INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: A Mixed Blessing. How do you live? How do you live? Where do you live? What...
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INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: A Mixed Blessing
How do you live?Where do you live?
What is your daily life like?
Why do you live like this?
EnlightenmentHow did Enlightenment ideas lead to the Industrial Revolution? Sir Francis Bacon
Prelude: The Population ExplosionFamine WarDisease Stricter quarantine measures The elimination of the black rat
Further Reasons for Population GrowthAdvances in medicine, such as inoculation against smallpoxImprovements in sanitation promoted better public health An increase in the food supply meant fewer famines and epidemics, especially as transportation improved
The hand of a person infected with smallpox
The Enclosure MovementIn the second half of the 17th century, the English gentry (landowners) passed the Enclosure Acts, prohibiting peasants access to common lands.The enclosure division of the town of Thetford, England around 1760
Industrial RevolutionIndustrial Revolution: Period of time between the 1700-1800s when methods of producing goods changed dramatically. Countries changed for rural to urban centered.Machines became much more important in production of productsIndustrial Revolution began in Britain, but spread to the rest of Europe and the U.S. (England first industrial nation)
Industrial RevolutionIndustrialization is the process of making products in large factories rather than at home or in small workshops The increased output of machine-made goodsWhat changes do you think resulted from Industrialization?Name 5 changes
Why did Industrialization start in England?1) Big Labor Supply: Lots of workers2) Natural Resources: Coal and Iron Ore3) Investment Capital: Money to start a business4) Entrepreneurs: People who start and organize businesses5) Transportation: Canals, Ships, great navy6) Markets to Sell Products: British colonies7) Government support: Government helped factories and industrialization
How did the Industrial Revolution Happen: NATURAL RESOURCES1) Water Power and Coal (To power machines)2) Iron Ore (To make machines) 3) Rivers (For transportation)4) Harbors (For ships to trade)EFFECTS: Britain had all resources necessary to support industrialization
How did the Industrial Revolution Happen: FACTORS OF PRODUCTIONEnough Resources needed to produce goodsLand: Good land near waterLabor: Many WorkersCapital: Enough money for investmentRaw Materials: Had colonies that supplied raw materials (wood, metal, etc.) cheaply
How did the Industrial Revolution Happen: AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTIONNew Farming MethodsEnclosures: Large fields created when wealthy landowners bought smaller plots of landFenced in their property and prevented small farmers from using landCrop Rotation: Rotation of crops to increase crop yields and outputEFFECTS: 1) Small farmers went to cities for jobs (Urbanization)2) Food output increased--- living conditions improved
Townshends Four-Field System crop rotation example
Agricultural innovationsJethro Tull invented the mechanized seed drill around 1701. Uniform seeding allowed weeding between the rows of seedlings during growth, thus improving crop yield.
Agricultural innovationsAndrew Meikle invented the threshing machine (c. 1796) for use with crops. The machine separated the grain from the stalks and husksWithout the greatly increased yields that these machines fostered, society would not have gained the security in its food supply that allowed for increased industrial specialization and innovation in areas other than agriculture.
Quiz1) Define the Industrial Revolution2) Define Industrialization3-4) Provide two reasons why Britain was the first country to industrialize5) What is the difference between rural and urban?
Technological Advances during the Ind. RevolutionDomestic system Work done in home
Factory SystemMachines were too big and expensive for homes so they moved to cities/next to water
Technological Advances during the Ind. RevolutionSpinning Jenny (James Hargreaves): Increase ability to turn out thread more quicklyWater Frame (Richard Arkwright): Used water power to run a spinning machineCotton Gin (Eli Whitney): Automatic sorting of fibers from seedsSteel-Making (Bessemer Process): A quick and cheap method of making steel from iron(Watt Steam Engine): Steam engine that burned coalElectricity (A. Volta & M. Faraday): First battery & electric generator.
Electricity: TeslaIn the 1880s, electrical engineer Nicholas Tesla perfected the principles of alternating current. The electric coil, or the Tesla coil, keeps the current consistent in the power lines. Gave industry dependable sources of power
Electricity: EdisonThomas Edison
Water Frame to Power the Jenny
Effects of IndustrializationChanged Western society forever by raising the Standard of LivingHowever, workers had hard livesWorked 14 hour days at the same dull task with no job security in unsafe conditionsParents were forced to send their children to work as young as 6 years oldIf they were sick, injured or failed to keep up they were fired or beatenWomen made 30c to the dollar/children and the elderly made less
Effects of IndustrializationUrbanization occurred at a rapid paceEx. Between 1801 and 1851 the city of Birmingham England grew from 71,000 to 233,000Hospital, sanitation, police and housing could not keep up.People lived whole families of six to one room or had no housing at all.Open sewers, polluted rivers and dirty streets allowed disease to spread. 26% of all children died before the age of 5
QuizName 3 effects of industrialization.
Your family lifeDescribe what your family life is like.
What kind of family life is necessary to keep society functioning well?
Compare/contrast it to family life during the Industrial Revolution.
Effects of IndustrializationPreindustrial EnglandFamilies lived in small villages and worked togetherHad a sense of belonging and history
Industrial EnglandLong hours and irregular work schedules kept families apartRunaways and abandoned children roamed the streetsAlcohol consumption increasedStatus of older people droppedtheir experience was no longer valued so they lost authority and respect.
Effects of Industrialization (Positive)Positive EffectsRaised the standard of livingGoods priced reasonably and plentifulCreated jobsOffered some workers chance for advancement through development of special skills and educationFirst public school began during this timeChance of entering middle class
The New Middle ClassThe New Working Class
New Social StructureThe social class structure that emerged during the Industrial Revolution can be broken down as follows:Upper Class: Very rich industrial families; noblesUpper Middle Class: Businesspeople and professionals, including lawyers and doctorsLower Middle Class: Other professionals, including teachers, shop owners, and office workersWorking Class: Factory workers and small farmersImpoverished: Itinerant workers and the unemployed
Dangerous Working Conditions
5 year old factory worker
7 year old factory worker
Runaway Factor Worker
Effects of Industrialization (Negative) Difficulties for factory workersChild labor (6 Year Olds+)Work-related accidents/deathPhysical abuse of workers (Whippings)Long work hours (Working by the clock)Wages often lowNo job security
Factory owners argued that child labor was good for the economy and helped build children's charactersFactory Act of 1833: limited child labor and the number of hours children could work in textile mills
Female Factory Workers
Labor/Trade UnionBy the end of the 19th century, labor conditions had greatly improved. These improvements, however, had only been achieved with pressure from workers, who increasingly protested their terrible working conditions. Workers eventually organized their gatherings and protests into trade unions.
In 1780 and 1799, Combination Laws made it illegal for workers to gather together to pressure employers for shorter hours, higher pay, or better working conditions. As a result, trade unions in effect became illegal and working conditions deteriorated.
Effects of Industrialization (Negative) Tough life in citiesBad housing conditionsDisrupted family lifePoor sanitationHigh crime ratesHigh rates of disease/mortality26/100 kids died before age of 5
MethodismJohn WesleyInstant salvationPeople go to heaven by acting morally and believing in GodAppealed to the working classWorking class had little time for religious activities and no money for donationsMinister spoke directly to the people in native language and made them feel socially acceptedMeetings were often social events
New Economic Theories
Adam Smith17231790 Adam Smith laid the intellectual framework for the concept of the free marketSelf-interest guides the use of resourcesNo govt interference in the economyWrote The Wealth of Nations
Thomas Malthus 17661834In An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798), Malthus predicted that the food supply would not meet the needs of the growing populationExpensive food prices and shortages would keep