Indigenous peoples, ethnicity and identities in contemporary censuses: A global perspective source: ...

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  • Slide 1
  • Indigenous peoples, ethnicity and identities in contemporary censuses: A global perspective source: www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/IPUMSI/enumform.htm * * * Robert McCaa University of Minnesota Population Center rmccaa@umn.edu
  • Slide 2
  • * Commercial * IPUMS-International www.ipums.org/international Census microdata: 1960-present www.ipums.org/international
  • Slide 3
  • What is IPUMS-International? a global collaboratory of National Statistical Institutes & Universities to: 1. Inventory the worlds census microdata, 1960+ 2. Archive census microdata and documentation * * * 3. Integrate census microdata, 1960+ a. use standards of UNSD, Eurostat, ISCO, ISCED, etc. b. facilitate comparative research in time and space 4. Anonymize census microdata to preserve statistical confidentiality, using highest standards 5. Disseminate restricted access, custom extracts to approved researchers/research projects at no cost
  • Slide 4
  • 12100102600700720000011210000104 22200202600700720000011210000104 32300100600700720000012123000000 42300200400700000000000000000000 52300200200700000000000000000000 62300200000700000000000000000000 What are census microdata?: anonymized, computerized census records of individuals, households & dwellings Easier to integrate than tables. Study any desired set of characteristics. Facilitates comparative research.
  • Slide 5
  • IPUMS-International, September 2006 dark green = disseminating medium green = integrating lightest green = talking Mollweide projection
  • Slide 6
  • End of Commercial IPUMS-International www.ipums.org/international
  • Slide 7
  • Indigenous Peoples in 2000 round censuses (14 countries) Every country with an indigenous peoples question is participating in IPUMS-International, except NZ and AU
  • Slide 8
  • Identities in contemporary censuses: questionnaires of 140 countries (97.1% of world pop.) 1. UN Statistics Division Principles and Recommendations: indigenous peoples: nothing in 1997; 3 paragraphs in 2006 2. Examples: Canada, USA, India, South Africa, Zambia, etc. 3. Identities: census practices in 140 countries 7 dimensions of identities in contemporary censuses: a. Nativity (country of birth) 131 countries 88% pop. b. Citizenship 10145% c. Ethnicity/Ancestry/Culture 6646% d. Race 1930% e. Indigenous peoples 1412% f. Language 7142% g. Religion 7450% 4. Identities in IPUMS-International harmonized microdata for 13 countries--5 with indigenous peoples: Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, and USA.
  • Slide 9
  • 1.UN Statistics Division, Principles and Recommendations. Revisions 1 (1997) and 2 (draft, 2006) (5 slides)
  • Slide 10
  • a. Cautious about suitability and sensitivity of asking indigenous people questions in a countrys census. b. Special care to demonstrate to respondents that appropriate data protection and disclosure control measures are in place. c. Respondents should be informed of potential uses of the data. d. Respondents should be involved in data collection: promotes capacity building and facilitates data collection/dissemination. e. Increasing importance in the context of socio-economic situation, inequities, and policies affecting indigenous peoples. f. Justification: environmental management, social organization, monitor human development, etc. g. Data should be collected through self declaration with the option of multiple criteria, recognizing the diversity of the sub- population. Rev 2 (2006): UNSD Principles and Recommendations Section on indigenous people 2006: 3 paragraphs; 1997: not mentioned
  • Slide 11
  • Rev 1 (1997): UNSD Principles and Recommendations on identities (no section on indigenous peoples) 1. According to national need: generally, these items are explained in short paragraphs a. Ethnicity/Ancestry/Culture: No internationally relevant criteria can be recommended. ethnicity not mentioned; ethnic occurs 29 times. b. Race --mentioned in paragraph on ethnicity c. Language: International comparability is not an issue. d. Religion: according to national needs, identify either 1) religious or spiritual belief of preference, or 2) affiliation with an organized group 2. For purposes of international comparabilityuse international standard codes a. Nativity (country of birth) b. Citizenship (country)
  • Slide 12
  • Broadly defined, ethnicity is based on a shared understanding of history and territorial origins (regional and national) of an ethnic group or community as well as on particular cultural characteristics such as language and/or religion. Respondents understanding or views about ethnicity, awareness of their family background, the number of generations they have spent in a country, and the length of time since immigration are all possible factors affecting the reporting of ethnicity in a census. Ethnicity is multidimensional and is more a process than a static concept, and so ethnic classification should be treated with moveable boundaries. --United Nations Statistics Division Draft Revision II Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses (June 12, 2006), 2.142
  • Slide 13
  • a. Cautious about suitability and sensitivity of asking ethnicity questions in a countrys census. b. Emphasizes increasing importance in the context of migration, integration and policies affecting minority groups. c. Special care to demonstrate to respondents that appropriate data protection and disclosure control measures are in place. d. Respondents should be informed of potential uses of the data. e. Broadly defined based on shared history, territorial origins and particular cultural characteristics such as language/religion. f. Justification: demographic trends, employment practices, income distributions, educational levels, migration patterns, family composition, social support, health conditions, etc. g. Data should be collected through self declaration with the option of multiple declarations. Rev 2 (2006): UNSD Principles and Recommendations Section on ethnicity is greatly expanded; ethnicity occurs 16 times, ethnic 19 times.
