Interrupted speech perception

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Interrupted speech perception Su-Hyun Jin, Ph.D. University of Texas & Peggy B. Nelson, Ph.D. University of Minnesota
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Interrupted speech perception. Su-Hyun Jin, Ph.D. University of Texas & Peggy B. Nelson, Ph.D. University of Minnesota. Introduction. In everyday life, speech is not equally intelligible over time due to background noise - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Interrupted speech perception

  • Interrupted speech perception

    Su-Hyun Jin, Ph.D.University of Texas

    &

    Peggy B. Nelson, Ph.D.University of Minnesota

  • IntroductionIn everyday life, speech is not equally intelligible over time due to background noisequite fluctuating rather than steady in terms of time, amplitude and frequencyNormal hearing (NH) listeners can take advantage of fluctuating nature of noiseMasking release: improvements in speech recognition in fluctuating noise compared to performance in steady noise. Listeners ability to utilize the momentary decrease (dips) in fluctuating noise to resolve the background fluctuations in order to extract speech information (Dubno et al., 2002; Nelson et al. 2003; Jin & Nelson, 2006)

  • Speech and Noise (NH)Quiet speechSpeech in noiseSpeech in fluctuating noise

  • IntroductionEffect of noise on HI speech perceptiononly little or no release from masking in fluctuating noiseEven in listeners with mild hearing loss ( Bacon et al., 1998; Dubno et al. 2002)speech recognition in steady noise was close to normalSOME significantly worse than normal in fluctuating noiseSpeech perception in fluctuating noise may provide a more sensitive measure of impairment due to hearing loss

  • Jin & Nelson (2006)Investigated the relationship between the amount of masking release (MR) and hearing sensitivity and temporal resolution in NH and HI listenersSentence and consonant recognition in quiet, steady and fluctuating noiseHearing sensitivity and forward masking

  • Jin & Nelson (06)Amplification and shapingTwo-stage process to amplify speech and noise for HI listenersShaping applied based on half-gain rule to compensate for hearing loss configurationOverall amplification added to bring listeners to maximum sentence recognition (90% or better) in quietProcess applied to speech and noise for each HI listener individually

    FIG1

    1661.167

    1660.468.3

    11.55867

    11.555.765.7

    11.55564.8

    13.553.564

    13.552.664

    12.550.763.7

    12.550.564.5

    145060.6

    134657

    14.54656.5

    14.542.552.5

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 1. Long-term spectra for IEEE sentences and speech shaped noise along with the average thresholds in dB SPL for the NH group.26

    NH Threshold

    Speech

    Noise

    Frequency

    dB SPL

    FIG2

    4161.564.5

    4263.567

    51.564.572

    51.566.476.5

    536878

    5569.178

    58.570.279

    6073.281

    6275.784

    647283

    5865.672

    5562.770

    54.556.361

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 2. Long-term spectra for IEEE sentences and speech shaped noise along with hearing thresholds in dB SPL for HI1.27

    HI1 threshold

    HI1 Speech

    HI1 Noise

    Frequency

    dB SPL

    FIG3

    266472.5

    2660.573

    21.558.773

    21.55872

    236071

    256371.5

    28.56373

    52.56676

    6069.580.1

    7072.580.5

    686977

    5861.573

    54.55568

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 3. Long-term spectra for IEEE sentences and speech shaped noise along with hearing thresholds in dB SPL for HI3.28

    HI3 threshold

    HI3 Speech

    HI3 Noise

    Frequency

    dB SPL

    Table1(threshold)

    Table 1.

    Audiometric Hearing Thresholds in dB HL as a function of frequencies in Hz

    500100020003000400060008000

    AVG NH1611.513.512.5141314.5

    HI130455055554540

    HI255705545506055

    HI315152045655555

    HI45154545556055

    HI525252535455055

    HI620404045505560

    HI735556065707575

    HI820252550405045

    HI915151535505055

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12 19

    Table1(original)

    Table 1. Absolute thresholds in dB SPL

    500100020003000400060008000

    NH161611.511.511.513.513.512.512.5141314.514.5

    HI1414251.551.5535558.5606264585554.5

    HI2262621.521.5232528.552.56070685854.5

    HI416182021.5304053.552.55760535354.5

    HI266687276.5706763.56059595854.554.5

    HI5363631.531.531.533.533.542.55054535044.5

    SPEECH(LEQ)HI-TWHI-CNHI-DHHI-TKHI-SYNH-10 SNR (noise)HI-TWHI-CNHI-DHHI-TKHI-SYNH

    50061.58059.5646061.150064.584.565.372.56567

    63.58257.360.56060.46306787.569.7736468.3

    64.57858.658.758588007283.569.2736667

    100066.479615855.855.7100076.587.468726465.7

    687660.56055551250788768.4716364.8

    69.17260.56354.553.516007884.57071.563.364

    200070.26763635652.620007981717366.564

    73.264.563665950.725008179727669.563.7

    75.76364.569.561.550.5315084787580.173.764.5

    400072606272.559.550400083747380.572.560.6

    65.656566957.5465000726968.77770.557

    62.7565661.556466300706865.6736956.5

    800056.34845554742.58000616360.5686252.5

    dBA (overall)777672.574.568.565.7dBA (overall)878981.6857975

    SPEECH(MAX)HI-TWHI-CNHI-DHHI-TKHI-SYNH

    50061.588.773.376.57554.1

    63063.592.873.47873.461

    80064.589.971.27471.160

    100066.490.673.872.768.856.7

    12506885.774.972.569.556

    160069.184.674.169.971.352.6

    200070.279.774.975.57052.6

    250073.278.372.876.37251.5

    315075.778.974.77975.349.5

    40007271.872.476.47345.6

    500065.667.672.275.972.643

    630062.765.868.47470.345

    800056.363.760.168.461.542

    Table1(speech &noise)

    Table 1 (continue). Spectral level of Speech and Noise

    SPEECH(LEQ)HI1HI2HI4HI3HI5NH-10 SNR (noise)HI1HI2HI4HI3HI5NH

    50061.58059.5646061.150064.584.565.372.56567

    63.58257.360.56060.46306787.569.7736468.3

    64.57858.658.758588007283.569.2736667

    100066.479615855.855.7100076.587.468726465.7

    687660.56055551250788768.4716364.8

    69.17260.56354.553.516007884.57071.563.364

    200070.26763635652.620007981717366.564

    73.264.563665950.725008179727669.563.7

    75.76364.569.561.550.5315084787580.173.764.5

    400072606272.559.550400083747380.572.560.6

    65.656566957.5465000726968.77770.557

    62.7565661.556466300706865.6736956.5

    800056.34845554742.58000616360.5686252.5

    dBA (overall)777672.574.568.565.7dBA (overall)878981.6857975

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • Jin & Nelson (06)Role of hearing sensitivityListeners with sensorineural hearing loss showed reduced hearing sensitivityThe effect of noise on HI listeners becomes more detrimental than it is to NH listeners because they already have reduced redundancy of the speech signal in quiet (Van Tasell, 1993). fluctRole of temporal resolutionCompared to NH, HI listeners are more affected by non-simultaneous maskersStrong correlation between masking release and forward masking threshold (Dubno et al., 2002)Observed that syllable recognition in fluctuating noise might be associated with age-related increases in forward-masked thresholds

  • Result 1: sentence recognitionPercent correct keyword identification at -5 dB SNR

    Fig4

    41.55238485.8554004377484952353444

    90.6256372684.56500665726474394836

    936664732.2677868381667172645537

    99.75100991000.4629100499100100100989390

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 4. The percent correct keyword identification of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recofnition at -5 SNR

    34

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct Key word

    Fig5

    10.625107125.85540043771417197816

    80.1255446524.56500665485052252515

    83.8755552562.2677868381555856402413

    99.75100991000.4629100499100100100989390

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 5. The percent correct keyword identification of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recofnition at -5 SNR.

