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  • INDIGENOUS ENTREPRENEURSHIP: ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS OF DAYAKYOUTH IN SARAWAK, MALAYSIA

    '-:-, - ~.. ~, ,,.. Ollince Anak Tateh

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    Corporate Master in Business Administration 2013

  • Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akadcl1.ik UNJVERSm MALAYSIA SARAWAK

    Indigenous Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial Intentions ofDayak Youth in Sarawak, Malaysia

    P.KHIOMAT MAKLUMAT AKAOEMIK

    1IIIIIIIIIrliiilllllllili 1000246888 ,

    By

    Ollince Anak Tate~ 11031918

    A Research Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of

    the Requirement for the Degree of

    Corporate Master in Business Administration

    Faculty of Economics and Business UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA SARAWAI{

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  • APPROVAL PAGE

    I certified that I have supervised and read this study and in my opinion it conforms to

    acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate in scope and quality

    as a research paper for the degree of Corporate Master in Business Administration.

    Dr Hamrila Abdul Latip Supervisor

    This research paper was submitted to the Faculty of Economics and Business, UNlMAS

    and is accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Corporate

    Master in Business Administration.

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    11 ... . .... Dr. Mohammad Affendy Arip Dean, Faculty of Economics and Business UNIMAS

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  • STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY

    ,

    The work described in this Research Paper, entitled \

    "Indigenous Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial Intentions of Dayak Youth in Sarawak, Malaysia"

    is to the best of the author's knowledge that of the author except

    where due reference is made.

    6th August 2013 Date Ollince Anak Tateh

    11031918 \ .

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  • ABSTRACT

    Indigenous Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial Intentions of Dayak

    Youth in Sarawak, Malaysia ,

    By

    OLLINCE ANAK TATER

    .... ([hiS study involves two aspects that have major influence to entrepreneurship as

    commonly described in literature: the personality traits and social variables. The interest

    of study was on Dayak group in Sarawak, comprises of Iban, Bidayuh and Orang Ulu

    (Bisayah, Kayan, Kenyah, Kelabit and Berawan The present study finds that, despite

    increasing attention on indigenous entrepreneurship, there remains a lack of

    multidimensional research on entrepreneurial intentions of non-Malay indigenous

    communities in Malaysia. With the use of quantitative methods for data collection and

    analysis, the impacts of personality traits and social variables of the respondents on

    development of their entrepreneurial intentions were investigated The findings showed

    that the respondents' entrepreneurial intentions could be predicted using both their

    personality traits (innovativeness) and social variables (knowledge and experience,

    family upbringing).

    Keywords: Entrepreneurial Intentions, Personality Traits, Social Variables, Indigenous, .. Dayak.

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  • ABSTRAK

    Keusahawanan Peribumi: Niat Keusahawanan di Kalangan Delia

    Dayak di Sarawak, Malaysia

    ,

    Oleh

    OLLINCE ANAK rATEH

    Kajian ini melibatkan dua aspek yang mempengaruhi keusahawanan iaitu sifat

    keperibadian dan unsur-unsur sosial. Kajian ini adalah cenderung kepada kumpulan

    kaum Dayak di Sarawak, yang terdiri daripada kaum /ban, Bidayuh, dan Orang Ulu

    {Bisaya, Kayan, Kenyah, Kelabit dan Berawan}. Kajian ini mendapati meskipun

    perhatian terhadap bidang keusahawanan oleh kaum peribumi semakin meningkat,

    namun masih terdapat kekurangan kajian tentang niat keusahawanan dalam kalangan

    kaum peribumi bukan Melayu di Malaysia yang meliputi pelbagai dimensi. Dengan

    menggunakan kaedah kuantitatif bagi proses pengumpulan data dan analisis, kajian ini

    mengkaji impak sifat keperibadian serta unsur-unsur sosial respondens terhadap

    keinginan mereka untuk menceburi bidang keusahawanan. Hasil kajian ini menunjukkan

    bahawa niat keusahawanan para respondens boleh dijangka berdasarkan kedua-dua

    aspek yang dikaji, yakni sifat keperibadian (inovatif) dan unsur-unsur sosial

    (pengetahuan serta pengalaman, dan latarbelakang keluarga).

    Kata kunci: Niat Keusahawanan, Sifat Keperibadian, Perubahan Sosial, Peribumi, fir t,-:_.,.~.:-. ,.!_, ' ..... .~. ,;~."

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  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    I would like to express my gratitude to all who supported and assisted me during this

    CMBA journey, especially my research supervisor, Dr Hamrila A. Latip for her guidance,

    my beloved family for their continuous supports and encouragement, my colleagues for

    their understanding which make it possible for me to finish this course, and all my

    CMBA friends who share an enthusiasm for learning and motivation.

