Innovative Low Head Hydro - ??Innovative Low Head Hydro – The StreamDiver in...

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Transcript of Innovative Low Head Hydro - ??Innovative Low Head Hydro – The StreamDiver in...

  • Innovative Low Head Hydro The StreamDiver in Action NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA

  • Agenda

    1. StreamDiver Introduction

    2. Design Concept and Testing

    3. Nussdorf Pilot Plant Operations

    4. Summary, Results and Outlook

    The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21

  • Worldwide, there is still tremendous potential for the use of

    low head hydropower for power generation.

    Decentralized hydropower generation is sustainable, renewable

    and supports economic development of remote areas.

    However, decentral, low head power plants have specific

    requirements regarding commercial viability, availability,

    maintenance and environmental aspects.

    The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21

  • StreamDiver Application Range Covers

    Heads From 2 - 8 m (up to 26 ft.)

    Turbine classification

    Application by head and flow range

    A single unit generation ranges from below

    50 kW up to above 750 kW depending on

    the available head and flow.

    The StreamDiver covers the low

    head, low power range next to

    conventional designs like Kaplan,

    Francis or Pelton.

    StreamDiver application range (single unit)

    5 different runner sizes (modules)

    The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21

  • Reduction of O&M Costs is One Key

    Premise and Todays Focus

    The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21

    Reduced O&M Cost & Risk

    Oil-free Plant Solution

    Ease of Project Execution

    Reduction of Civil Cost

  • Clarity: The Simplified Design of the

    StreamDiver Ensures the Highest Reliability

    Generator & terminals

    Stator vane

    Runner

    Housing

    Shaft, bearing assembly

    1

    2

    Turbine housing with guide vanes

    Radial and axial bearing

    Shaft ends

    PMG generator

    Runner

    Bulb nose

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    3

    2

    3

    4 5

    6

    Standard version: Non-regulated, direct-driven turbine generator unit

    No dynamic seals, cooling water system, lubrication oil system, excitation system, or runner or guide vane regulation

    The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21

  • Two Unique Features are Most Relevant:

    Bearing Lifetime and Cooling Concept (1/2)

    The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21

    Lubrication

    Water flow

    Heat transfer

    Water inlet

    Water inlet

    Water flow

    Heat transfer

  • Two Unique Features are Most Relevant:

    Bearing Lifetime and Cooling Concept (2/2)

    The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21

    1. Water exchange Bulb fills with river water before start-up

    Minimal exchange during operation (minimal sediment exchange)

    2. Water circulation Shaft rotation will circulate water in bulb to avoid hotspots

    Circulation transports heat to the housing elements

    3. Heat transfer Discharged flow passes the bulb and housing

    Passive, convective cooling of the bulb

    4. Lubrication River water inside the bulb generates lubrication film Contained sediments are processed by hard coated shaft

  • Bearing Performance and Lifetime:

    Endurance Tests at the Test Rig in Heidenheim

    Test rig assembly and installation

    Scaled model with same drive-train dimensions

    Intermediate measurements of wear (interval of 6 w)

    Hard-coated surface at shaft, soft shells and pads

    >18,000 hours of operation

    Tested with different densities

    of quartz in bulb1

    Brenz river installation

    Low head of 2 meter results in

    relatively low bearing load factor

    1 Due to the high hardness rate (Brinell scale), quartz is considered as most relevant sediment which causes wear of the shaft coat The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21

  • 0.00

    1.00

    2.00

    3.00

    4.00

    5.00

    6.00

    7.00

    0 3,000 6,000 9,000 12,000 15,000 18,000 21,000

    Re

    lati

    ve

    we

    ar

    [%]

    Operating hours [hrs]

    axial bearing

    radial bearing DE

    radial bearing NDE

    Results Indicated Wear on Hard Coat with No

    Significant Correlation with Quartz Density

    The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21

    NDE DEHydraulic force

    (runner)

    Weight

    (drive train)

    The axial thrust bearing shows most significant wear

    Degradation of hard coat on thrust ring by a factor of 2.7 compared to radial bearing at the non-driven end (NDE)

    0,5 g/l 1 g/lriver water

  • Test Rig Configuration Transferred to

    Nussdorf Prototype Design

    Bearing lifetime influencing factors: test rig compared to prototype design Nussdorf (module size SD 13.10)

    Additional factors: capacity factor (full load hours per year, number of start & stops, ambient conditions (temperatures, ...)

