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  • 15 22 June 2009Proceedings of the Regional Workshop

    Integrated Tourism Concepts to Contribute to Sustainable Mountain Development in NepalEditors: Ester Kruk, Hermann Kreutzmann and Jrgen Richter

    April 2011

  • 15 22 June 2009Proceedings of the Regional Workshop

    Integrated Tourism Concepts to Contribute to Sustainable Mountain Development in NepalEditors: Ester Kruk, Hermann Kreutzmann and Jrgen Richter

  • 2

    Contents

    List of Tables, Figures and Boxes 6

    Acronyms 8

    Preface 10

    Welcome Address by ICIMOD 12Madhav Karki

    Welcome Address: Tourism Development in Tibet Autonomous Region of China 13Zerenzhuoma on behalf of Chinese Delegation

    Section 1. Introduction 15

    1.1 Tourism and Sustainable Mountain Development in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas 15Ester Kruk

    1.2 Outline of Objectives and Workshop Programme 30Pitamber Sharma

    1.3 Overview of Publication 32Ester Kruk

    Section 2. Tourism in Nepal 40

    2.1 Sustainable Mountain Tourism Development in Nepal: An Historical Perspective 40Pitamber Sharma

    2.2 Nepals Approach to Tourism Development 48Sunil Sharma and Udaya Bhattarai

    2.3 Tourism Development and its Impacts: Perceptions of Host Communities 67Dipendra Purush Dhakal

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    Section 3. Case Studies 96

    3.1 Community-Based Pro-Poor Tourism: Lessons from TRPAP 96Rabi Jung Pandey

    3.2 An Overview of Sustainable Tourism Development in Bhaktapur 113Basudev Lamichhane

    3.3 Tourism Development in Annapurna Conservation Area 126Siddhartha B. Bajracharya

    3.4 Community-Based Rural Tourism in Ghalegaon, Lamjung, Nepal: A Case Study 143Chet Nath Kanel

    Section 4. Transboundary Tourism 154

    4.1 Role of Actors and Institutions in Regional Tourism Development in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan Region 154Nakul Chettri

    4.2 Planning and Governance in Cross-Border Tourism Development 171Lisa Choegyal

    4.3 Prospects for Cooperative Development of Tourism in the China-Nepal Border Area and the Case Study of Zhangmu Town 190Tubden Kyedrub and Liu Yajing

    Section 5. Interactions with Stakeholders and Presentation of Field Work Results 203

    5.1 Presentation on Sustainable Tourism Linking Conservation and Development, an Experience of the Annapurna Conservation Area 204Anu Lama

    5.2 Brief Introduction to the Jomsom Mothers Group 206Mohan Gauchan

    5.3 Remarks by Jomsom Womens Group 207Rajani Sherchan

    5.4 Remarks by Mustang District Development Committee 207Man Kumar Gyawali

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    5.5 Presentation of Findings and Recommendations from Field Trip to Marpha 208Samtenla Sherpa

    5.6 Presentation of Findings and Recommendations from Field Trip to Kagbeni 210Gyaneshwor Mahato

    Section 6. Group Work and Findings of Xinjiang Group and Tibet Autonomous Region Group 214

    6.1 Findings of the Xinjiang Group Discussion 214Zhang Hai Ming

    6.2 Findings of the Tibet Autonomous Region Group Discussion 215Zerenzhuoma

    Section 7. Presentation of Sustainable Mountain Tourism Strategy and Action Plans 217

    7.1 Guiding Questions for Group Discussion on Sustainable Mountain Tourism Strategy 217

    7.2 Presentation of Group Work on Sustainable Mountain Tourism Strategy for Nepal 218Sunil Sharma

    7.3 Guiding Questions for Group Discussion on Cross-Border Tourism 220

    7.4 Presentation of Group A on Recommendations for Exchange of Information to Foster Cross-Border Tourism 220Shiva Jaishi

    7.5 Presentation of Group B on Recommendations for Joint Marketing or Branding of Cross-Border Tourism 222Zerenzhuoma

    7.6 Presentation of Group C on Recommendations for Development of Pro-Poor Cross-Border Tourism Products and Joint Product Development 223Sudip Adhikari

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    Section 8. Report on Pakistan-China Regional Workshop on Integrated Tourism Concepts in Gilgit, Pakistan and Kashgar, Peoples Republic of China 225

    8.1 Presentation of Report on Integrated Tourism Concepts 225Yasir Hussain

    Section 9. Final Statements by Delegation Representatives 229

    9.1 Final Statements by Delegation Representatives 229Delegation Representatives

    Section 10. From Ideas to Action 231

    10.1 Reflections by Workshop Chair 231Pitamber Sharma

    Annex 1. Workshop Programme 233

    Annex 2. List of Workshop Participants 237

  • 6

    List of Tables, Figures and Boxes

    Table 2.2.1: Tourist arrivals Nepal (19622008)Table 2.2.2: Tourist arrivals Nepal by purpose of visit (19902008)Table 2.2.3: Nepals main tourism source markets (19992011) by percentageTable 2.3.1: Mountaineering royalties for peaks in Nepal, March-May 2008Table 2.3.2: Trekking fee structure in NepalTable 2.3.3: Information on buffer zones and conservation areas in Nepal