    Special thank is also made to the Centre of Graduate Study (CGS) ofUniversity Malaysia

    Sarawak (UNlMAS) for providing administration and assistance during my five

    semesters with CMBA, Sibu.

    I would also like to acknowledge the 161 respondents who completed my research .

    questionnaire, and specific persons who helped me to reach the respondents from

    different places (Kuching, Betong, Sibu, Kanowit, Bintulu and Miri), especially ZeJri

    Rajaie, Frederick SUI, Baun Inu Puun, Nicholas Guwang, Priscelia Riip and Anniza Jack.

    .....

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  • Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademik UNIVERSm MALAYSIA SARAWAK

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Page

    LIST OF TABLES IlX

    LIST OF FIGURES x

    CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

    1.0 Introduction 1

    1.1 Theoretical Background 3

    1.2 Significance of Study 3

    1.3 Research Objectives 5

    1.4 Scope of Study 6

    CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

    2.0 Introduction 8

    2.1 Malaysian Poverty Eradication Plan 8

    2.2 The Dayak Natives in Sarawak 10

    2.3 Entrepreneurship Concept and Variables . 2.3.1 Content Variables: Personality Traits 14

    Risk Taking Propensity 15

    Tolerance ofAmbiguity 17

    Innovativeness 18

    2.3.2 Process Variables: Social Variables 19

    Family Upbringing 20

    Knowledge and Experience 21.\ 2.4 Hypothesized Relationship between Vru:i~k.1; . .....~.~/ . 23

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    CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY ...... 3.0 Introduction 25

    3.1 Research Design

    3.1.1 Sample Size 26

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    3.1.2 Respondents ' . . /, "t . 26

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  • 3.1.3 Research Instruments 28

    3.2 Statistical Methods

    3.2.1 Data Transformation 32

    3.2.2 Descriptive Analysis 32

    3.2.3 ,Principal Component Analysis 33

    3.2.4 'Pearson Correlation Analysis 34

    3.2.5 Multiple Regression Analysis 34

    CHAPTER 4: EMPIRICAL RESULTS

    4.0 Introduction 36

    4.1 Descriptive Statistic 36

    '" 4.2 Validity and Reliability 38

    4.3 Correlation Matrix 43

    4.4 MUltiple Regression Analysis 47

    4.4.1 Multiple Regression Model 49

    CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

    5.0 Introduction 55

    5.1 Personality Traits and Social Variables 55

    5.2 Limitations and Implications of Study 57

    5.3 Conclusion 59

    REFERENCES 61

    APPENDIX I

    APPENDIX II

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  • LIST OF TABLES

    Page

    Table 2.1 Number of Bumiputera Entrepreneurs by Ethnic Group 11

    ,Table 3.1 Sample Characteristics 27 ...

    Table 3.2 Composite Variables of Entrepreneurial Intention 29

    Table 3.3 Survey Items for Personality Traits 30

    Table 3.4 Survey Items for Social Variables 31

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    Table 3.5 Assumptions for Multiple Regression Model 35

    Table 4. 1 Frequency of Dayak Youth's Entrepreneurial Intentions 37

    Table 4.2 Summary of Family's Background and Awareness on 37

    Entrepreneurship

    Table 4.3 Rotated Component Matrix of Personality Traits Items 40

    Table 4.4 Item-Total Statistics of Factor 2 (Innovativeness) 41

    Table 4.5 Rotated Component Matrix of Social Variables Items 42

    Table 4.6 Pearson Correlation Matrix 43

    Table 4.7 Model Summary of Personality Traits as Predictors 48

    Table 4.8 Regression Coefficients ofPersonality Traits 48

    Table 4.9 Model Summary of Social Variables as Predictors 48

    Table 4.10 Regression Coefficients of Social Variables 49

    Table 4.11 Summary ofAll Possible Models 51

    Table 4.12 Summary of Model Y, X2,3.4,5 52

    Table 4.13 Coefficients of Model Y, X23,4,5 52

    Table 4.14 Summary of Model Y, X2,4,5 53

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    Table 4.15 Coefficient of Model'Y; ~,4:' . _. ~.~.. . 53

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    LIST OF FIGURES

    Page

    Figure 2.1 ' The Theory of Reasoned Action 24

    Figure 2.2 Model of Intentions 24

    Figure 4.1 Education Majoring 38

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  • CHAPTERl

    INTRODUCTION

    1.0 Introduction

    , This thesis explores the potential of indigenous youth to involve in entrepreneurship by

    investigating factors that contribute to the