    35

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent correct key word identification

    Fig6

    49.6251134202415224148.1141410953-8

    5210262511181029216.8868404533-7

    &C&12Figure 6. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recofnition at -5 SNR.

    36

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI1

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Fig7

    69.54439403433331817-1

    73.254545444141373316-3

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 7. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recofnition at -10 SNR.

    37

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Differences

    Fig8

    0.8489760920.22916666670.55737704920.02095932240.02095932240.38461538460.46153846150.29411764710.45833333330.06349206350.2372881356-0.1739130435

    0.89338950760.20833333330.42622950820.48076923080.21153846150.35294117650.20833333330.46031746030.3559322034-0.152173913

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 8. The Normalized Masking Release (NMR) of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recofnition at -5 SNR.

    39

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Normalized Masking Release

    Fig9

    0.77680871280.48888888890.42391304350.02095932240.02095932240.45454545450.39534883720.39759036140.40740740740.19780219780.2-0.0135135135

    0.81908379410.50.48913043480.50.4767441860.49397590360.45679012350.36263736260.1882352941-0.0405405405

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 9. The Normailzed Masking Release (NMR) of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recofnition at -10 SNR.

    40

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Normalized Masking Release

    Fig10

    43.1254242475.8554004377454549453735

    865767644.56500665676572634956

    85.1256369652.2677868381727370684652

    93.259396890.4629100499878691928582

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 10. The percent correct CV syllable identification of HI listeners and the NH group for the random phase condition at -5 SNR.

    44

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct

    Fig11

    43.1254242475.8554004377454549453735

    866371654.56500665707178676764

    85.1256774732.2677868381717479676158

    93.259396890.4629100499878691928582

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 11. The percent correct CV syllable identification of HI listeners and the NH group for the control phase condition at -5 SNR.

    45

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct

    Fig12

    12.51820225.8554004377182324211620

    78.253849444.56500665465058483933

    77.54050442.2677868381555562463536

    93.259396890.4629100499878691928582

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 12. The percent correct CV syllable identification of HI listeners and the NH group for the random phase condition at -10 SNR.

    46

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct

    Fig13

    12.51820225.8554004377182324211620

    844550454.56500665565464484242

    78.54651482.2677868381585964474848

    93.259396890.4629100499878691928582

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 13. The percent correct CV syllable identification of HI listeners and the NH group for the control phase condition at -10 SNR.

    47

    *

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct

    Fig14

    37.87515251322202318124.703721930621

    36.52127122728212396.761234037817

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 14. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for CV syllable identification, the random phase condition at -5 SNR.

    48

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Fig15

    42.87521291525262922308.114141095329

    4225321526293022246.886840453323

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 15. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for CV syllable identification for the control phase condition at -5 SNR.

    49

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Fig16

    65.7520293126222226238.114141095313

    6522303335272624196.886840453316

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 16. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for CV syllable identification for the random phase condition at -10 SNR.

    50

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Fig17

    71.527403536262826268.114141095322

    6628313738312825326.886840453328

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 17.The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for CV syllable identification for the control phase condition at -10 SNR.51

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Sheet3

  • Result 1: Sentence recognition Masking release at -5 dB SNR

    Fig4

    41.55238485.8554004377484952353444

    90.6256372684.56500665726474394836

    936664732.2677868381667172645537

    99.75100991000.4629100499100100100989390

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 4. The percent correct keyword identification of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recofnition at -5 SNR

    34

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct Key word

    Fig5

    10.625107125.85540043771417197816

    80.1255446524.56500665485052252515

    83.8755552562.2677868381555856402413

    99.75100991000.4629100499100100100989390

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 5. The percent correct keyword identification of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recofnition at -5 SNR.

    35

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent correct key word identification

    Fig6

    49.6251134202415224148.1141410953-8

    5210262511181029216.8868404533-7

    &C&12Figure 6. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recofnition at -5 SNR.

    36

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI1

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Fig7

    69.54439403433331817-1

    73.254545444141373316-3

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 7. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recofnition at -10 SNR.

    37

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Differences

    Fig8

    0.8489760920.22916666670.55737704920.02095932240.02095932240.38461538460.46153846150.29411764710.45833333330.06349206350.2372881356-0.1739130435

    0.89338950760.20833333330.42622950820.48076923080.21153846150.35294117650.20833333330.46031746030.3559322034-0.152173913

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 8. The Normalized Masking Release (NMR) of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recofnition at -5 SNR.

    39

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Normalized Masking Release

    Fig9

    0.77680871280.48888888890.42391304350.02095932240.02095932240.45454545450.39534883720.39759036140.40740740740.19780219780.2-0.0135135135

    0.81908379410.50.48913043480.50.4767441860.49397590360.45679012350.36263736260.1882352941-0.0405405405

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 9. The Normailzed Masking Release (NMR) of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recofnition at -10 SNR.

    40

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Normalized Masking Release

    Fig10

    43.1254242475.8554004377454549453735

    865767644.56500665676572634956

    85.1256369652.2677868381727370684652

    93.259396890.4629100499878691928582

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 10. The percent correct CV syllable identification of HI listeners and the NH group for the random phase condition at -5 SNR.

    44

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct

    Fig11

    43.1254242475.8554004377454549453735

    866371654.56500665707178676764

    85.1256774732.2677868381717479676158

    93.259396890.4629100499878691928582

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 11. The percent correct CV syllable identification of HI listeners and the NH group for the control phase condition at -5 SNR.

    45

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct

    Fig12

    12.51820225.8554004377182324211620

    78.253849444.56500665465058483933

    77.54050442.2677868381555562463536

    93.259396890.4629100499878691928582

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 12. The percent correct CV syllable identification of HI listeners and the NH group for the random phase condition at -10 SNR.

    46

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct

    Fig13

    12.51820225.8554004377182324211620

    844550454.56500665565464484242

    78.54651482.2677868381585964474848

    93.259396890.4629100499878691928582

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 13. The percent correct CV syllable identification of HI listeners and the NH group for the control phase condition at -10 SNR.

    47

    *

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct

    Fig14

    37.87515251322202318124.703721930621

    36.52127122728212396.761234037817

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 14. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for CV syllable identification, the random phase condition at -5 SNR.

