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Transcript of Innovation for Our Energy Future Refinery Integration of ... Asphalt or Bunker Fuel Blending...

  • NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.

    Refinery Integration of Bio-oil

    Robert M. Baldwin

    Principal Scientist

    Presentation to California Air

    Resources Board

    December 13, 2016

    Innovation for Our Energy Future

  • Innovation for Our Energy Future

    Overview

    1) Background and basics

    2) Previous studies: NABC

    a) Goals

    b) Outcomes

    3) Proposed new study, DOE/BETO

  • Innovation for Our Energy Future

    Pyrolysis

    Bio-Crude

    Fuels

    and

    Chemicals Biomass

    Co-Processing Bio-oil with Crude Oil

    Integration with Existing Refining Infrastructure

    Refining

    Infrastructure

    The Basic Idea is Simple

    Crude Oil

    Typical petroleum refinery ≥ 500,000 BPD Biorefinery @ 2,000 TPD => ~7,400 BPD bio-crude

  • Innovation for Our Energy Future

    Biomass Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Characteristics

    Challenging Characteristics of Pyrolysis Oil (from wood)

    • Insoluble in hydrocarbons

    • Moisture content 15 - 30 wt %

    • pH ≈ 2.5; TAN >100

    • Elemental composition, wt % - C: 54 - 58 - H: 5.5 - 7.0 - O: 35 - 40

    • HHV: 16 - 19 MJ/kg

    • Distillation residue: up to 50wt %

    • Phase Separation & Instability - a lighter, water soluble, carbohydrate-rich fraction - a more dense, viscous, oligomeric lignin fraction - ‘ages’ with time; viscosity increase

  • Innovation for Our Energy Future

    Why Do This?

    1) Introducing bio-oil into the refinery provides ready

    pathway for introducing renewable carbon into

    transportation fuels industry (low-hanging fruit)

    2) Utilize multi-trillion-dollar infrastructure already in place

    a) Petroleum refineries

    b) Transportation and distribution systems

    3) High impact outcomes

    a) RINs for refiners

    b) Implementation likely: LCFS in CA (coming soon elsewhere!)

  • Innovation for Our Energy Future

    NABC

    The National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) is a collaboration among U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories, universities, and private industry that is developing technologies to produce infrastructure-compatible, biomass- based hydrocarbon fuels.

    The consortium, led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and by NABC partners.

    Three years, $45MM

    http://www.eere.energy.gov/ http://www.recovery.gov/ http://www.anl.gov/index.html http://www.lanl.gov/

  • Innovation for Our Energy Future

    NABC Goals

    The goal of the NABC is to accelerate

    development of technologies for sustainable,

    cost-competitive, drop-in fungible

    hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass

    – investigate technologies from both thermochemical

    and biochemical platforms

    – Determine feasible blending points in the refinery

    – Couple technical work with rigorous TEA and LCA

    • Focus on cost-effective and sustainable technologies

  • Innovation for Our Energy Future

    NABC Refinery Integration

    Biomass

    Existing Refinery Infrastructure

    A tm

    o s

    p h

    e ri

    c &

    V a

    c u

    u m

    D is

    ti ll a

    ti o

    n

    Gas

    L Naphtha

    H Naphtha

    LGO

    VGO

    Atm Resid

    Vac Resid

    Reform

    FCC

    Alky / Poly

    HT/HC

    Coker

    Gasoline

    Jet Fuel Diesel Fuel

    Crude Oil

    Refinery-Ready Intermediates

    Finished Fuels & Blendstocks

    Conversion Process Upgrading Process

    Insertion Point #1

    Insertion Point #2

    Insertion Point #3

  • Innovation for Our Energy Future

    NABC Outcomes

  • Innovation for Our Energy Future

    Petroleum Refinery Overview

    Source: Chevron Motor Gasolines Technical Review http://www.chevronwithtechron.com/products/documents/69083_MotorGas_Tech_Review.pdf

    Crude Unit (Straight-Run or Virgin Intermediates)

    Coker

    Fluid Catalytic Cracker

    10

    Hydrocracker

    Reformer

    http://www.chevronwithtechron.com/products/documents/69083_MotorGas_Tech_Review.pdf

  • Innovation for Our Energy Future

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    150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700

    A P

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    Volume Average True Boiling Point (Deg F)

    NABC Gasoline Streams NABC Diesel Streams

    Finished Gasoline Blend Finished Diesel Blend

    Gasoline Blend Component Diesel Blending Components

    LSR

    LCN

    Alky

    Ref

    MCN

    Naphthas (C5 – 400 °F)

    Refinery Integration – Naphthas

    11

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL): Possibly directly blended based on bulk properties but mild hydroprocessing may be required to blend appreciable volumes in gasoline pool.

    Possible Insertion Point(s): Mild Naphtha Hydroprocessing or Blending

    Hydropyrolysis (HYP): Highly aromatic material possesses significantly lower hydrogen to carbon ratio relative to typical refinery cracked naphthas (coker and FCC). The material would likely join heavy cracked naphtha refinery streams for hydroprocessing.

    Possible Insertion Point(s): Cracked Naphtha Hydroprocessing

    Catalysis of lignocellulosic sugars (CLS): Possibly directly blended based on bulk properties but mild hydroprocessing may be required to blend appreciable volumes in gasoline pool.

    Possible Insertion Point(s): Mild Naphtha Hydroprocessing or Blending

  • Innovation for Our Energy Future

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    NABC Gasoline Streams NABC Diesel Streams

    Finished Gasoline Blend Finished Diesel Blend

    Gasoline Blend Component Diesel Blending Components

    Refinery Integration – Distillates

    12

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL): Resembles the properties of FCC light cycle oil (LCO) and would likely follow the same processing path.

    Possible Insertion Point(s): Hydroprocessing or Hydrocracking

    Catalysis of lignocellulosic sugars (CLS): Resembles the properties of FCC light cycle oil (LCO) and would likely follow the same processing path.

    Possible Insertion Point(s): Hydroprocessing or Hydrocracking

    HT SR Kero

    HC Kero

    HT CD HT SRD HC Dist

    Distillates (400 – 700 °F)

    Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars (FLS): Highly paraffinic material likely to possess desirable diesel blending properties.

    Possible Insertion Point(s): Diesel