Intro to Human Geography

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It’s Nature and Perspective. Intro to Human Geography. Geographic Questions:. Where are things located? Why? How are places related? How are places inter-connected? How are humans affected by these locations? “THE WHY OF WHERE!!!”. Definition of Geography. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Intro to Human Geography

  • Intro to Human GeographyIts Nature and Perspective

  • Geographic Questions:Where are things located? Why? How are places related? How are places inter-connected? How are humans affected by these locations?


  • Definition of Geographyscientific and systematic study physical & cultural features of the earths surface.

    spatial perspective looking at patterns and distributions

    Invented by Greek scholar: Eratosthenes

    -Geo Earth-graphy to write

  • Human (or Cultural) Geography: study of the spatial differentiation and organization of human activity on the earths surface.

    how we organize space and society

    where & why human activities are located

  • THE REGIONAL APPROACHRegional (Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia)

    Latin AmericaSub-Saharan AfricaSoutheast Asia

  • Five Themes of GeographyLocationPlaceRegionMovement Human-Environment

  • LocationLocation-position on the earths surface

    Absolute Location: latitude and longitude; street address

    Relative Location: a way of expressing a location in relation to another site

  • Site & SituationSite-the physical character of a place

    Situation the location of a place relative to other places

    Fig. 1-7: Singapore is situated at a key location for international trade.

  • PlacePlace: physical location with physical & cultural attributes

    sense of place: infusing a place with meaning and emotion.

  • Where Pennsylvanian students prefer to liveWhere Californian students prefer to livePerception of Place

  • The Cultural Landscape visible expression of human activity

    natural landscape modified by human activities

    Can also be called the Built Environment Religion and cremation practices diffuse with Hindu migrants from India to Kenya.

  • Sequent OccupanceDar es Salaam, Tanzania: African, Arab, German, British, and Indian layers to the city

    Apartment in Mumbai, IndiaApartment in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

  • Spatial analysis: the study of geographic phenomena on the earths surface

    - how are things organized on Earth?- how do they appear on the landscape?- Why of where? and so what?

  • the SPATIAL:

    1. Distance2. Accessibility3. Connectivity

  • Distance Decayinteraction between places diminishes frequency as distance between them increases

    closer = more interaction

  • Distance Decay

  • Friction of distance

    Farther people have to travelless likely they are to do so.

  • place utility: a places usefulness to a particular person or group

  • Accessibility How easy or difficult is it to overcome the friction of distance?

  • Connectivity Level of interaction

    channels of communication & transportation

    Ex: Telephone Lines, streets, pipelines, radio, TV, internet

  • Ullmans Spatial Model of Interaction 1.Complementarity:

    supply & demand between places

  • 2.Transferability: ability to acquire item

  • 3.Intervening Opportunity:

    alternative locations for activities between two points

  • Diffusion- Dissemination or spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth to other areas

    What prevents diffusion?- time-distance decay- cultural barriers

  • 1.Expansion Diffusion: spreads outward from the heart a. Contagious spreads adjacentlyb. Hierarchical spreads to linked people or places first

    c. Stimulus foreign idea promotes a local change

  • Stimulus DiffusionEx:Because Hindus believe cows are holy, cows often roam the streets in villages and towns. The McDonalds restaurants in India feature veggie burgers.

  • 2. Relocation Diffusion: permanent movement of individuals who carry an idea or innovation with themKenyaParis, France

  • Spatial Distribution elements common to all spatial distributions :

    Density, Dispersion, & Pattern

  • Density The measure of the number or quantity of anything within a defined unit of area

  • Dispersion Spread of a phenomenon over an area How spread out?

    1. Clustered (Agglomerated) = spatially close together 2. Dispersed (Scattered) = spread out

  • Pattern The geometric arrangement of objects in space

    Types of Patterns: Linear, Clustered, & Random

  • Linear Patterntypically depict houses along a street or towns along a railroad

  • Clustered Patterntypically involve items concentrated around a single node Ex: Center City with surrounding suburbs

  • Random PatternAn unstructured irregular distribution

  • Types of RegionsFormal (Uniform) region: defined by a commonality, typically a cultural linkage or physical characteristic

    Ex: German speaking region of Europe

  • Functional (Nodal) region: defined by a set of social, political, or economic activities or interactionsEx: an urban area, magazine circulation, radio station, downtown CBD

  • Perceptual (Vernacular) Region: ideas in our minds that define an area of sameness or connectedness.

