geographic area slow Very slow to change Slide 7 POLAR 90 o -60 o latitude Cool summers, cold year-round Dry Slide 8 TEMPERATE 60 o -30 o latitude True Seasons Variety of climate patterns Moderate precipitation (rain/snow) Slide 9 TROPICAL 30 o - equator No winter, warm year-round High temp, rainfall, humidity Slide 10 Climate Types by Brainpop.What is climate?.Where are tropical climates most likely to be?.What does arid mean? Slide 11 What Factors Affect Weather & Climate? The Sun The Sun The Water Cycle The Water Cycle The Atmosphere The Atmosphere The Ocean The Ocean Slide 12 How Does the Sun Affect Weather? It warms the atmosphere & oceans It creates climate zones It keeps the water cycle going It affects weather patterns Slide 13 The Water Cycle All the water on the planet is recycled in this manner! Slide 14 Parts of the Cycle Evaporation EvaporationWater going from a liquid to a gas (gains energy from the sun) Slide 15 Parts of the Cycle *Transpirationevaporation of water from/out of plants. Locate this on the diagram! transpiration Slide 16 Parts of the Cycle Condensation CondensationWater going from a gas to a liquid (cools or loses energy) When this happens in the atmosphere, CLOUDS form. Slide 17 Clouds by Brainpop Slide 18 Parts of the Cycle Precipitationwhen water falls out the atmosphere. Forms when the water droplets in clouds become too heavy to stay up. Slide 19 Precipitation Liquid water = rain Frozen water = snow or sleet or hail Rain Clip Slide 20 The Water Cycle Water Cycle by Brainpop Slide 21 Water Cycle Advanced by Brainpop Slide 22 The Water Cycle by Brainpop 1)What process must happen for clouds to form? 2)What is collection? 3)Name one way to conserve water. Slide 23 How does the atmosphere affect weather? The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth Has five different layers; each has different properties Well label them in just a minute Air Temperature and Pressure change with altitude Weather occurs in the layer closest to Earth (troposphere) Slide 24 Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere Ionosphere Exosphere Thermosphere Write in the labels! Ozone layer Slide 25 Slide 26 Slide 27 Slide 28 Exosphere - the outermost layer of the Earth's atmosphere, where atmospheric pressure and temperature are low. Ionosphere - the atmospheric layer between the mesosphere and the exosphere; it is part of the thermosphere. Mesosphere - the atmospheric layer between the stratosphere and the ionosphere. Stratosphere - the atmospheric layer between the troposphere and the mesosphere. The stratosphere is characterized by a slight temperature increase with altitude and by the absence of clouds. Thermosphere - the layer of the atmosphere located above part of the ionosphere (starting at the coldest part of the atmosphere) and below outer space; it consists of the exosphere and part of the ionosphere. Troposphere - the lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere. The weather and clouds occur in the troposphere. Slide 29 Earths Atmsophere by Brainpop. What is ozone?. What layer of the atmosphere does weather occur in?. What 2 gases compose the most of Earths Atmosphere? Slide 30 Air Masses = body of air with a certain temperature and moisture level Can be warm or cold Can contain a lot of moisture or not a lot of moisture Slide 31 Fronts = places where air masses meet 4 Types: Warm, Cold, Occluded, Stationary Each kind can bring different kinds of weather Slide 32 Occluded Front:Stationary Front: Slide 33 Slide 34 Science Saurus 221/222 & Reading a Weather Map Worksheet Slide 35 How does Air Pressure affect weather? How much the earths atmosphere is pressing down on us Measured with a BAROMETER If it CHANGES, then new weather is on the way: Falling Air Pressure = stormy weather coming Rising Air Pressure = fair weather coming Steady Air Pressure = no change is coming Slide 36 Pressure Systems Slide 37 Winds Winds = created from differences in air pressure Moves from areas of HIGH to LOW pressure Greater the difference in pressure, the FASTER the wind blows Measured with wind vanes and anemometers or you can estimate with the Beaufort Wind Scale ScienceSaurus 224/225 Slide 38 Beaufort Wind Scale Slide 39 Global Winds Thousands of kilometers long; can cause weather to move in different directions Jet stream, prevailing westerlies, doldrums, horse latitudes, trade winds Big Winds Blowin Worksheet & Science Saurus Section 217 Slide 40 Global Winds Caused by the temperature difference in different regions Hot Tropical Regionscauses air to rise Cold polar Regionscauses air to sink Slide 41 Global Winds Also affected by Earths Spin Coriolis Effect = causes winds to curve to