    (as at 2008)Table 2.3.4: Revenue of the Nepal Mountaineering AssociationTable 3.2.1: Visitors and tourism entrance fee revenue, Bhaktapur (19932010)Table 3.4.1: Tourist arrivals in Ghalegaon (20012007)Table 4.1.1: Paradigm shift in tourism planning in ChinaTable 4.2.1: National visitor projections for SASEC countries by 2020Table 4.3.1: Tourism revenue and arrivals for Zhangmu (20042008)Table 8.1.1: Major recommendations and action points

    Figure 1.1.1: Map Hindu Kush-Himalayas Figure 1.2.1: Overall structure and logic of the workshopFigure 2.2.1: International tourist arrivals (19502020)Figure 2.2.2: Organigramm Nepal Tourism BoardFigure 3.1.1: Institutional linkages in TRPAPFigure 3.2.1: Map of Bhaktapur District Figure 3.2.2: Product diversification: Potential new tourist activities in

    Bhaktapur districtFigure 3.3.1: Map protected areas of NepalFigure 3.3.2: Annapurna Conservation Area elevation zonesFigure 3.3.3: Annual number of foreign visitors to Annapurna

    Conservation AreaFigure 3.3.4: Signposting in Annapurna Conservation Area

    (Mt Machhapuchhare)Figure 3.3.5: Annapurna-South from LandrukFigure 4.1.1: Regional trade in the transboundary region of KhumbuFigure 4.1.2: Local to global linkages in pro-poor tourism: A conceptual

    frameworkFigure 4.2.1: SASEC Key AreasFigure 4.2.2: Current SASEC tourism patternsFigure 4.2.3: Future SASEC tourism patternsFigure 4.2.4: Great Himalaya Trail development concept NepalFigure 4.3.1: Conventional border tourism marketFigure 4.3.2: Cross-border tourist markets

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    Box 1.1.1: Economic impact of international tourism in South Asia Box 2.2.1: Present focus of Nepal Tourism Boards activitiesBox 2.3.1: Sagarmatha National Park Buffer Zone Management CommitteeBox 3.1.1: Tamang Heritage Trail, RasuwaBox 3.1.2: Eco-Treks at Phortse, SolukhumbuBox 3.1.3: Lumbini Village TourBox 3.1.4: Steps for the development of community-based pro-poor tourismBox 3.2.1: Festivals and ritual dances in BhaktapurBox 3.2.2: Cultural promotionBox 3.2.3: Major objectives of Bhaktapur Tourism Development and

    Management PlanBox 3.4.1: Traditional sheep farming in GhalegaonBox 3.4.2: Tourist activities in GhalegaonBox 3.4.3: Management model and stakeholders: Key highlightsBox 3.4.4: Promotional activitiesBox 4.1.1: Roles, responsibilities and activities of different groups involved

    in the promotion of ecotourism in Sikkim, IndiaBox 4.2.1: SASEC Tourism Development Plan programmes 2004Box 4.2.2: Sub-regional training workshops for Human Resource

    Development and Capacity Building in the Tourism Sector Project

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    Acronyms

    ACA Annapurna Conservation AreaACAP Annapurna Conservation Area ProjectADB Asian Development BankAPETIT Asia-Pacific Education and Training Institutes in TourismAPPA Appreciative Participatory Planning and ActionASEAN Association of South East Asian NationsAST Annapurna Sanctuary TrailAVTDC Annapurna Village Tourism Development CommitteeBIMSTEC Bay of Bengal Initiative of Multi-Sectoral Technical and

    Economic CooperationBTDC Bhaktapur Tourism Development CommitteeBZ buffer zoneBZMC buffer zone management councilBZUC buffer zone users committeeBZUG buffer zone users groupCAMC conservation area management committeeCBO community-based organisationCBS Central Bureau of StatisticsCBST community-based sustainable tourismCIPRA Commission Internationale pour La Protection des Alpes

    (International Commission for Protection of the Alps)CO community organisationCST controlled sustainable tourismDDC district development committeeDFID Department for International DevelopmentDNPWC Department of National Parks and Wildlife ConservationFG functional groupFIT free independent travellerFNCCI Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and IndustryFY fiscal yearGDP gross domestic productGHT Great Himalaya TrailGIZ Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbHGTDSC Ghalegaon Tourism Development Sub-CommitteeHKH Hindu Kush-Himalayas/HimalayanICIMOD International Centre for Integrated Mountain DevelopmentINGO international non-government organisationInWEnt Capacity Building International GermanyIUCN International Union for Conservation of NatureKCA Kangchenjunga Conservation AreaKCAMC Kangchenjunga Conservation Area Management Council

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    KCAP Kangchenjunga Conservation Area ProjectKMTNC King Mahendra Trust for Nature ConservationLTO local tourism organisationMCAP Manaslu Conservation Area ProjectMoCTCA Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil AviationMoTCA Ministry of Tourism and Civil AviationNGO non-government organisationNMA Nepal Mountaineering AssociationNPR Nepali RupeeNTB Nepal Tourism BoardNTNC National Trust for Nature ConservationNTO national tourism organisationNTY Nepal Tourism YearSAARC South Asian Association for Regional CooperationSASEC South Asia Sub-Regional Economi