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  • VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for the American Counseling Association by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to provide a means of capturing the ideas, information and experiences generated by the annual ACA Conference and selected ACA Division Conferences. Papers on a program or practice that has been validated through research or experience may also be submitted. This digital collection of peer-reviewed articles is authored by counselors, for counselors. VISTAS Online contains the full text of over 500 proprietary counseling articles published from 2004 to present.

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  • 91

    Article 10

    Interfaith Marriage and Counseling Implications

    Tammy J. Shaffer

    A sense of shared spirituality or faith can enhance a marriage. When joint religious activities have symbolic meaning, couples have increased marital satisfaction (Fiese & Tomcho, 2001). Gottman (1999) asserts that counselors should be aware of how couples’ religious beliefs impact marriage. Spiritual convictions can affirm a relationship, help a couple bond through shared values and beliefs, and encourage participation in shared activities (Fiese & Tomcho).

    Defining Interfaith Marriage

    According to Joanides (2004), interfaith marriage is a marriage wherein the partners belong to different faith groups, such as a non-Christian married to a Greek Orthodox Christian.

    Counselors need to be aware of what roles spirituality and faith have in the relationship of their clients. Eaton (1994) asserts counselors should be aware of the purpose of counseling interfaith couples:

    Treatment requires dealing with family systems dynamics while educating the couple about the role of cultural difference in their relationship. The goal of treatment is to assist the couple to view their differences flexibly and use them to their advantage while they develop a blended culture that satisfies their individual and partnership needs, including the religious and spiritual. (p. 210)

    Jillian Joncas TextBox Suggested APA style reference: Shaffer, T. J. (2008). Interfaith marriage and counseling implications. In G. R. Walz, J. C. Bleuer, & R. K. Yep (Eds.), Compelling counseling interventions: Celebrating VISTAS' fifth anniversary (pp. 91-100). Ann Arbor, MI: Counseling Outfitters.

  • Compelling Counseling Interventions


    However, Gottman elaborates that recognition of a couples’ belief system is not enough, as simple “knowledge of shared beliefs is not adequate for understanding how they are used in the marriage on a day-to-day basis” (1999, p. 141).

    Family of Origin and Marriage

    Family of origin significantly impacts religious practices of couples; it is important to explore family of origin traditions and associated meaning and significance when discussing a couples’ current religious perspectives (Fiese & Tomcho, 2001). Patsavos and Joanides (2000) assert that:

    Intermarriages are richer, more complex marital systems due in large part to both partners’ religious, cultural, and in some cases, racial differences. As such, the challenges these couples potentially face in their efforts to cultivate a religious environment in their homes tend to be greater in number and qualitatively different than the challenges that single faith, single cultural couples might typically encounter. (p. 218)

    Counselors must be aware of the multitude of religious and cultural diversity issues they may see in counseling couples. Partners may have differing degrees of devoutness to their religious heritage. Gottman (1999) asserts:

    Marriage is a new culture, reflecting the partners’ unique ways of making this journey through life meaningful. To the extent that the couple can create shared meaning, the friendship is greatly enhanced, as is their ability to deal with conflict. (p.173)

    Eaton (1994) avows effective counseling of interfaith couples involves assisting the couple in identifying how family issues are processed and distinguishing those issues from culturally based differences that become difficult only when they are rigidified in the relationship. A major goal of treatment is to assist the couple to regard their differences flexibly and use them to their advantage

  • Interfaith Marriage and Counseling Implications


    while they develop a unique, blended culture. Couples may be anywhere on a spectrum from destructively emphasizing their difference in background to being unaware that difference is playing a role in their problems.

    Differences couples experience must be addressed and “similarities between partners and differences between partners and their parents need to be emphasized in order to strengthen the couple bond and increase the boundaries between the couple and their parents” (Eaton, 1994, p. 211). Sherkat (2004) asserts couples possessing differing religious viewpoints may be affected in many arenas, including conflict with one’s spouse, domestic violence, divorce, and struggles regarding fertility. Lehrer and Chiswick (as cited in Lehrer, 1998) report the divorce rate for homogenous faith couples ranges from 13% to 27%; the divorce rate for heterogamous faith couples ranges from 24% to 42%. Sussman &Alexander (1999) also report a higher divorce rate among heterogamous faith couples.

    The Process of Counseling versus the Content

    Gottman (1999) asserts content of the issue is not as important as the process of how the issue is avoided or addressed. He contends that similarity is not a critical issue in determining the success or failure of a marriage; it is the perception of the differences that is the issue:

    The formation of a marriage and a family involves the creation of a new culture that has never existed before. Even if the two people come from the same racial, ethnic, and geographic background, their families of origin will be very different, and so their union will inevitably involve the creation of a new world of meaning. (Gottman, 1999, p.109)

    Eaton (1994) states that if an interfaith couple is able to discuss their religious differences and respect differing viewpoints and traditions, they are better able to make constructive use of their dissimilarities, and support “the partners’ development of their individual religious-spiritual practices and identities, while they create a new blended culture that expresses their goals and values” (p. 213).

  • Compelling Counseling Interventions


    Similarity of Values and Impact on Marital Harmony

    It is interesting to note that when couples belong to different faiths, differing magnitudes of detachment between them and their spouse’s family are formed. This resulting detachment is especially pronounced when both spouses are strongly committed to their religious background; this is further exacerbated when couples have not given measured contemplation on how their spiritual divergence impacts their marital and family stability, functioning, and routines (Joanides, Mayhew, & Mamalakis, 2002). Couples functioning well minimize theological differences and focus upon those behaviors and ideas they have in common (Joanides et al.). Many interfaith couples regard religious differences as having a positive impact on them as individuals, couples, and families (Joanides, in press). Eaton (1994) also asserts that interfaith marriages can result in increased personal satisfaction and self-awareness, stating:

    The ultimate advantage of a successful interfaith marriage lies in its ability to give the partners a broader range of options for action and meaning-making than those learned in the family of origin. Because automatic assumptions about meaning in life are less easy to maintain in an interfaith marriage, partners are more likely to consciously develop a sense of core values and purposes. The successful creation of a blended culture yields a richly supportive mix of ancient traditions and unique rituals and routines that express the beliefs and fill the needs of the couple. (p. 211)

    Much research indicates similarity in values and faiths is necessary for marital stability and harmony (Chinitz & Brown, 2001). Lazerwitz (as cited in Chinitz & Brown) states religiously heterogeneous marriages result in increased marital happiness and decreased divorce rate. Other research indicates that interfaith marriages actually have a higher likelihood of ending in divorce than homogenous marriages, though the specific factors involved have not been delineated (Chinitz & Brown). It is noteworthy that the preponderance of research concerning the impact of religious

  • Interfaith Marriage and Counseling Implications


    differences and marital satisfaction is concerned with major Christian denomination (Chinitz & Brown). Much less research is available concernin