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Transcript of Interest articulation
Chapter Four Interest Articulation
Del Castillo, Arambala, Amora, Quisado and Fuentes
Interest ArticulationProcess or way for citizens and social groups to express their needs and demands to the government. Examples: contacting a city council member; groups working together on a common concern
Citizen ActionOne dimension of interest articulation: What can you do as an individual citizen? Voting in an election most common form of activityWorking with others in their community/typically very policy focusedDirect contact with governmentProtests or other forms of contentious action
In large, established political systems, formal interest groups are a primary means of promoting political interests. Political interest might be expressed and represented in political systems. Ex. Labor Unions, Associations, Groups
How Citizens ParticipateActivity extends beyond elections.Many of these activities are identified with middle-class participation in affluent societies.Frequent activity found in advanced industrial democraciesDirect action most expressive and visible form of citizen actionA majority in most nations have signed a petition (not considered unconventional any more)Many different sectors of society now use protests and direct action.French more protest involvementRussians 4% in 1990, but ten years later the number is up to 25%
How Citizens ParticipateCross-national research shows that better-educated and higher social class individuals are more likely to use various opportunities for participation.Those who are more active in articulating their interests are more likely to have their interests addressed by policymakers.
Interest GroupsInterest articulationCan occur through the action of social or political groups that represent groups of peopleAnomic groups spontaneous group that form suddenly bwhen many individuals respond similarly to frustration, disappointment or other strong emotions.
Ex. Marcos burial activists
Nonassociational groups working class as a collective and and they are based on common interest and identities 2 types *Large groups not formally organized and their activity is epidodic *Small villages or economic or ethnic subgroup - know each other personally.
Institutional groups the labor department within government, political partiesAssociational groups a labor union, civic groups, religious associations.
Civil SocietyA society in which people are involved in social and political interactions free of state control or regulationPeople learn how to organize , how to express their interest and how to achieve common goals.
Group activity can help citizens develop and clarify their own their own preference, provide important information about political events and articulate the interest citizens more clearly and precisely than parties and elections..
Individual and groups in one nation are connected to groups with similar concerns in other nations, and jointly reinforce their individual efforts
Interest Group SystemsThe nature of the connection between interest groups and government policymaking institutions is another important feature of the political process.
Pluralist Interest Group Systems*Multiple groups may represent a single society interest.*Group membership is voluntary and limited.*Groups often have a loose or decentralized organizational structure.*There is a clear separation between interest groups and the government.
Democratic Corporatist Interest Group Systems*A single peak association normally represents each societal interest.*Membership in the peak association is often compulsory and nearly universal.*Peak associations are centrally organized and direct the actions of their members.*Groups are often systematically involved in making and implementing policy.
Controlled Interest Group SystemsThere is a single group for each social sector.Membership is often compulsory.Each group is normally hierarchically organized.Groups are controlled by the government or its agents in order to mobilize support for government policy.
Access to the InfluentialTo be effective, interest groups must be able to reach key policymakers through channels of political access.*Legitimate and constitutional channels of access. *Illegitimate, coercive access channels of access
Legitimate Access ChannelsPersonal connectionsFace-to-face contact is one of the most effective means of shaping attitudes and conveying messages.Mass mediaPolitical partiesLegislaturesGovernment bureaucracies
Coercive Access Channels and TacticsFeelings of relative deprivation motivate people to act aggressively.Source of frustration, discontent, and angerGreater discontent/anger yields greater probability of collective violenceRiots (often spontaneous)Strikes/obstructions (coordinated)Political terror tacticsAssassination, armed attacks, mass bloodshedMore likely to produce negative consequences
Policy Perspectives on Interest ArticulationIf we are to understand the formation of policies, we need to know which groups articulate interest , and what policy preferences they expressVaried possibilities for legitimate and coercive interest articulation exist in each nation.
Interest Group DevelopmentDiversity of interest groups is a byproduct of modernization.Modernization
Thank you and God bless -Fuentes