    48

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Fig15

    42.87521291525262922308.114141095329

    4225321526293022246.886840453323

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 15. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for CV syllable identification for the control phase condition at -5 SNR.

    49

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Fig16

    65.7520293126222226238.114141095313

    6522303335272624196.886840453316

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 16. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for CV syllable identification for the random phase condition at -10 SNR.

    50

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Fig17

    71.527403536262826268.114141095322

    6628313738312825326.886840453328

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 17.The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for CV syllable identification for the control phase condition at -10 SNR.51

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Sheet3

  • Result 1: Speech recognition for both sentence and syllable identificationIn Quiet and Steady noiseThere were no significant NH and HI group differences (p > 0.177).In Gated noiseSignificant improvements in gated noise (over steady) were seen for both NH and HI listeners.NH listeners could take advantage of gating about to regain 80% of their quiet performance whereas HI listeners only gained 15% to 55%.

  • Result 1b: Percent correct syllable identification and MR at -5 dB SNR

    Fig4

    41.55238485.8554004377484952353444

    90.6256372684.56500665726474394836

    936664732.2677868381667172645537

    99.75100991000.4629100499100100100989390

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 4. The percent correct keyword identification of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recognition at -5 SNR37

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct Key word Identification

    Fig5

    10.625107125.85540043771417197816

    80.1255446524.56500665485052252515

    83.8755552562.2677868381555856402413

    99.75100991000.4629100499100100100989390

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 5. The percent correct keyword identification of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recognition at -10 SNR.38

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent correct key word identification

    Fig6

    49.6251134202415224148.1141410953-8

    5210262511181029216.8868404533-7

    &C&12Figure 6. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recofnition at -5 SNR.39

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI1

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Fig7

    69.54439403433331817-1

    73.254545444141373316-3

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 7. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recofnition at -10 SNR.40

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Differences

    Fig8

    0.8489760920.22916666670.55737704920.02095932240.02095932240.38461538460.46153846150.29411764710.45833333330.06349206350.2372881356-0.1739130435

    0.89338950760.20833333330.42622950820.48076923080.21153846150.35294117650.20833333330.46031746030.3559322034-0.152173913

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 8. The Normalized Masking Release (NMR) of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recognition at -5 SNR.42

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Normalized Masking Release

    Fig9

    0.77680871280.48888888890.42391304350.02095932240.02095932240.45454545450.39534883720.39759036140.40740740740.19780219780.2-0.0135135135

    0.81908379410.50.48913043480.50.4767441860.49397590360.45679012350.36263736260.1882352941-0.0405405405

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 9. The Normailzed Masking Release (NMR) of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recofnition at -10 SNR.43

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Normalized Masking Release

    Fig10

    43.1254242475.8554004377454549453735

    865767644.56500665676572634956

    85.1256369652.2677868381727370684652

    93.259396890.4629100499878691928582

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 10. The percent correct CV syllable identification of HI listeners and the NH group for the random phase condition at -5 SNR.47

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct

    Fig11

    43.1254242475.8554004377454549453735

    866371654.56500665707178676764

    85.1256774732.2677868381717479676158

    93.259396890.4629100499878691928582

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 11. The percent correct CV syllable identification of HI listeners and the NH group for the control phase condition at -5 SNR.48

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct

    Fig12

    12.51820225.8554004377182324211620

    78.253849444.56500665465058483933

    77.54050442.2677868381555562463536

    93.259396890.4629100499878691928582

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 12. The percent correct CV syllable identification of HI listeners and the NH group for the random phase condition at -10 SNR.49

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct

    Fig13

    12.51820225.8554004377182324211620

    844550454.56500665565464484242

    78.54651482.2677868381585964474848

    93.259396890.4629100499878691928582

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 13. The percent correct CV syllable identification of HI listeners and the NH group for the control phase condition at -10 SNR.50

    *

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct

    Fig14

    37.87515251322202318124.703721930621

    36.52127122728212396.761234037817

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 14. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for CV syllable identification for the random phase condition at -5 SNR.51

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Fig15

    42.87521291525262922308.114141095329

    4225321526293022246.886840453323

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 15. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for CV syllable identification for the control phase condition at -5 SNR.52

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Fig16

    65.7520293126222226238.114141095313

    6522303335272624196.886840453316

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 16. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for CV syllable identification for the random phase condition at -10 SNR.53

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Fig17

    71.527403536262826268.114141095322

    6628313738312825326.886840453328

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 17.The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for CV syllable identification for the control phase condition at -10 SNR.54

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Sheet3

    Fig4

    41.55238485.8554004377484952353444

    90.6256372684.56500665726474394836

    936664732.2677868381667172645537

    99.75100991000.4629100499100100100989390

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 4. The percent correct keyword identification of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recognition at -5 SNR37

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct Key word Identification

    Fig5

    10.625107125.85540043771417197816

    80.1255446524.56500665485052252515

    83.8755552562.2677868381555856402413

    99.75100991000.4629100499100100100989390

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 5. The percent correct keyword identification of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recognition at -10 SNR.38

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent correct key word identification

    Fig6

    49.6251134202415224148.1141410953-8

    5210262511181029216.8868404533-7

    &C&12Figure 6. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recofnition at -5 SNR.39

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI1

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Fig7

    69.54439403433331817-1

    73.254545444141373316-3

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 7. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recofnition at -10 SNR.40

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Differences

    Fig8

    0.8489760920.22916666670.55737704920.02095932240.02095932240.38461538460.46153846150.29411764710.45833333330.06349206350.2372881356-0.1739130435

    0.89338950760.20833333330.42622950820.48076923080.21153846150.35294117650.20833333330.46031746030.3559322034-0.152173913

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 8. The Normalized Masking Release (NMR) of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recognition at -5 SNR.42

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Normalized Masking Release

    Fig9

    0.77680871280.48888888890.42391304350.02095932240.02095932240.45454545450.39534883720.39759036140.40740740740.19780219780.2-0.0135135135

    0.81908379410.50.48913043480.50.4767441860.49397590360.45679012350.36263736260.1882352941-0.0405405405

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 9. The Normailzed Masking Release (NMR) of HI listeners and the NH group for sentence recofnition at -10 SNR.43

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Normalized Masking Release

    Fig10

    43.1254242475.8554004377454549453735

    865767644.56500665676572634956

    85.1256369652.2677868381727370684652

    93.259396890.4629100499878691928582

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 10. The percent correct CV syllable identification of HI listeners and the NH group for the random phase condition at -5 SNR.47

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct

    Fig11

    43.1254242475.8554004377454549453735

    866371654.56500665707178676764

    85.1256774732.2677868381717479676158

    93.259396890.4629100499878691928582

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 11. The percent correct CV syllable identification of HI listeners and the NH group for the control phase condition at -5 SNR.48

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct

    Fig12

    12.51820225.8554004377182324211620

    78.253849444.56500665465058483933

    77.54050442.2677868381555562463536

    93.259396890.4629100499878691928582

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 12. The percent correct CV syllable identification of HI listeners and the NH group for the random phase condition at -10 SNR.49

