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  • Herausgegeben von Ch. Burmann, Bremen, Deutschland M. Kirchgeorg, Leipzig, Deutschland

    Innovatives Markenmanagement Band 55

  • Marken sind in vielen Unternehmen mittlerweile zu wichtigen Vermögenswerten geworden, die zukünftig immer häufiger auch in der Bilanz erfasst werden können. Insbesondere in reiferen Märkten ist die Marke heute oft das einzig nachhaltige Differenzierungsmerkmal im Wettbewerb. Vor diesem Hintergrund kommt der professionellen Führung von Marken eine sehr hohe Bedeutung für den Unter- nehmenserfolg zu. Dabei müssen zukünftig innovative Wege beschritten werden. Die Schriftenreihe will durch die Veröffentlichung neuester Forschungserkenntnisse Anstöße für eine solche Neuausrichtung der Markenführung liefern.

    Herausgegeben von Professor Dr. Christoph Burmann Universität Bremen, Lehrstuhl für innovatives Markenmanagement (LiM®)

    Professor Dr. Manfred Kirchgeorg HHL Leipzig Graduate School of Management, SVI-Stiftungslehrstuhl für Marketing

  • Barbara Kleine-Kalmer

    Brand Page Attachment

    An Empirical Study on Facebook Users’ Attachment to Brand Pages

    Foreword by Prof. Dr. Christoph Burmann

  • Barbara Kleine-Kalmer Bremen, Germany

    Dissertation Universität Bremen, 2015

    Innovatives Markenmanagement ISBN 978-3-658-12438-0 ISBN 978-3-658-12439-7 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-3-658-12439-7

    Library of Congress Control Number: 2016930288

    Springer Gabler © Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2016 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifi cally the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illus- trations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfi lms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specifi c statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made.

    Printed on acid-free paper

    Springer Gabler is a brand of Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden is part of Springer Science+Business Media (

  • Foreword V


    Brands evoke emotions. That is a known fact. Emotions become even more im- portant for the success of brands in the current market situation. As a result of global- ization, product and process technologies nowadays are diffusing faster and the in- ternet accelerates the widespread availability particularly of technological know-how. As a consequence of both developments, functional benefits of brands (based on technology) can be imitated easier than ever.

    Another reason for the importance of emotions is that today most needs of buyers are satisfied, especially in highly industrialised countries. Hence, the wish for emo- tional benefits and special experiences becomes more important for buyer behaviour. Therefore differentiation and competitive advantages of brands today and in the fu- ture are based primarily on emotions rather than functional benefits.

    The emotionality of a brand depends on the extent to which a brand reflects the buy- er’s identity. The more it does, the more attractive a brand becomes and the feeling of emotional connectedness towards a brand grows. This connection is called brand attachment. Research e.g. from Park and his colleagues shows, that brand attach- ment has high predictive power for future purchase behaviour. Further, studies re- vealed that brand attachment is influenced highly by emotions. In other words, in every emotional brand attachment and purchase decision, rational justification is im- plicit.

    Dr. Barbara Kleine-Kalmer transfers this state of the art research on brand attach- ment into the context of Facebook brand pages. Thus, she introduces the concept of brand page attachment. On the basis of a comprehensive quantitative study Dr. Kleine-Kalmer validates the new construct as relevant for buyer behaviour. She fur- ther investigates which instruments and antecedents influence brand page attach- ment. Through these conceptually and empirically profound analyses, the author de- tects highly interesting implications for the management of brands in the context of social media.

    The PhD thesis at hand represents Volume 55 of the edited book series entitle “Inno- vative Brand Management” published by Springer Gabler. These book series docu- ment research projects conducted by Germany’s first and only Chair of innovative Brand Management (LiM) at the University of Bremen and the Chair of Marketing Management at Leipzig Graduate School of Management (HHL). My co-editor Prof. Dr. Manfred Kirchgeorg and I are looking forward to getting feedback (please e-mail to or We will go on to publish at least five PhD thesis projects per annum within these book series in order to vitalize

  • Foreword VI

    the growing interest in innovative brand management. This growing interest is also represented through the translation of the book “Identity-based Brand Management” into the Chinese (March 2015), English (December 2015) and French language (January 2016).

    Finally, I wish the thesis of Dr. Barbara Kleine-Kalmer a very broad distribution in theory and practice given the excellent conceptual and empiric quality of this study.

    Univ.-Prof. Dr. Christoph Burmann

  • Preface VII


    Rapid development and fast adoption of digital devices into everyday life has changed perspectives. When I grew up, I used to call friends from a landline tele- phone and we would agree on a fixed time and place where we would meet. Today, such a routine seems almost impossible without communication via smartphones and immediate response from friends. When we went on holidays, we studied a map and planned the route before the trip started. I do not know how we ever found any place without satellite navigation and google maps. Going to a different country meant be- ing disconnected because there was no wireless LAN, no skype, facetime, facebook or what’s app. I might sound like a dinosaur but I actually just turned 33.

    Digital technology entered our lives and changed the way we communicate, travel, research, work and manage our everyday lives. It also altered the way we manage brands. The rise of social media fostered the transformation from one-way mass communication to a dialogue between users and brands and between users about brands. Being fascinated from these phenomena, the aim of my doctoral thesis is to contribute to closing one of the many knowledge gaps about brand management in digital media.

    The focus of this work is to research the role of connection in social media. Though many studies have been published about social media by now, the discussion about measuring engagement and the effects of branding is still evolving. Quantitative measures as likes, shares and comments are challenged to be the right diagnostics. Hence, the intent of this thesis is to consider the emotional connection to brand pag- es and correspondingly investigate the antecedents and consequences. For this pur- pose the conceptual framework was developed by a thorough investigation of state of the art research. The concept of brand attachment could be identified as most suita- ble for the measurement of emotional connection and was therefore transferred to the context of brand pages. Consequently, the construct of brand page attachment was developed.

    Through a comprehensive quantitative study, the impact of brand page attachment on consumer behaviour in social networks could be validated. Furthermore, insights on antecedents and determinants for impacting and controlling brand page attach- ment could be generated and hence implications for practitioners were deducted.

    This document was accepted as doctoral thesis by the Faculty of Business Studies & Economics at the University of Bremen, Germany in early 2015. The thesis was writ-

  • Preface VIII

    ten during my time as Research Associate at the Chair of Innovative Brand Man- agement (LiM).

    The successful completion of this work was only possible thanks to the great support of many people. First, I would like to thank my PhD advisor Prof. Dr. Christoph Bur- mann for giving me the opportunity to pursue my doctoral education and for support- ing my wish to study a field of research that was rather unexplored at the time. Fur- ther, I would like to thank Prof. Dr. Martin Missong for taking over the role of second reviewer. Many thanks also to Prof. Dr. Georg Müller-Christ and Prof. Dr. André W. Heinemann for joining the Examination Committee.

    To my friends and colleagues at the Faculty:

    Michael Schade, Rico Piehler, Frank Hemmann, Heidi Schröder, Maleen Ulbricht, Daniela Eilers, Fabian Stichnoth, Sabrina Hegner, Christopher Kanitz, Andreas Mül- ler, Stephan Hanisch, Ines Nee, Florian Horstmann, Corinna Beckma