Instructional Implications of Common Core English Language ......Instructional Implications of...
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Instructional Implications of Common Core English Language Arts Standards
Michael L. KamilStanford University
PLAN FOR EARLY LITERACY
• IMPORTANT FACTORS IN EARLY READING
• COMMON STANDARDS AND EARLY LITERACY
• ALIGNMENT ISSUES
• RESEARCH BASED PRACTICES
SKILLS THAT PREDICT LATER READING• Alphabet Knowledge• Phonemic Awareness• Concepts about print• Oral language• Print awareness• Writing or writing name• RAN letters and digits• RAN objects and colors• Phonological STM• Visual perception
RAPID AUTOMATIC NAMING
• Rapid naming of sequentially repeating random sets of letters, digits, or both.
• Rapid naming of sequentially repeating random sets of pictures of objects (e.g., “car,” “tree,” “house,” “man”) or colors.
CONCEPTS ABOUT PRINT
• Knowledge of print conventions (e.g., left–right, front–back) and concepts (book cover, author, text).
• Combines elements of Alphabet Knowledge, concepts about print, and protodecoding (beginning or early decoding).
National Early Literacy Panel Report:
COMMON CORE STANDARDS
• Currently K-5; 6-12
• Working on Early Childhood Standards
• Foundation Skills
Standard K 1 2
Key Ideas and Details
Craft and Structure
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas Text Complexity
Key Ideas and Details (INFO AND LIT)
K. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
1. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
2. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
Craft and Structure (LIT)
K. Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.
1. Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.
2. Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
Craft and Structure (INFO)
K. Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.
1. Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text.
2. Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas (INFO)
K. With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.
1. Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.
2. Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas (LIT)
K. Not applicable to literature
1. Not applicable to literature
2. Not applicable to literature
• PRINT CONCEPTS
• PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS
• PHONICS and WORD RECOGNITION
• (VOCABULARY and COMPREHENSION)
• SKILLS ALIGNED TO STANDARDS
• INTERVENTION ALIGNED TO SKILLS, RESEARCH, AND STANDARDS
• ASSESSMENTS ALIGNED TO SKILLS IN INTERVENTION
• EVALUATION ALIGNED TO ALL OF THE ABOVE
BUT, IT MUST BE “DOABLE”
• ALIGNED TO • INTERVENTION• SKILLS• STANDARDS
• TEACHER vs STUDENT FOCUS
DOING WHAT WORKSEarly Literacy
• PHONEMIC AWARENESS
• SHARED BOOK READING• Interactive• Dialogic
PLAN FOR ADOLESCENT LITERACY
• NEED FOR ADOLESCENT LITERACY
• COMMON STANDARDS AND ADOLESCENT LITERACY
• GOALS FOR ADOLESCENT LITERACY
• RESEARCH BASED PRACTICES
ACT, The Forgotten Middle, 2008
Chance of Later SuccessScience Mathematics
College Ready Skills
ELA, Mathematics, Science, History
Comprehend and evaluate complex text across disciplines.
Construct effective arguments and convey multifaceted information.
BUILD STRONG CONTENT KNOWLEDGE
Build knowledge in different subjects.
Become proficient in new areas.
Refine knowledge and share it.
RESPOND TO DEMANDS OF AUDIENCE, TASK, AND DISCIPLINE
Consider context in reading.
Know that different disciplines use different evidence.
COMPREHEND AND CRITIQUE
Open-minded, skeptical, readers.
Understand what authors are saying.
Question an author’s assumptions.
Assess the veracity of claims.
Cite text evidence for interpretations.
Make reasoning clear.
Evaluate others’ use of evidence.
CARE ABOUT PRECISION
Mindful of impact of vocabulary.
Compare meanings of different choices.
Attend to when precision matters.
LOOK FOR AND CRAFT STRUCTURE
Attend to structure when reading.
Understand presenting information in different disciplines.
Understand how author’s craft relates to setting and plot.
USE TECHNOLOGY STRATEGICALLY AND CAPABLY
Employ technology thoughtfully.
Efficiently search online for information.
Integrate online and offline information.
Select best suited media for goals.
Determine both what the text says explicitly and inferentially.