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct

    Fig13

    12.51820225.8554004377182324211620

    844550454.56500665565464484242

    78.54651482.2677868381585964474848

    93.259396890.4629100499878691928582

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 13. The percent correct CV syllable identification of HI listeners and the NH group for the control phase condition at -10 SNR.50

    *

    NH Mean

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Condition

    Percent Correct

    Fig14

    37.87515251322202318124.703721930621

    36.52127122728212396.761234037817

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 14. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for CV syllable identification for the random phase condition at -5 SNR.51

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Fig15

    42.87521291525262922308.114141095329

    4225321526293022246.886840453323

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 15. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for CV syllable identification for the control phase condition at -5 SNR.52

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Fig16

    65.7520293126222226238.114141095313

    6522303335272624196.886840453316

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 16. The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for CV syllable identification for the random phase condition at -10 SNR.53

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Fig17

    71.527403536262826268.114141095322

    6628313738312825326.886840453328

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 17.The amount of Masking Release (MR) of HI listeners and the NH group for CV syllable identification for the control phase condition at -10 SNR.54

    NHAVG

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    HI1

    HI4

    HI3

    HI6

    HI7

    HI2

    Gate Frequency

    Percent Difference (MR)

    Sheet3

  • Result 2:FWD Masked Threshold Masked thresholds for HI listeners were higher than those for NH listenersThose with lower thresholds in quiet showed better thresholds in the presence of noise.The slopes of recovery function were shallower for HI than NH listenersThose HI listeners with close to normal recovery function showed relatively larger amount of masking release in fluctuating noise cv?

  • DiscussionRelation between MR and other measuresHigh negative correlation (r-0.8) between the amount of MR and the results of forward masking for both NH and HI groupsWhen the results of HI listeners were analyzed, only a few factors retained a strong correlation with MR. Hearing thresholds at 0.5 and 1.0 kHz, and FWD thresholds at 2 kHz The MR for sentence recognition and CV syllable recognition were analyzed separately.??

  • Result : regression analysesThe strength of the relationship between MR and the predictors:For sentence recognition in gated noise, hearing sensitivity at low-to-mid frequencies (0.5 and 1 k Hz) accounted for a substantial proportion of variance in the MR.For consonant recognition, forward masked thresholds contributed primarily to the variance in the MR.

  • DiscussionHI listeners who performed close to normal in quiet and in steady noise still show reduced masking release for both sentence and consonant recognition in gated noiseThe overall pattern of masking release measured using sentences and using CV syllables was similar.

  • DiscussionSeveral factors seemed to contribute to the MRHearing sensitivity for low-to-mid frequencies (0.5 kHz and 1.0 kHz) were strongly related to the MR for sentence recognition but not for syllable identification.Forward masking thresholds were more strongly related to the MR for CV syllable identification.Consistent with Dubno et al. (2002)

  • Follow-upContinued to investigate additional factors that might contribute the reduced sentence recognition in fluctuating noise for HI listenersAuditory integration Frequency resolution

  • Follow-upRole of spectral resolutionHearing impairment often associated with reduced frequency selectivity.Reduced auditory representation of spectral peaks and valleys in speech (Miller et al., 1997)Cochlear implant listeners Had little MR for sentence recognition in fluctuating noise (Nelson et al., 2003).Are known to have normal like temporal resolution (Nelson & Donaldson, 2001) but limited spectral resolution.Reduced MR may be related to broader auditory filters

  • Follow-upRole of auditory integrationUnderstanding speech in real life requires a listener to analyze complex sounds and separate the acoustic characteristics of the input signal from background noise.This process has been known as auditory stream segregation (Bregman, 1990).Listeners seem to be able to segregate into streams when sounds are different in spectral cues (Rose & Moore), or in the harmonicity and fundamental frequency (F0) of a signal (Qin & Oxenham, 2003).

  • Follow-upTwo tasksAuditory filter characteristicsAuditory integration: interrupted sentence recognitionthe same NH and HI listeners who participated in Jin & Nelson (2006)AnalysisExamine the relationship between the MR from Jin & Nelson (2006) and the auditory filter shape and interrupted speech recognition

  • Follow-upAuditory filter characteristics Used the filter shape equation (Patterson et al., 1982) Estimate equivalent rectangular bandwidths (ERB) and slope (p) of the auditory filters for 2000 and 4000 HzInterrupted IEEE sentence recognition by silence gapIEEE sentences were gated at rates of 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 Hz.There was no noise (no masking).Depending on the gate frequencies, whole or only parts of words were available to listeners.Percent correct keyword identification was recorded.

  • Speech in gated noise VS interrupted speech silent gapsFluctuating noise at 8 HzInterrupted sentence at 8 Hz

  • Follow-upResult 1: frequency resolutionCompared to NH group, HI listeners showed greater ERBs and shallower slopes for both 2 kHz and 4 kHz.The average ERB for HI listeners (for both 2 kHz and 4 kHz) were about 2.2-2.7 times to those of NH group.

  • Follow-upResult 2: interrupted sentence recognitionThe average percent correct scores of the NH group at each gate frequency were higher than the scores of HI listeners.The relationship between sentence recognition in gated noise and interrupted sentence recognition for both NH and HI listeners were significant (r 0.8).when the scores of HI listeners only were compared, the correlation remained strong (r 0.8)

  • Follow-upResult 2: interrupted sentence recognition

    fig22

    38.45833333334.4018688394.40186883943.89583333333.70657220843.706572208439.47544.3416666667

    35.08333333334.42489662534.424896625339.4754.07433643574.074336435735.441.4625

    31.40416666675.06518201465.065182014634.83754.54109855514.541098555133.012536.1291666667

    26.93333333334.87546356034.875463560329.81666666673.47771372513.477713725128.495833333331.8625

    21.6833333333Quiet25.4208333333Quiet

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 22. The masked thresholds of the NH group for 2 kHz and 4 kHz for 70 and 85 dB SPL maskers. 61

    2 kHz, 70 dB SPL

    2 kHz, 85 dB SPL

    4 kHz, 70 dB SPL

    4 kHz, 85 dB SPL

    Probe Delay

    Threshold (dB SPL)

    fig23

    38.45833333334.4018688394.40186883986.10.36055512750.360555127581.53333333330.68068592860.680685928652.672.933333333370.433333333354.533333333388.750.3666666667

    35.08333333334.42489662534.424896625384.76666666670.92915732430.929157324379.26666666670.40414518840.404145188449.671.667.752.686.266666666747.0333333333

    31.40416666675.06518201465.065182014684.26666666670.64291005070.642910050778.36666666670.51316014390.513160143946.869.033333333365.366666666749.833333333383.842.8666666667

    26.93333333334.87546356034.875463560379.26666666670.64291005070.642910050775.70.96436507610.964365076143.664.866666666760.833333333344.279.766666666741.4333333333

    21.683333333375.266666666767.933333333334.833333333361.533333333354.933333333341.433333333375.766666666735.8

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 23. Forward masked thresholds of HI listeners at 45 SL and the NH group at 70 dB SPL for 2 kHz tone.62

