Industrialization and Workers Effects of Industrialization Ch. 6.3 Effects of Industrialization Ch....
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Industrialization and Workers Effects of IndustrializationCh. 6.3
The Growing Work ForceIncrease in immigrants:14 million new immigrants to the U.S. between 1860 and 1900From 1860-1910 the US population jumped from 31.4 million to 91.9 million. Over this span of forty years the population tripled in size. Contract Labor Act (1864) Immigration was encouraged by the federal governmentEmployers made contracts with immigrants in exchange for passage to the U.S.
The Growing Work Force8-9 million Americans moved to cities during the late 1800s due to poor conditions and struggles on farms.46% of the U.S. population lived in urban areas. Cities stretched to accommodate these millions and deteriorated in the process.
Factory WorkMost laborers worked 12 hrs. a day six days a week.1868 Federal employees granted eight-hour work day but this didnt apply to private industry
Factory WorkPiecework: A system where workers were paid not by the time worked but by what they produced.Most of this type of work was done in sweatshops.A shop where employees worked long hours, at low wages, under poor working conditions
Factory WorkIncreasing Efficiency -Fredrick Winslow Taylor-Goal to increase productivity to increase profits but sometimes led to layoffs.Division of Labor -factory workers performed one small task, over and over, and rarely saw the finished product. Caused workers to be disconnected from the finished product and Owners saw their employees as parts and did not interact with them as much.
Factory WorkThe Work EnvironmentWorkers were ruled by the clockDiscipline was strictWorkplaces were not always safe--noise, poor lighting and ventilation were challenges.Still offered better pay and more opportunities than other jobs.The practice of child labor came under attack [Jacob Riis]
Working FamiliesIn the 1880s children made up more than 5% of the industrial labor force.Childrens wages often supplemented the family income and some left school to work.Families in need relied on private charities as the government did not provide public assistance.
The Great StrikesCh. 6.4
Gulf Between Rich and PoorIn 1890 the richest 9% of Americans held about 75% of the wealth.Socialism gained popularityAn economic and political philosophy that favors public instead of private of the means of production. Wealth should be distributed equally to everyone.The wealthy saw this as a threat to their fortunes, politicians saw it as a threat to public order.
The Rise of Labor UnionsThe Knights of LaborHoped to organize all working men and women, skilled and unskilled into a single union and recruited African Americans. They fought for:Equal pay for equal work, and 8-hour workday and an end to child laborSought to help their members through political activity and educationSponsored first Labor Day on September 5, 1882
The Rise of Labor UnionsAmerican Federation of LaborThe AFL was a craft union Hoped to organize only skilled workers in a network of smaller unions each devoted to a specific craft.Women and African Americans were generally excluded. Focused mainly on issues of workers wages, hours and working conditions.Used economic pressure against employers-strikes and boycotts.Collective bargaining: the process in which workers negotiate as a group with employers.
The Rise of Labor UnionsThe Wobblies Founded by those who opposed the AFLs policiesIndustrial Workers of the World (IWW)A radical union focused on unskilled workers and included many socialists.Many of their strikes were violent
The Rise of Labor UnionsReaction of EmployersThey generally disliked and feared unionsTook measures to stop unionsForbid union meetingsFiring union organizersSign yellow dog contractRefuse to bargain collectively.
Railroad Workers OrganizeThe Great Railroad Strike of 1877Railway workers protested unfair wage cuts and unsafe working conditions.The strike was violent and unorganized.President Hayes sent federal troops to put down the strikes.From then on, employers relied on federal and state troops to repress labor unrest.Debs and the American Railway UnionAt the time of the 1877 strike, railroad workers mainly organized into various brotherhoods, which were basically craft unions.Eugene V. Debs proposed a new industrial union for all railway workers called the American Railway Union (A.R.U.).The A.R.U. would replace all of the brotherhoods and unite all railroad workers, skilled and unskilled.
The Haymarket RiotHaymarket, 1886On May 1, groups of workers mounted a national demonstration for an eight-hour workday.On May 3, police broke up a fight between strikers and scabs. (A scab is a negative term for a worker called in by an employer to replace striking laborers.)Union leaders called a protest rally on the evening of May 4 in Chicagos Haymarket Square.A group of anarchists, radicals who oppose all government, joined the strikers.At the event, someone threw a bomb that killed a police officer. The riot that followed killed dozens on both sides.Investigators never found the bomb thrower, yet eight anarchists were tried for conspiracy to commit murder. Four were hanged.
Strikes Rock the NationHomestead 1892In 1892, Andrew Carnegies partner, Henry Frick, tried to cut workers wages at Carnegie Steel.The union called a strike and Frick called in the Pinkertons.The union called off the Homestead Strike after an anarchist tried to assassinate Frick. Even though the anarchist was not connected to the strike, the public associated his act with rising labor violence.
Strikes Rock the NationPullman, 1894Eugene Debs instructed strikers not to interfere with the nations mail.Railway owners turned to the government for help. The judge cited the Sherman Antitrust Act and won a court order forbidding all union activity that halted railroad traffic.Court orders against unions continued, limiting union gains for the next 30 years.
Labor Unions Changed Big Business!
Forbidding union meetingsFiring union organizersForcing new employees to sign yellow dog contracts-promised never to join a union or participate in a strikeRefusing to bargain collectivelyRefusing to recognize union reps.