    Factor Test rig Nussdorf

    Stationary loads1 different sizes + generator

    Load factor (hydraulic) Head = 2 m, 7.7 kW Head = 3.6 m, 314 kW

    Water quality2 Up to 2 g/l (Quartz) < 0.5 g/l (Quartz)3

    NDE DEHydraulic force

    (runner)

    Weight

    (drive train)

    1 Considers design dimensions (bearing distance, clearances, size), stationary loads from drive-train

    2 Due to the high hardness rate (Brinell scale), quartz is considered as most relevant sediment, which causes wear of the shaft coat

    3 Based on assessment report about sediment transport in the Danube river

    Expected relative wear (average)

    Factor compared to test rig

    Axial 2 - 3

    Radial DE 6 - 7

    Radial NDE 4 - 5

    Expected lifetime (in years, full load)

    75% wear allowed, max. value applied

    Axial 16

    Radial DE 11

    Radial NDE 26

    The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21

  • Prototype in Nussdorf (Austria) Now Completing

    4 Years of Maintenance-free Operation

    Turbine Data:

    Power Unit: SD 13.10 ( 1310 mm)

    Power: 314 kW / max. 450 kW

    Net head: 3.58 m / max. 4.68 m

    Flow: 9.96 cms

    Generator speed: 333 rpm, 50 Hz

    Project Status:

    In operation since August 2012

    Operating hours: > 30,000 hrs 1

    Exported electricity: > 8.0 GWh 1

    On-site inspections: 2 (down: 3 days)

    Maintenance services: 0

    Status: April 2016The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21

  • Housing After 42 Months of Operation Shows

    Slight Organic Layer, but Intact Coating

    Generator leakage test okay, temperature and leakage sensors in function

    Anti-corrosion coating intact (covered by thin organic layer)

    The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21

  • The Stainless Steel Runner is in Excellent

    Condition and Shows No Notable Abrasion

    Runner blade condition excellent, no issue with clearances of rotating

    parts (blade tip, runner housing, ...)

    Guide vane coating intact with some impacts on leading edge

    The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21

  • The Power Output Versus

    Measured Gross Head Per Year

    The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21

    The performance of the machine has been stable (constant slope); tendency to have improved over the years (A)

    (B): Power spread (bias of data for same gross head) mainly influenced by intake conditions (head losses due to pollution level)

    A

    B

  • A. Delta of 25C between hottest

    and coldest period (river water)

    B. Linear correlation of generator

    temperature and power

    Temperature Levels in Bulb and Generator

    Stator Confirm Passive Cooling Concept

    Generator phase temperature vs. power output

    Seasonal effects (quarter 1 to 4)

    Generator phase temperature vs. water temperature in bulb

    Temperature rise of generator below design value (class F/B)

    A. Temperature rise of

    up to ~40C (design

    class B: 80C)

    A

    B

    B A

    The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21

  • Measured Wear at the Radial Bearing (NDE)

    Confirms Projections from Endurance Test

    Expected replacement of the radial NDE shaft end is required after 23 years (initial projection: 26 years)

    Replacement is recommended when 25% of the remaining layer is reached extrapolated: 30,000 x 75/11 = 204,000 hours = 23 yrs

    Profile 1

    3 2

    Wear is not constant over measured profiles on shaft line

    Relative wear with maximum of 7 - 11% after 30,000 operating hours

    Additional sensors detect wear limit for predictable and planned replacement

    7 11 %

    The StreamDiver in Action | NWHA Small Hydro Workshop 2016, Wenatchee , WA USA | 2016-09-21

  • Summary and Outlook

    StreamDiver low head technology for heads up to 8 m

    The innovative design minimizes support systems