    NH 70 dB

    HI2

    HI1

    HI3

    HI4

    HI6

    HI8

    HI7

    HI9

    Probe Delay

    Threshold (dB SPL)

    fig24

    43.89583333334.4018688394.40186883986.10.36055512750.360555127581.53333333330.68068592860.680685928652.672.933333333370.433333333354.533333333388.750.3666666667

    39.4754.42489662534.424896625384.76666666670.92915732430.929157324379.26666666670.40414518840.404145188449.671.667.752.686.266666666747.0333333333

    34.83755.06518201465.065182014684.26666666670.64291005070.642910050778.36666666670.51316014390.513160143946.869.033333333365.366666666749.833333333383.842.8666666667

    29.81666666674.87546356034.875463560379.26666666670.64291005070.642910050775.70.96436507610.964365076143.664.866666666760.833333333344.279.766666666741.4333333333

    21.945833333375.266666666767.933333333334.833333333361.533333333354.933333333341.433333333375.766666666735.8

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 24. Forward masked thresholds of HI listeners at 45 SL and the NH group at 85 dB SPL for 2 kHz tone.63

    NH 85 dB

    HI2

    HI1

    HI3

    HI4

    HI6

    HI8

    HI7

    HI9

    Probe delay

    Threshold (dB SPL)

    fig25

    39.4754.4018688394.40186883982.03333333330.36055512750.360555127583.26666666670.68068592860.680685928686.16666666677976.366666666768.266666666792.970.9333333333

    35.44.42489662534.424896625379.20.92915732430.929157324380.33333333330.40414518840.40414518848678.274.666666666765.866666666792.668.0333333333

    33.01255.06518201465.065182014679.50.64291005070.642910050777.36666666670.51316014390.513160143984.833333333376.166666666773.433333333363.433333333391.533333333365.0333333333

    28.49583333334.87546356034.875463560375.93333333330.64291005070.642910050773.36666666670.96436507610.964365076183.866666666772.433333333370.761.366666666789.263.6333333333

    25.420833333365.266666666772.633333333382.433333333370.862.133333333357.333333333385.366666666761.1666666667

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 25. Forward masked thresholds of HI listeners at 45 SL and the NH group at 70 dB SPL for 4 kHz tone.64

    NH 70 dB

    HI2

    HI1

    HI3

    HI4

    HI6

    HI8

    HI7

    HI9

    Probe delay

    Threshold (dB SPL)

    fig26

    44.34166666674.4018688394.401868839870.68068592860.680685928690.382.933333333380.466666666771.933333333374

    41.46254.42489662534.424896625383.76666666670.40414518840.404145188489.13333333338178.666666666769.866666666772.2

    36.12916666675.06518201465.065182014682.10.51316014390.513160143987.5787667.168.8666666667

    31.86254.87546356034.875463560376.60.96436507610.964365076185.573.772.433333333364.866666666767.6

    25.883333333372.633333333380.266666666770.862.133333333357.333333333366.3333333333

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 26. Forward masked thresholds of HI listeners at 50 SL and the NH group at 85 dB SPL for 4 kHz.65

    NH 85 dB

    HI1

    HI3

    HI4

    HI6

    HI8

    HI9

    Probe delay

    Threshold (dB SPL)

    fig27

    16.583333333310.766666666713.617.766666666711.415.513.112.933333333314.5666666667

    13.49.511.333333333314.766666666710.066666666712.766666666711.166666666710.511.2333333333

    9.72083333339.210.433333333311.96666666677.510.43333333338.48.03333333337.0666666667

    5.2547.76666666678.76666666673.33333333335.92.766666666745.6333333333

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 27. The amount of masking for 2 kHz at 45 SL for HI listeners and 70 dB SPL for NH group. 71

    NHAVG

    HI2

    HI1

    HI3

    HI4

    HI6

    HI8

    HI7

    HI9

    Probe Delay

    Differences (dB)

    fig28

    21.9510.766666666711.518.814.833333333318.533333333316.166666666713.714.13333333338.1333333333

    17.52916666679.59.833333333317.666666666712.513.766666666713.166666666710.710.13333333337.3666666667

    12.89166666679.27.266666666713.610.610.36666666679.69.66.23333333336.3333333333

    7.870833333343.110.33333333335.665.93333333335.33333333335.13333333333.0666666667

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 28. The amount of masking for 2 kHz at 50 SL for HI listeners and 85 dB SPL for NH group.72

    NHAVG

    HI2

    HI1

    HI3

    HI4

    HI6

    HI-8

    HI7

    HI9

    HI5

    Probe Delay

    Differences (dB)

    fig29

    14.054166666716.766666666710.63333333333.73333333338.214.233333333310.93333333337.53333333339.7666666667

    9.979166666713.93333333337.73.56666666677.412.53333333338.53333333337.23333333336.8666666667

    7.591666666714.23333333334.73333333332.45.366666666711.36.16.16666666673.8666666667

    3.0759.33333333330.73333333331.43333333331.63333333338.56666666674.03333333333.83333333332.4666666667

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 29. The amount of masking for 4 kHz at 45 SL for HI listeners and 70 dB SPL for NH group.73

    NHAVG

    HI2

    HI1

    HI3

    HI4

    HI6

    HI8

    HI-7

    HI9

    Probe Delay

    Differences (dB)

    fig30

    18.458333333314.366666666710.033333333312.133333333318.333333333314.67.666666666714.1666666667

    15.579166666711.13333333338.866666666710.216.533333333312.53333333335.866666666712.0333333333

    10.24583333339.46666666677.23333333337.213.86666666679.76666666672.53333333338.5333333333

    5.97916666673.96666666675.23333333332.910.37.53333333331.26666666674.4333333333

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 30. The amount of masking for 4 kHz at 50 SL for HI listeners and 85 dB SPL for NH group.74

    NHAVG

    HI1

    HI3

    HI4

    HI6

    HI8

    HI9

    HI5

    Probe Delay

    Differences (dB)

    fig31

    45.7539938382.91241186262.91241186263228341036

    41.37527924164.60541218884.6054121888251826830

    6042828425.25085027135.25085027133230381244

    82632646783.09377254683.09377254686648582456

    90.75904474901.50594061731.50594061738578855282

    &C&"Times New Roman,Regular"&12Figure 31. Percent correct keyword identification of HI listeners and NH group for gated sentence recognition83

    NHAVG

    HI1

    HI2

    HI4

    HI3

    HI5

    HI6

    HI8

    HI7

    HI9

    Gate Frequency (Hz)

    Percent Correct (%)

  • DiscussionSeveral factors seemed to contribute to the MRHearing sensitivity for low-to-mid frequencies (0.5 kHz and 1.0 kHz) as well as the auditory filter shape at 2 and 4 kHz were strongly related to the MR for sentence recognition.Understanding speech interrupted either by noise or silence might require a similar underlying integration process.Percent correct scores for interrupted sentence recognition and sentence recognition in gated noise were strongly correlated.The hearing sensitivity for the low-to-mid frequencies and ERBs that were significant predictors for both the MR and interrupted sentence recognition