    Exs:the Souththe Mid-Atlantic the Middle EastChinatownLittle Italy

  • The meanings of regions are often contested. In Montgomery, Alabama, streets named after Confederate President Jefferson Davis and Civil Rights leader Rosa Parks intersect.

  • Region v. RealmRealms are larger, and often encompass several regions

    Ex:The Muslim World

  • 1.Globe Grid: based upon latitude-longitude coordinateslatitude lines (parallels) decrease in length closer to poleslongitude lines (meridians) converge at the poles* scale on Earths surface is same everywhere

    2.Map Projections: making a flat map of a round surface

    * All maps distort the globe grid properties

  • World Geographic GridThe world geographic grid consists of meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude. The prime meridian (0) passes through Greenwich, England

  • Planar Projection (Azimuthal)Cylindrical ProjectionConic Projection

  • The Robinson Projection

  • Two Types of Maps:Reference Maps

    Show locationsGeographic featuresAbsolute locations

    Ex: street mapsThematic Maps

    Tells a storyData attributesPattern, distribution, movementRelative locations/features

  • Reference Map

  • Thematic Maps Thematic Maps: a map depicting a specific spatial distribution or statistical variation of abstract objects in space

    TYPES: Graduated CircleDot-DistributionIsopleth (isolines: weather, topographic maps)Choropleth (by region: county, state)

  • Thematic MapWhat story about median income in the Washington, DC area is this map telling?

  • Graduated Circle Map

    Uses circles of different sizes to show the frequency of occurrence of a certain topic

  • Dot-distribution Map

    A single of specified number of occurrences are recorded by a single dot

  • Isopleth Map

    Calculation refers to an areal statistic The isoline connects average values per unit

  • Examples of topographic maps (shows elevation through contour lines)

  • Choropleth Map

    Present average value of the data studied per preexisting areal unit

  • Which is the small-scale map?City of EdmontonNeighborhood in Edmonton

    Small scale: more area, less detailLarge scale: less area, more detail

  • E. Mental maps (cognitive maps)mental maps: representations of our own image of the world

  • Activity Spaces: the places we travel to routinely in our rounds of daily activity.

    How are activity spaces and mental maps related?

  • Geographic Information System (GIS):

    a collection of computer hardware and software that permits storage and analysis of layers of spatial data.

  • Remote Sensing: a method of collecting data by instruments that are physically distant from the area of study.

  • Scale- local- regional- national- global

    What is occurring across scales provides context for us to understand a phenomenon.

  • Scale

  • Measuring Spatial Interactioni. Distance Decay (the friction of distance)

    The Gravity Model (size & distance affect interaction)

    iii. Movement Biases (distance, direction, & network bias)

  • distance decay: the decline of activity with increasing distance from the point of origin

    inverse-square relationship (j-curve)

  • voluntary migration: people have a choice to move or stay

    reluctant migration: less than fully voluntary, but not forcedforced migration: imposed relocation by one group over another causing refugees

    Refugee Exs.: - any economic migrant- 75 million people from Europe to Americas (1835-1935)- Indonesia: resettlement from overcrowded Java

  • E. Ravensteins Laws of Migrationshort distance

    step by step

    rural to urban

    each flow produces a counter flow

    Most international migrants are young males

  • D. Migration PatternsStep migration: smaller, less extreme moves

    Ex.: farm to villageto small townto major city

    Chain migration: an established linkage or chain for future migrants (creates a migration field)

    Migrants provide information, money, place to stay, a job for other family/friends

  • Channel migration: clear pathways & travel routes are established

    - Ex.: The Oregon Trail

  • Guest Workers- have short term work visas- send remittances to home country

  • RemittancesMoney sent back to ho