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  • C A N A D A I N C O M P A R A T I V E P E R S P E C T I V E

    Interest Articulation and Aggregation

  • Interest Articulation

     The term interest articulation refers to the ways that citizens express their needs, views and demands to government

     Interests can be articulated by individual citizens or by groups citizens who organize to represent their collective interests

  • Social Capital

     A term made popular by

    American political scientist

    Robert Putnam

     Social capital refers to

    connections among individuals

    – social networks and the norms

    of reciprocity and trustworthiness

    that arise from them

  • Social Capital and Democracy

     Putnam argued that there is a strong positive connection between social capital and democracy

     Social engagement  political engagement successful democracy

     Bridging and bonding

    social capital

  • Class and Participation

     Better educated and higher social status individuals are more likely to engage in political participation

     These individuals tend to have a stronger sense of political efficacy and civic duty

     They also possess the personal resources and skills needed to be politically active

  • Types of Citizen Participation

     Voting (in elections and referenda)

     Joining interest groups or political parties

     Signing a petition

     Participating in a


     Political consumerism

  • Interest Articulation

    If the university doubled tuition rates in response to provincial cutbacks to post-

    secondary education funding, how would you respond?

  • Interest Groups

     A collection of individuals who have decided to pursue common political goals

     Do not seek to control

    the entire machinery of

    government, but do seek

    to influence the political


  • Types of Interest Groups

     Anomic

     Non-associational

     Institutional

     Associational

  • Interest Group Systems

     Pluralist interest group systems

     Neo-Corporatist interest group


     Controlled interest group systems

  • Determinants of Interest Group Influence

     Numbers

     Cohesion

     Organizational skills

     Leadership

     Nature of the Issue

  • Strategies and Access

     Lobbying

     Mass-oriented activities

     Access points to


  • Violence and Protest

    Is violence a legitimate form of protest and interest articulation?

  • Interest Aggregation

     The activity in which the political demands of individuals and groups are combined in policy programs

     The means through which

    articulated interests are

    channeled into the political


  • Types of Interest Aggregation

     Personal interest aggregation  Patron-client networks

     Institutional interest aggregation  Connections between collective interests

    such as interest groups and political

    vehicles such as political parties

     Competition between institutional groups

  • Party Systems

     Competitive Party Systems

     Consensual Party System

     Conflictual Party System

     Consociational Party System

     One Party Competitive Systems

     Authoritarian Party Systems

  • Types of Political Parties

     Internally created: their founders were politicians who already held seats in the national assembly or other political offices

     Externally created: parties that

    organized outside parliament

    before they became a force inside

    that institution

  • Election Systems

     Single Member Plurality or

    “First Past the Post”

     Majority Run-off

     Proportional Representation

  • Discussion Question

    Should voting in elections and referenda be mandatory in Canada?

  • Authoritarian Party Systems

     Exclusive Governing Party System

     Inclusive Governing Party


     Military Regimes