  • Slide 14
  • Nationality effects on fertility: the case of China, 2000: Average Number of Births by Womens Nationality
  • Slide 15
  • 2. Examples: Canada, USA, India, South Africa, Zambia, Hungary, etc. (9 slides) Note: analysis is based on national population census formsdoes not include special indigenous people censuses.
  • Slide 16
  • Canada 2001. 4 questions on indigenous peoples (2 open- ended)
  • Slide 17
  • Indigenous People: USA 2001
  • Slide 18
  • India 2001, 5 questions: religion, scheduled caste, scheduled tribe, mother tongue, and other languages spoken
  • Slide 19
  • Multiple meanings of Ethnicity: If Zambian enter tribe, if not mark major racial group --Zambia, 2000. Other questions: Citizenship, Religion, Predominant Language, and 2 nd Language
  • Slide 20
  • South Africa, 2001, Identity questions: Population Group, Language & Religion (plus citizenship and country of birthnot shown)
  • Slide 21
  • Canada 2001. Many open ended questions: on ethnic or cultural groups of ancestors,
  • Slide 22
  • Canada 2001. Many open ended questions: on religion
  • Slide 23
  • Canada 2001. 5 questions on languages
  • Slide 24
  • Hungary 2000: 5 open ended questions on nationalities, languages, and religion (do not want to answer is a valid answer)
  • Slide 25
  • 3. Content analysis of census questions for 140 countries (11 slides)
  • Slide 26
  • Contemporary Census Questionnaires source: www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/IPUMSI/enumform.htm Mollweide projection
  • Slide 27
  • Contemporary Census Questionnaires pink = census form available: 140 countries dark grey = less than 1 million population (101 places) light grey = no form available: 14 countries source: www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/IPUMSI/enumform.htm Mollweide projection
  • Slide 28
  • Nativity in contemporary censuses dark green (131 countries) = country of birth pink (9 countries) = no country of birth question light grey = no form available or less than 1 million pop.
  • Slide 29
  • Citizenship or Nativity yellow (101 countries) = citizenship dark green (131 countries) = nativity (country of birth) pink (6 countries) = no nativity/citizenship question light grey = not studied
  • Slide 30
  • Ethnicity, Nativity or Citizenship medium green (66 countries) = ethnicity (ex-USSR = nationality) dark green (131 countries) = country of birth yellow (101 countries) = citizenship pink (3 countries) = no question; light grey = not studied
  • Slide 31
  • Ethnicity in contemporary censuses medium green (66 countries) = ethnicity/ancestry /parents country of birth/culture/nationality pink = no ethnicity question light grey = not studied
  • Slide 32
  • Race or Ethnicity light green (19 countries) = race/tribe/caste/color medium green (66 countries) = ethnicity/ancestry/culture/etc. pink = no question; light grey = not studied
  • Slide 33
  • Indigenous People, Race or Ethnicity brown (14 countries) = indigenous people light green (19 countries) = race/tribe/caste/color medium green (66 countries) = ethnicity/ances