Instructional Design. Last Week: Constructivism Instructional Design Definition

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Transcript of Instructional Design. Last Week: Constructivism Instructional Design Definition

  • Slide 1
  • Instructional Design
  • Slide 2
  • Last Week: Constructivism
  • Slide 3
  • Instructional Design Definition
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  • Instructional Design Maximise the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of instruction and other learning experiences. The process consists of determining the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed.
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  • Instructional Design We can divide models of instructional design broadly into two categories MARCO: Models which concern themselves with the design and planning of an entire module or programme MICRO: Models which concern themselves with the design and planning of an individual lecture or teaching session
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  • Instructional Design The Classic Macro Model: Blooms Taxonomy
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  • Benjamin S. Bloom Born Feb 21, 1913 Died Sept 13, 1999 Born in Lansford, Pennsylvania. Educational psychologist Editor of Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain
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  • Blooms Taxonomy In the 1950s Bloom helped developed a taxonomy of cognitive objectives in Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain Means of expressing qualitatively different kinds of thinking Been adapted for classroom use as a planning tool and continues to be one of the most universally applied models Provides a way to organise thinking skills into six levels, from the most basic to the more complex levels of thinking
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  • Blooms Taxonomy
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  • Blooms Taxonomy (Meaning) Evaluation: compare and discriminate between ideas, assess value of theories, presentations make choices based on reasoned argument, verify value of evidence, recognize subjectivity Synthesis: use old ideas to create new ones, generalize from given facts, relate knowledge from several areas, predict, draw conclusions Analysis: seeing patterns, organization of parts, recognition of hidden meanings, identification of components Application: use information use methods, concepts, theories in new situations, solve problems using required skills or knowledge Comprehension: understanding information,grasp meaning, translate knowledge into new context Knowledge: observation and recall of information,knowledge of dates, events, places knowledge of major ideas
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  • Blooms Taxonomy (Verbs) Evaluation: appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose compare, defend estimate, judge, predict, rate, core, select, support, value Synthesis: arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare Analysis: analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine Application: apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use Comprehension: classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review Knowledge: arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order, recognize, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce state
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  • Learning Outcomes
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  • Examples Example Exam Paper 1 Example Exam Paper 2
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  • Blooms Taxonomy Revised In the 1990s Lorin Anderson, a former student of Bloom, led a new assembly which met for the purpose of updating the taxonomy, hoping to add relevance for 21st century students and teachers Published in 2001, the revision includes several minor and major changes. The revised version of the taxonomy is intended for a much broader audience.
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  • Original Terms New Terms Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Creating Evaluating Analysing Applying Understanding Remembering
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  • Blooms Taxonomy Revised Creating: Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things. Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing. Evaluating: Justifying a decision or course of action. Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judging Analysing: Breaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships. Comparing, organising, deconstructing, interrogating, finding Applying: Using information in another familiar situation. Implementing, carrying out, using, executing Understanding: Explaining ideas or concepts. Interpreting, summarising, paraphrasing, classifying, explaining Remembering: Recalling information. Recognising, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding
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  • Blooms Taxonomy Revised
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  • Creating Green Hat, Construction Key, SCAMPER, Ridiculous Key, Combination Key, Invention Key Evaluating Brick Wall Key, Decision Making Matrix, PMI, Prioritising. Analysing Yellow Hat, Black Hat, Venn Diagram, Commonality Key, Picture Key, Y Chart, Combination Key. Applying Blue Hat, Brainstorming, Different uses Key, Reverse Listing Key, Flow Chart. Understanding Graphic Organisers, Variations Key, Reverse Listing, PMI, Webs (Inspiration). Remembering White Hat, Alphabet Key, Graphic Organisers, Acrostic, Listing, Brainstorming, Question Key.
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  • Instructional Design Other Macro Models
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  • ADDIE Model The ADDIE model is used by instructional designers and training developers. It is composed of five phases Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation Which represent a dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective training and performance support tools. This model attempts to save time and money by catching problems while they are still easy to fix.
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  • ADDIE Model
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  • ADDIE Model : A = Analysis In analysis stage of ID process, want to find out: Who are the learners or audience Audience analysis What is the goal or intended outcome Goal analysis
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  • ADDIE Model : D = Design Content of the course Subject matter analysis Steps of instruction Lesson planning-writing objectives Type of media or presentation mode Media selection
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  • ADDIE Model : D = Development Development of instruction Generate lesson plans (different from lesson planning) and lesson materials. Complete all media & materials for instruction, and supporting documents. End result is a course or workshop ready for delivery.
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  • ADDIE Model : I = Implementation The delivery of the instruction. Purpose is effective & efficient delivery of instruction. Promote students understanding of material & objectives, and ensure transfer of knowledge.
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  • ADDIE Model : E = Evaluation Two related evaluations going on simultaneously in most ID situations. Formative Evaluation Summative Evaluation
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  • ADDIE Model
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  • The elusive origins of the ADDIE Model Remarkably it appears that the ADDIE model wasnt specifically developed by any single author but rather to have evolved informally through oral tradition. The ADDIE Model is merely a colloquial term used to describe a systematic approach to instructional development.
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  • ASSURE model Analyze learners characteristics, competencies, and learning styles State objectives for what your lesson should accomplish (ABCD formataudience/behavior/condition/degree) Select, modify, and design methods, media, and materials Utilize methods, media and materialsimplement the lesson Require learner participation in lesson Evaluate learner outcomes with objectives and revise as necessary From Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning by Robert Heinich, Michael Molenda, James D. Russell, Sharon E. Smaldino
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  • The ABCD Format Audience: The audience is the group of individuals who are targeted for instruction. While at first this seems straight forward, many times employees will ask will I get anything out of this training? or should I attend this training? or who is supposed to go to this training? Without a clear-cut audience in mind, it is difficult to pinpoint exactly who gains from the training and who would be better served in a different class. Behaviour: The behaviour element of the objective indicates the desired outcome of the particular learning event. The behaviour will be stated in the following form will be able to detail properly or will be able to discuss the mechanism of action (MOA) with the doctor. The behaviour is what you want the person to be able to do as a result of the training. It is important to clarify the behaviour because training programs can get off track when the desired outcome of the training activity is not clearly defined. Condition: The term condition describes circumstances under which the behaviour should occur. An example would be when calling on a doctor, The condition describes a trigger for the desired behaviour. Degree: The term degree represents how well the employee must perform to be considered acceptable. The degree of the objective is the measurable component. Measures can be expressed as level of productivity, quantity