2. Evaluate assertions about the text by citing evidence from the text.
3. Summarize the most important ideas, events, or information.
4. Delineate main ideas and details that elaborate or support them.
5. Determine relationships between events in text.
6. Analyze the traits, motivations, and thoughts of individuals in fiction.
7. Understand vocabulary, connotations and figurative meanings.
8. Analyze how specific word choices shape meaning and tone.
9. Analyze how text structure presents argument, explanation, or narrative.
10. Relate parts of text to overall meaning.
11. Synthesize data and visual elements with conventional print.
12. Locate key information efficiently from text features, search techniques.
13. Ascertain origin, credibility, and accuracy of sources.
14. Evaluate reasoning supporting arguments or explanations.
15. Analyze two or more texts of differing in perspective, or argument.
16. Use relevant prior knowledge to enhance comprehension.
17. Build coherent understanding or solve problems by reading.
18. Demonstrate facility in reading texts from different disciplines.
By immersing themselves in literature, students enlarge their experiences and deepen their understanding of their own and other cultures.
Because most college and workplace reading is nonfiction, students need to hone their ability to acquire knowledge from informational texts.
Students must be able to integrate what they learn from reading text with what they learn from audio, video, and other digital media.
Procedural texts convey information in the form of directions for accomplishing a task.
Such text is composed of discrete steps in a strict sequence, with an implicit end product or goal.
Documents require readers to draw on information presented as short continuous prose and also as columns, matrices, or other formats.
Document structures can be simple or complex, embeded or “nested” information w ithin the document structure.
Students must have the capacity to handle independently the quantity of reading material, in print and online, required in college and workforce training.
The amount of reading in high school is often far lower than that required for typical first-year college courses.
INDEPENDENCE and TEXT
The scaffolding for reading in school disappears in college and at work.
To become independent, students must encounter unfamiliar texts without supporting materials.
NAEP TEXT TAXONOMY
Differentiated texts• Literary text
• Literary nonfiction • essay, speech, biography
• Information text
• Argumentation and persuasion
• Document and procedural
Style and Language
Electronic text or Hypertext:
A text with navigation tools that requires nonsequential reading.
Readers construct “customised” texts from portions of text.
Not all text is present.
GRADE LITERARY INFORMATION
4 50% 50%
8 45% 55%
12 30% 70%
Distribution of Text Types
NAEP 2009 PISA 2009
Accessing and retrieving
Integrating and interpreting
Reflecting and evaluating
PRACTICE GUIDE/DWW Adolescent Literacy
Explicit Comprehension Strategy
Discussion Around Text
Motivation and Engagement
Instructional Implications of Common Core English Language Arts StandardsPLAN FOR EARLY LITERACYSKILLS THAT PREDICT LATER READINGRAPID AUTOMATIC NAMINGCONCEPTS ABOUT PRINTPRINT AWARENESSMORE INFORMATIONCOMMON CORE STANDARDSSlide Number 9Key Ideas and Details (INFO AND LIT)Craft and Structure (LIT)Craft and Structure (INFO)Integration of Knowledge and Ideas (INFO)Integration of Knowledge and Ideas (LIT)FOUNDATION SKILLSALIGNMENT DOMAINSSlide Number 17PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENTDOING WHAT WORKS�Early LiteracySlide Number 20PLAN FOR ADOLESCENT LITERACYACT, The Forgotten Middle, 2008Slide Number 23Slide Number 24Slide Number 25Slide Number 26COMMON STANDARDSDEMONSTRATE INDEPENDENCEBUILD STRONG CONTENT KNOWLEDGERESPOND TO DEMANDS OF AUDIENCE, TASK, AND DISCIPLINECOMPREHEND AND CRITIQUEPRIVILEGE EVIDENCE CARE ABOUT PRECISION LOOK FOR AND CRAFT STRUCTURE USE TECHNOLOGY STRATEGICALLY AND CAPABLY Slide Number 36Slide Number 37Slide Number 38Slide Number 39Slide Number 40Slide Number 41TEXT TYPESSlide Number 43Slide Number 44Slide Number 45Slide Number 46Slide Number 47INDEPENDENCE and TEXTNAEP TEXT TAXONOMYTAXONMY (cont’d)TEXT COMPLEXITYPISA ADDS:Distribution of Text TypesCOGNITIVE TARGETSPRACTICE GUIDE/DWW �Adolescent LiteracySlide Number 56Slide Number 57