International care workers in England: Practices and identities Dr Shereen Hussein Prof Jill...

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  • Slide 1
  • International care workers in England: Practices and identities Dr Shereen Hussein Prof Jill Manthorpe Dr Martin Stevens
  • Slide 2
  • Introduction Migrant workers in social care in the UK The study Theoretical frameworks Findings Conclusions Taken from Guardian website 26-03-2008
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  • Evidence on international recruitment Migrant or migrant care worker make up 16% of the UK care workforce Increased demand for care workers population ageing, high levels of female employment greater survival of people with long-term health conditions and disabilities Rapid rises in labour migration, often related to shortages of labour in health and social care sectors (Misra, 2003, Elrick and Lewandowska, 2008, Doyle and Timonen, 2009) Migration and increasingly important political and social issue changing migration regulations 11th November 200911 th November 2009
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  • The study Funded by the Social Care Workforce Research Initiative of the English Department of Health 1.Review of literature, interviews with recruitment agencies & key stakeholders (35 interviews) 2.Analysis of national statistical data (international social workers - 7K; and recent migrants working in the care sector NMDS-SC - 5K) 3.In-depth 6 study sites interviewing migrant care workers, their colleagues/managers and service users/carers (196) 4.Interviews with a national sample of asylum seekers, refugees and people working with them (23) 4
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  • Migrant care workers participating in the study Country of birth Commonwealth (32) EU14 (excluding UK) (8) EU A8 (13) EU A2 (1) Other EEA (1) Zimbabwe (5) Philippines (21) US (1) Nigeria (4) Other countries (10) Reason for coming to the UK Recruited from my country for a specific job (32) Offered a work permit to work in a specific job (6) Accompanying a family member (24) An overseas student (14) An asylum seeker/refugee (2) Holiday/short visit (12) Looking for work (moving from EU) (6)
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  • Models of migration motivations Standard economic maximization models Economic motives within household decision making Search theoretic models Social mobility/social status migration motives
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  • Motivations of migrant care workers Gendered nature of care work therefore female perspective important - under theorised Womens motivations incorporate more than individual factors eg family norms and gender roles (De Yong, 2000) Macro and micro economic factors important and interact eg Filipino migrant care workers (often nurses)sending money home (Menjivar et al. 1998 Personal and professional factors are also important (eg for nurses: Ryan and Coughlan 2009) Importance of inter country dynamics Similarity of social work/ social care work context (Valios 2008) Differences in terms of workloads (Sale 2002) Care work as means of coping and stepping stone to other work (MacGregor, 2007)
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  • Theoretical framework individual perspective Motive Experience in the sector Intermediate factors Future plans
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  • Motivations to come to the UK Positive views of the UK its my dream to come here to England (Nurse, Commonwealth - 412) Build on previous skills I decided [to come to England] because before in my country, Im working in the hospital and Ive experience in home for the aged as well (Nurse, Commonwealth - 412). Financial motives It [main motive] was more about money, I would think, in the beginning. I thought I wouldnt stay here longer in care (Senior care worker, A8 - 518). Following spouse/family Other motives Broaden horizons Return to former profession Passion for English language Bringing spouse/family
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  • Motivations by country of origin CommonwealthPhilippinesEEAOther countries Positive views of UKFinancialPassion for English language Build on previous work Builds on previous work Following spouse Broaden horizonPositive views of UKFinancialPositive views of UK Stepping stoneBringing familyPassion for English language FinancialStepping stoneGain qualifications Following spouseBroaden horizonPositive views of UKBringing family Following spouseBroaden horizon Bringing familyKeen to work in social care Build on previous work Broaden horizon Gain qualifications Stepping stone
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  • Main motivations to work in social care Altruism (wanting to help others in difficult situations); Its that, whenever I see vulnerable people or old aged people, its that it really touches my heart. (Senior care worker, Commonwealth - 508) Better than previous UK jobs (mainly factory jobs); I took one other job in an agency and I didnt enjoy it, so one of my friends told me you can try caring, so I thought it would be good and I gave it a try and it really work so I choose that one. (Care assistant, other countries- 430) Social care sector is easy to get into; I started to work as a care worker. It was the first job I could get. The first available one. (Nurse, A8- 244) Social care is a good career. Working in one sector will make you ready to work in another sector. You dont need other training to work in one place. With your experience you can work in other places. (Social worker, Nigeria - 615) In most cases, multiple interacting motivation
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  • Intermediary factors Level of skills/qualifications Language skills Skills and prior experience Historical and current links between home country and England Variations in organisation of care services - So thats the difference, [here] we are more dependent. Here you cannot take your decision, you can, but in terms of how much is less decided. (Social worker, Commonwealth - 310 ) Personal factors Non work stress (over half) (eg sending money home or separation from family) Time in the UK
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  • Common experiences of working in UK social care Valuing the Caring Role That particular woman said to me, she said, she said, you are the only one I remember who stood there and spoke to me and she smiled at me. I thought, you couldnt have seen me. She said she could....She said you were the only one who treated me like a human. That means such a lot. Ive never forgotten it. Ive never forgotten it. (Care worker, Commonwealth - 248) Demands and stress Workload - We dont have octopus hands (Care assistant, Philppines 228). Emotional demands - My main calls are really because they are alone and that hurts me. It does, terribly (Care assistant Commonwealth - 248) Working with challenging service users - It can be, because your residents can be challenging and upset and other days, it can be all calm and serene and nice. From one day to another, you dont know what you are going to get. (UK care assistant 111 ) Administrative work Low pay and status
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  • Working relationships Supportive employers Well, actually the management here are very equal. Everybody gets support from them. They give all the trainees all the hours if you want, you know. Theres no limitation. Of course theres always limitations, but what I mean is they are always giving us equal opportunities. Im happy that I am working with them in this place. (Senior care worker, Philippines - 316) Less supportive employers I should think she was more of authoritative in a way, whatever she says because this is how she feels and thats it. (Social worker, Commonwealth 310) Colleagues When I first came over to the UK and certainly like in any post as a foreign worker I think it takes you longer to kind of get good working friendships. (OT, Commonwealth 516)
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  • Working with people from different cultures Complex web of culture interchange within social care services. Breaking cultural rules Even though if a White girl goes out to assess a British older woman, she doesnt see anything wrong with the woman staying by herself, but for me I tend to feel concerned, there should be somebody around. So its going to be a kind of a training or a kind of lecture about that.(Social worker, Nigeria - 615) Language and skin colour may be used as markers to classify, and negatively evaluate, others cultures (Johnstone and Kanitsaki 2008). Mutual respect (positive and negative) Interpersonal relationships overcome cultural differences? Time overcomes cultural differences Local context
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  • Experiences of racism Over two thirds of the migrant workers in the research sites (68/96)gave accounts of racist behaviour of: employers, colleagues service users Differential experiences of different ethnic groups Visible social markers Being foreign Accounts of mistreatment on the grounds of language were fairly evenly spread Time reduces racism
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  • Conclusion Multiple motives reflect different models economic and mobility general and for status macro and micro economic Interactions between motives to migrate and to work in social work and social care Interactions between motives, experiences and intermediary factors? Identity, ethnicity, gender and country/region of origin all important Time in host country