the right in the N. Hemisphere; to the left in the S. Hemisphere Slide 42 Big Winds Blowin Worksheet Slide 43 Winds by Brainpop. What does warm air do?. What do you call winds that blow all the time in the same part of the world?. What are jet streams? Slide 44 Relative Humidity moisture Measure of the amount of moisture in the air compared to what the air could hold How full of water the air is Expressed as % saturated 100% relative humidity = saturated air Relative Humidity Test Applet http://itg1.meteor.wisc.edu/wxwise/relhum/rhac.html Slide 45 Relative Humidity Controlled by temperature Warm 1. Warm air holds more moisture than cool air (more space for water vapor between air molecules) warms decreases 2. As air warms, relative humidity decreases cools increases 3. As air cools, relative humidity increases Slide 46 Dew Point =Temperature at which the air is saturated (100% relative humidity) Several events can occur when the dew point temp. is reached: 1. If dew point temp. is above freezing: liquid a. water vapor condenses as liquid b. dew will form on surfaces Slide 47 Dew Point c. cloud droplets will form in air 2. If dew point temp. is below freezing: a. water vapor condenses as a solid b. frost on surfaces c. snow (or hail) in the air Slide 48 Humidity by Brainpop. What single factor controls humidity?. What temperature air can hold the most water molecules?. What causes water to evaporate into the atmosphere? Slide 49 RainbowsRainbowsRainbowsRainbows sunshine Caused by sunshine on raindrops White light (all colors) is refracted (bent) into colors as it enters and exits the drop behind To see a rainbow you must have the sun behind you and raindrops in the air Diagram: Slide 50 Rainbow by Brainpop Slide 51 How does the Ocean affect weather? Ocean currents affect the temperature of the land they pass by Cold ocean currents = cooling effect Warm ocean currents = warming effect Temperature changes affect pressure which then creates WINDS Winds blow this cooling or warming effect over the land http://earth.rice.edu/MTPE/hydro/hydrosphere/topics/Ocean_Atm_Circ_ElNi no.mov Slide 52 http://www.wunderground.com/MAR/ Slide 53 Science Saurus Sections 203-204-205-206 Slide 54 Advanced Weather by Brainpop Violent Weather Slide 55 Slide 56 Thunderstorms Requires a mature cumulonimbus cloud Signs Sudden reversal of wind direction Noticeable increase in wind speed Sudden drop in temperature Slide 57 Possible weather: a. heavy rains (flash floods) b. lightning (forest fires) c. thunder (frightens animals) d. hail (crop damage) e. tornadoes f. strong, gusty winds Thunderstorm by Brainpop Thunderstorms Slide 58 Safety Rules Stay indoors Prepare for lightning, strong winds Listen on radio/TV for tornado watch/warning Thunderstorms dont last long Slide 59 Lightning Storm Cumulonimbus cloud becomes electrically charged and ground below has opposite charge Slide 60 Slide 61 current Lightning stroke: flow of current thru air (a poor conductor) from the to the + cloud Lightning can flow from cloud to ground, cloud to cloud, and from ground to cloud glowing Bright light is caused by glowing air molecules heated by the current resistance Lightning follows the path of least resistance (easiest way to positive) easy Lightning rod offers lightning an easy, safe path to the ground (+) Slide 62 Thunder Thunder is the shock wave caused by the explosive expansion of heated air 1100 Sound travels @ about 1100 ft/sec in air 5,280 ft in one mile seconds Distance from you to lightning = number of seconds between seeing the flash and hearing the thunder divided by 5. (5,280 ft / 1100 ft/sec = 5 seconds) Slide 63 Types of Lightning Streak or bolt Single or branched lines of light Common in Puget Sound area Slide 64 Sheet a. shapeless flash over wide area b. is cloud-to-cloud bolt hidden by the clouds c. common in Puget Sound area Slide 65 Other types of lightning a. heat, ribbon, beaded (types of bolt) b. ball (only other shape lightning can have) Slide 66 Safety rules for lightning storms Stay indoors Stay away from anything that conducts electricity (stove, sink, telephone, TV) Get out of the water and off of small boats Stay away from open doors, windows, fireplaces Stay in your car (very safe place to be) Dont stand under lone trees or in open places Avoid hilltops If your hair stands on end, or your skin tingles, drop to the ground but try to keep as little contact with the ground as possible Slide 67 Lightning Strikes (17 minutes) Stories of people hit by lightning Slide 68 Tornado Tornado (a.k.a twister, cyclone) Counterclockwise column of rotating air extending from cumulonimbus cloud Per square foot, is the most destructive atmospheric event