  • Follow-up 2:interrupted sentence recognitionThe degree of MR in sentence recognition seemed to be correlated with low-mid frequency hearing sensitivityGatan & Christophe (2002) found older listeners with mild HL put more perceptual weight on mid frequency band (750-1750 Hz) compared to NH listeners.Qin & Oxenham (2003) suggested that a strong pitch cue is important for a listener to segregate speech from noise.Low-mid frequency information may be more important for understanding sentence with competing noise for HI listenersReducing low-frequency gain to improve comfort in noise may have unwanted consequences for HI listeners

  • Follow-up 2Task: Understanding IEEE sentences in quiet in steady noise in gated noise gated with silent gaps Participants 10 young adult NH listeners

  • Follow-up 2StimuliBoth speech and noise were either unprocessed (natural) or processed through 4 different filters Band-pass (bp) filter cutoff frequencies: 0.5-0.75 kHz, 0.75-1 kHz, 1-2 kHz, and 2-3 kHz

  • Follow-up 2SpeechIEEE sentences spoken by ten talkerspresented at comfortable level (70-75 dB SPL) for individual NH listeners NoiseLong-term spectrum of speech (SNR of -5 dB)steady or fluctuatingGate frequency: 8 Hzthe RMS amplitude of noise was adjusted relative to the RMS of the target speech

  • Results

  • ResultsIn quiet, performance was similar across filter conditions (above 90 %) except band-pass filtered at 1 kHz-2 kHz. In steady noise at -5 SNR, the performance was quite low (below 5 % ). except when only mid-to-high frequency information was audible (bp 2-3 kHz) In gated noise, performance was significantly better than in steady noise. NH listeners were able to use the limited spectral information in the dips of noise to separate speech from noise except bp 1_2 kHzpoorer performance both in quiet and steady noise compared to other filtering conditions

  • Percent correct key word identificationMasking Release

    PC_StN(fig)

    1.7

    0.6

    4.1

    0.9

    12.5

    0

    1.8

    4.5

    0.2

    0.2

    21

    key word identification in steady noise at -5 SNR

    PC_narrow BP(fig)

    92.30.628.2

    95.54.154.4

    80.60.916.1

    96.912.576.7

    1001.777.4

    Quiet

    steady noise

    gate noise

    PC_all(fig)

    1001.777.4

    92.30.628.2

    95.54.154.4

    80.60.916.1

    96.912.576.7

    92.8035.8

    97.31.850.8

    96.54.564.8

    69.30.27.3

    92.70.232.7

    96.22170.7

    Quiet

    Steady noise

    Gated noise

    percent correct

    Key Word Identification in quiet and noise at -5SNR

    PC_broad bp(fig)

    92.8035.8

    97.31.850.8

    96.54.564.8

    1001.777.4

    Quiet

    steady noise

    gated noise

    PC_lp,HP

    69.30.27.3

    92.70.232.7

    96.22170.7

    1001.777.4

    Quiet

    Steady noise

    Gated noise

    PC_MR_NMR(table)

    NaturalFiltered Speech

    bp0.5_0.75kbp0.75_1kbp1_2kbp2_3kbp0.5-1kbp0.5_2kbp0.75_2klp1klp2khp3k

    QuietNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMR

    AH1003777476.3860121214956262022.57921210139915786375440112.3940252526.6926605462.8

    AW1002686667.4900282831.2880404045.5840333.69919785973.8700222.9970171717.6948595159.4

    EH1000777777920232325940363638.374211912.59711796879.15906610.2952353335.59820826279.5

    JH1004716769.8983221920997514447.97009912.99813786576.5741322.8950232324.39830774769.2

    JN1005858084.3940494952.2953595660.9831363542.79515796480820181822870353540.39832764466.7

    SF1000808080910444448.4993767376.1812978.9936827687.47108811.3940191920.39730704059.8

    KT1001828181.9953504751.19410605059.6871242326.89220715170.9950606063.2987524549.510012635158851121113.1940414143.7

    JB1002797778.6980202020.5996746873.2820292935.41006746872.4990393939.4970656567.1940747478.8740779.5910474751.7

    AM1000757575840000940585861.8690668.7997716469.6860101011.7960383839.6920585863.1630000860323237.3

    JNU1000808080950343435.8986645863.1971222121.9994827882.2910343437.49804848491006645861.8710161622.6940535356.4

    AVE1001.777.475.777.192.30.628.227.629.995.54.154.450.354.980.60.916.115.218.796.912.576.765.676.792.8035.835.83897.31.850.84951.396.54.564.860.365.569.30.27.37.19.792.70.232.732.535.496.22170.749.766.3

    MR_narrow bp(fig)

    75.7

    27.6

    50.3

    15.2

    65.6

    PC differences

    Masking Release

    MR_broad bp(fig)

    75.7

    35.8

    49

    60.3

    PC differences

    Masking Release

    MR_LP&HP(fig)

    75.7

    7.1

    32.5

    49.7

    PC differences

    Masking Release

    AVG_PC

    Average percent correct

    QuietNoise_SteadyNoise_Gated

    Natural1002.277.4

    bp 0.5_0.75 kHz92.30.628.2

    bp 0.75_1 kHz95.54.154.4

    bp 1_2 kHz80.60.916.1

    bp 2_3 kHz96.912.576.7

    bp 0.5_1 kHz92.8035.8

    bp 0.5_2 kHz97.31.850.8

    bp 0.75_2 kHz96.54.564.8

    lp 1 kHz69.30.27.3

    lp 2 kHz92.70.232.7

    hp 3 kHz96.22170.7

    MR_chart2

    75.7

    27.6

    50.3

    15.2

    65.6

    35.8

    49

    60.3

    7.1

    32.5

    49.7

    Masking Release

    PC differences

    Masking Release

    NMR_chart

    77.1

    29.9

    54.9

    18.7

    76.7

    38

    51.3

    65.5

    9.7

    35.4

    66.3

    NMR

    Normalized Masking Release

    MR_chart

    75.727.650.315.265.635.84960.37.132.549.7

    Natural

    bp0.5_0.75k

    bp0.75_1k

    bp1_2k

    bp2_3k

    bp0.5-1k

    bp0.5_2k

    bp0.75_2k

    lp1k

    lp2k

    hp3k

    PC differences

    Masking Release

    Gated Speech_chart

    66.3

    27.7

    40.6

    7

    37.5

    29.5

    43

    52.5

    7.7

    32.9

    33.2

    PC Gated Speech

    Percent Correct

    percent corr

    NaturalFiltered Speech

    BP500_750BP750_1000BP1000_2000BP2000_3000BP500_1000BP500_2000BP750_2000LP1000LP2000HP3000

    QuietNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 Hz

    AH1003776186012895626397921299915782844012940251092660

    AW100268699002837880402484037991978249303222920521997441387002897017239485919

    EH100077879202320940362974211119711794759061952353698208233

    JH1004595098322179975134700969813782474131950232098307729

    JN1005857094049319535943831369951579228201820870353598327655

    SF100080759104434993765781293936825071087940194897307030

    KT100182589535038941060588712413922071679506048987525410012635285112249404153

    JB100279659802042996742882029710067430990392897065369407446740779104745

    AM100075588400129405846690629977125860101096038369205846630008603216

    JNU1000807095034389866448971223994825891034329804846100664667101679405343

    AVG1001.776.266.392.30.628.227.795.54.154.440.680.60.916.1797.111.677.237.592.8035.829.597.31.850.84396.54.564.852.569.30.27.37.792.70.232.732.996.22170.733.2

    PC_StN(fig)

    1.7

    0.6

    4.1

    0.9

    12.5

    0

    1.8

    4.5

    0.2

    0.2

    21

    key word identification in steady noise at -5 SNR

    PC_narrow BP(fig)

    92.30.628.2

    95.54.154.4

    80.60.916.1

    96.912.576.7

    1001.777.4

    Quiet

    steady noise

    gate noise

    PC_all(fig)

    1001.777.4

    92.30.628.2

    95.54.154.4

    80.60.916.1

    96.912.576.7

    92.8035.8

    97.31.850.8

    96.54.564.8

    69.30.27.3

    92.70.232.7

    96.22170.7

    Quiet

    Steady noise

    Gated noise

    percent correct

    Key Word Identification in quiet and noise at -5SNR

    PC_broad bp(fig)

    92.8035.8

    97.31.850.8

    96.54.564.8

    1001.777.4

    Quiet

    steady noise

    gated noise

    PC_lp,HP

    69.30.27.3

    92.70.232.7

    96.22170.7

    1001.777.4

    Quiet

    Steady noise

    Gated noise

    PC_MR_NMR(table)

    NaturalFiltered Speech

    bp0.5_0.75kbp0.75_1kbp1_2kbp2_3kbp0.5-1kbp0.5_2kbp0.75_2klp1klp2khp3k

    QuietNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMR

    AH1003777476.3860121214956262022.57921210139915786375440112.3940252526.6926605462.8

    AW1002686667.4900282831.2880404045.5840333.69919785973.8700222.9970171717.6948595159.4

    EH1000777777920232325940363638.374211912.59711796879.15906610.2952353335.59820826279.5

    JH1004716769.8983221920997514447.97009912.99813786576.5741322.8950232324.39830774769.2

    JN1005858084.3940494952.2953595660.9831363542.79515796480820181822870353540.39832764466.7

    SF1000808080910444448.4993767376.1812978.9936827687.47108811.3940191920.39730704059.8

    KT1001828181.9953504751.19410605059.6871242326.89220715170.9950606063.2987524549.510012635158851121113.1940414143.7

    JB1002797778.6980202020.5996746873.2820292935.41006746872.4990393939.4970656567.1940747478.8740779.5910474751.7

    AM1000757575840000940585861.8690668.7997716469.6860101011.7960383839.6920585863.1630000860323237.3

    JNU1000808080950343435.8986645863.1971222121.9994827882.2910343437.49804848491006645861.8710161622.6940535356.4

    AVE1001.777.475.777.192.30.628.227.629.995.54.154.450.354.980.60.916.115.218.796.912.576.765.676.792.8035.835.83897.31.850.84951.396.54.564.860.365.569.30.27.37.19.792.70.232.732.535.496.22170.749.766.3

    MR_narrow bp(fig)

    27.6

    50.3

    15.2

    65.6

    75.7

    MR_broad bp(fig)

    35.8

    49

    60.3

    75.7

    MR_LP&HP(fig)

    7.1

    32.5

    49.7

    75.7

    AVG_PC

    Average percent correct

    QuietNoise_SteadyNoise_Gated

    Natural1002.277.4

    bp 0.5_0.75 kHz92.30.628.2

    bp 0.75_1 kHz95.54.154.4

    bp 1_2 kHz80.60.916.1

    bp 2_3 kHz96.912.576.7

    bp 0.5_1 kHz92.8035.8

    bp 0.5_2 kHz97.31.850.8

    bp 0.75_2 kHz96.54.564.8

    lp 1 kHz69.30.27.3

    lp 2 kHz92.70.232.7

    hp 3 kHz96.22170.7

    MR_chart2

    75.7

    27.6

    50.3

    15.2

    65.6

    35.8

    49

    60.3

    7.1

    32.5

    49.7

    Masking Release

    PC differences

    Masking Release

    NMR_chart

    77.1

    29.9

    54.9

    18.7

    76.7

    38

    51.3

    65.5

    9.7

    35.4

    66.3

    NMR

    Normalized Masking Release

    MR_chart

    75.727.650.315.265.635.84960.37.132.549.7

    Natural

    bp0.5_0.75k

    bp0.75_1k

    bp1_2k

    bp2_3k

    bp0.5-1k

    bp0.5_2k

    bp0.75_2k

    lp1k

    lp2k

    hp3k

    PC differences

    Masking Release

    Gated Speech_chart

    66.3

    27.7

    40.6

    7

    37.5

    29.5

    43

    52.5

    7.7

    32.9

    33.2

    PC Gated Speech

    Percent Correct

    percent corr

    NaturalFiltered Speech

    BP500_750BP750_1000BP1000_2000BP2000_3000BP500_1000BP500_2000BP750_2000LP1000LP2000HP3000

    QuietNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8GATE_8 Hz

    AH1003776186012895626397921299915782844012940251092660

    AW100268699002837880402484037991978249303222920521997441387002897017239485919

    EH100077879202320940362974211119711794759061952353698208233

    JH1004595098322179975134700969813782474131950232098307729

    JN1005857094049319535943831369951579228201820870353598327655

    SF100080759104434993765781293936825071087940194897307030

    KT100182589535038941060588712413922071679506048987525410012635285112249404153

    JB100279659802042996742882029710067430990392897065369407446740779104745

    AM100075588400129405846690629977125860101096038369205846630008603216

    JNU1000807095034389866448971223994825891034329804846100664667101679405343

    AVG1001.776.266.392.30.628.227.795.54.154.440.680.60.916.1797.111.677.237.592.8035.829.597.31.850.84396.54.564.852.569.30.27.37.792.70.232.732.996.22170.733.2

  • Key word identification of interrupted sentencesVSMasking Release

    PC_StN(fig)

    1.7

    0.6

    4.1

    0.9

    12.5

    0

    1.8

    4.5

    0.2

    0.2

    21

    key word identification in steady noise at -5 SNR

    PC_narrow BP(fig)

    92.30.628.2

    95.54.154.4

    80.60.916.1

    96.912.576.7

    1001.777.4

    Quiet

    steady noise

    gate noise

    PC_all(fig)

    1001.777.4

    92.30.628.2

    95.54.154.4

    80.60.916.1

    96.912.576.7

    92.8035.8

    97.31.850.8

    96.54.564.8

    69.30.27.3

    92.70.232.7

    96.22170.7

    Quiet

    Steady noise

    Gated noise

    percent correct

    Key Word Identification in quiet and noise at -5SNR

    PC_broad bp(fig)

    92.8035.8

    97.31.850.8

    96.54.564.8

    1001.777.4

    Quiet

    steady noise

    gated noise

    PC_lp,HP

    69.30.27.3

    92.70.232.7

    96.22170.7

    1001.777.4

    Quiet

    Steady noise

    Gated noise

    PC&MR(NarrowBP)

    1.777.475.7

    0.628.227.6

    4.154.450.3

    0.916.115.2

    12.576.765.6

    Steady noise

    Gated noise

    Masking release

    PC_MR_NMR(table)

    NaturalFiltered Speech

    bp0.5_0.75kbp0.75_1kbp1_2kbp2_3kbp0.5-1kbp0.5_2kbp0.75_2klp1klp2khp3k

    QuietNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMRQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRNMR

    AH1003777476.3860121214956262022.57921210139915786375440112.3940252526.6926605462.8

    AW1002686667.4900282831.2880404045.5840333.69919785973.8700222.9970171717.6948595159.4

    EH1000777777920232325940363638.374211912.59711796879.15906610.2952353335.59820826279.5

    JH1004716769.8983221920997514447.97009912.99813786576.5741322.8950232324.39830774769.2

    JN1005858084.3940494952.2953595660.9831363542.79515796480820181822870353540.39832764466.7

    SF1000808080910444448.4993767376.1812978.9936827687.47108811.3940191920.39730704059.8

    KT1001828181.9953504751.19410605059.6871242326.89220715170.9950606063.2987524549.510012635158851121113.1940414143.7

    JB1002797778.6980202020.5996746873.2820292935.41006746872.4990393939.4970656567.1940747478.8740779.5910474751.7

    AM1000757575840000940585861.8690668.7997716469.6860101011.7960383839.6920585863.1630000860323237.3

    JNU1000808080950343435.8986645863.1971222121.9994827882.2910343437.49804848491006645861.8710161622.6940535356.4

    AVE1001.777.475.777.192.30.628.227.629.995.54.154.450.354.980.60.916.115.218.796.912.576.765.676.792.8035.835.83897.31.850.84951.396.54.564.860.365.569.30.27.37.19.792.70.232.732.535.496.22170.749.766.3

    MR_narrow bp(fig)

    27.6

    50.3

    15.2

    65.6

    75.7

    MR_broad bp(fig)

    35.8

    49

    60.3

    75.7

    MR_LP&HP(fig)

    7.1

    32.5

    49.7

    75.7

    AVG_PC

    Average percent correct

    QuietNoise_SteadyNoise_Gated

    Natural1002.277.4

    bp 0.5_0.75 kHz92.30.628.2

    bp 0.75_1 kHz95.54.154.4

    bp 1_2 kHz80.60.916.1

    bp 2_3 kHz96.912.576.7

    bp 0.5_1 kHz92.8035.8

    bp 0.5_2 kHz97.31.850.8

    bp 0.75_2 kHz96.54.564.8

    lp 1 kHz69.30.27.3

    lp 2 kHz92.70.232.7

    hp 3 kHz96.22170.7

    NMR_chart

    77.1

    29.9

    54.9

    18.7

    76.7

    38

    51.3

    65.5

    9.7

    35.4

    66.3

    NMR

    Normalized Masking Release

    PC&MR(table)

    NaturalFiltered Speech

    bp 0.5_0.75kbp0.75_1kbp1_2kbp2_3kbp0.5_1kbp0.5_2kbp0.75_2klp1klp2khp3k

    QuietNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRGATE_8HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRGATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRGATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRGATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRGATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRGATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRGATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRGATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRGATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRGATE_8 HzQUIETNOISE_SNOISE_G8MRGATE_8 Hz

    AH1003777461860121289562620397921210999157863284401129402525109266054

    AW10026866699002828378804040248403379919785924930322292052199744138700228970171723948595119

    EH10007777879202323209403636297421191197117968475906619523533369820826233

    JH100459555098322191799751443470099698137865247413219502323209830774729

    JN10058580709404949319535956438313635995157964228201818208703535359832764455

    SF10008080759104444349937673578129739368276507108879401919489730704030

    KT10018281589535047389410605058871242313922071516795060604898752455410012635152851121124940414153

    JB1002797765980202042996746828820292971006746830990393928970656536940747446740777910474745

    AM10007575588400012940585846690662997716425860101010960383836920585846630000860323216

    JNU100080807095034343898664584897122213994827858910343432980484846100664586671016167940535343

    AVG1001.776.274.566.392.30.628.227.627.795.54.154.450.340.680.60.916.115.2797.111.677.265.637.592.8035.835.829.597.31.850.8494396.54.564.860.352.569.30.27.37.17.792.70.232.732.532.996.22170.749.733.2

    MR&GS(narrow)

    27.627.7

    50.340.6

    15.27

    65.637.5

    74.566.3

    Masking release

    Gated speech

    Gated Speech_chart

    66.3

    27.7

    40.6

    7

    37.5

    29.5

    43

    52.5

    7.7

    32.9

    33.2

    PC Gated Speech

  • Resultsthe performance in interrupted speech recognition showed similar pattern to the performance in gated noise If only limited spectral information is available, it results in low performance level in both gated noise and interrupted speech (for example, bp1_2 kHz). With more spectral cues available in dips, the performance was better in both conditions.

  • DiscussionNH listeners were able to use limited spectral information to understand speech in quiet and gated noise. Using high frequency cues in filtered speech such as bp2_3 kHz, NH listeners were able to segregate speech from gated noise better and showed greater amount of masking release. the high frequency cues might be more important for speech recognition in complex noise background than the low frequency ones for NH listeners. it would be less available for HI listeners

  • DiscussionSimilar performance in recognition of speech with gated noise and recognition of gated speechUnderstanding interrupted speech is dominated by the information in the dips. (Limited information in the dips = limited masking release) suggesting that masking release is determined by listeners' ability to decode the information in the dips.(consistent with Kwon and Turner, 2001.)

  • Future directions???????Investigate recognition of narrow band pass filtered speech from HI listenersDifferent degrees and configuration of HLCompare the perceptual weight function of NH and HI listeners by using sentence recognition in different types of noise.Implications

    Explain more details about Bacon and Dubnos study verballyhalf-gain rule: frequently used to fit hearing aids. It is based on hearing threshold. The amount of gain needed for a HI listener to have comfortable but loud enough speech level is approximately half the amount of threshold loss.Emphasize similarity between NH and HI in quiet and steady noise but discrepancy in gated noise!I also calculated the amount of masking release. Simply take the differences between PC in steady noise and in modulating noise.Nelson et al. (2003) study: showed that CI listeners had little or no release from masking for sentence recognition in gated noise. Three subject groups, CI, NH and Simulation NH NH listeners who were given modified speech stimuli that simulated speech presentation through four-channel implant processing also showed significantly reduced masking release. In addition, if speech stimuli were processed in a way to simulate higher numbers of implant processing channels (more spectral resolution), the amount of masking release was significantly higherPatterson et al. suggested this model to estimate the auditory filter shape by using notched noise and it has been used quite often to investigate frequency selectivity.

    Those HI listeners who showed better MR performed also better in interrupted speech recognition.