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For Ms. Fuentes' AP Art History Class at Doral Academy HIgh. Images reproduced with permission for educational purposes ONLY.

Transcript of Indianart

  • 1.Art of India & Southeast Asia Interconnected architecture, painting, sculpture, culture, and philosophies of Hinduism and Buddhism

2. Philosophy & Religion in Daily Life in India

  • http://kaladarshan.arts.ohio-state.edu/Exhibitions/meetgod/indx.htm
  • Interconnectiveness of all Indian arts
  • Folk art traditions of painting, symbolism
  • Temples and religious festivals (Hindu and Buddhist) major events

3. 4. India:Historical Background

  • Fertile Indus & Ganges Valley
  • Invasion & assimilations
  • 18 official languages in India
  • Arts play critical role in Indian life
  • Uniformity of style in Indian monuments
  • Buddhism & Hinduism major religions (also Jain, Christianity, Islam, etc.)

5. MAURYA PERIOD Ashokan Pillar(note capital) 265 BCE Ashokan legend:Expanding dynasty, WAR conquered much of India. Looked at battlefield horror; 1000s of dead and dying, saw Buddhist monk slowly walking through praying & comforting dying. Vowed to spread the teachings of Buddhism.. Built many shrines, sculptures, etc as major patron of the arts. 6.

  • Lion Capital, from Sarmath
  • C 250 BCE, sandstone
  • Archaeological Museum, Sarnath
  • Seven foot capital from a column along pilgrimage route to see Buddhist holy sites
  • Bell shaped bottom of capital is inverted lotus blossum
  • Frieze of 4 wheels and 4 animals:lion, horse, elephant, bull; wheels symbolize Buddhas Law
  • Four lions - PERSIAN INFLUENCE (Persepolis)
  • Repetitive, eatern style patterns of manes
  • Columns represented Axis Mundi, axis of the world that joins earth with heaven

7. Lion Capital, from Sarmath C 250 BCE, sandstone See Lion Capital from Persepolis below. This was on top of a column like the one below from Ashoka. 8.

  • Buddhist shrine, mound shape, faced with dressed stone, replication of the dome of heaven
  • 3 umbrellas at top represent Buddha, Buddhas Law, Monks
  • Railing at crest surrounds sacred tree umbrellas
  • Walkway around drum for circumambulation (cosmic circle)
  • 4 toranas grace entrances richly carved scenes, Buddha shown as empty throne with high relief sculptures
  • Plan based on sacred mandala design

Great Stupa at Sanchi, India- 3rd Century BCE(flashcard) 9. Stupas were built with a dome or shikhara/vimana tower with a central axis, axis mundi Mound shaped shrine, often no interior; holds a relic idea is worshippers get close to whats inside.Original stupas (8 by Emperor Ashoka) held Buddhas remains Umbrellas represent the 3 jewels of Buddhism - Buddha, Law, Community of Monks Four toranas at compass pts. Gateway to structure--walk around in a circle 10. Close up of a torana at Sanchi Richly carved scenes High relief sculptures known as horror vacui Originally painted white. Buddha not shown in this early temple, empty chair/throne. Yakshi personified water 11. Student presentation on life of Buddha Class takes notes 12. Buddha & Buddhism

  • Buddha lived around 500 BCE
  • The Enlightened One (not a deity)
  • Achieved nirvana = enlightenment; liberation from material world
  • Cyclical nature of existence
  • Rejected class structures of Vedic society

13. Buddhist Religion

  • Shakyamuni Buddha from Nepal
  • Siddartha, child prince, shielded from pain & suffering
  • Left palace at age 29, travelled, meditated,
  • Samsara:cycle of birth, death, rebirth
  • Nirvana:ultimate enlightenment
  • Compassion and learning are KEYs.
  • Different buddhas are recognized
  • Bodhisattvas - help others reach enlightenment

Dalai Lama, leader of Tibetan Buddhism and Nobel Peace prize winner 14.

  • Standing Buddha, Gandhara Period, 2nd century CE
  • Flashcard
  • Hellenistic style drapery
  • Artistic conventions - top knot (ushnisha), patterned hair curls, impression of wheel (chakra) on hands and feet,
  • Long arms, serene face

15. Mudras = hand gestures(student presentation here) Have a meaning in religious practices, prayers, etc. as well as seen in Buddhist artwork Used in yoga poses outside Buddhism as well Dhyana mudra = meditation and balance 16. Bodhisattva from Ajanta Caves475 CE Gupta period. Bodhisattvas are spiritual beings who help others reach nirvana. Princely garments, not monks robes like Buddha Outline drawing, softly graded tones in painting give some 3-dimensionality Synthesis of divine and human. 17. Standing Buddha from Gupta period 474 CE Gupta period - flourishing arts & literature Buddhism at peak in India (later surpassed by Hinduism) Halo/nimbus (broken) shows spirtual purity fused with simplified physical purity Introspective face 18. Student presentation on Hinduism and Hindu Art Class takes notes 19.

  • Shiva as Nataraja,
  • Chola Dynasty, 12th cent ce
  • flashcard
  • Representative of Hinduism
  • Dance of Shiva - graceful, multiple aspects of deity
  • Universe cycle of death and rebirth
  • 4 arms
  • Circle of fire shows destruction of samsara and our ego centered perceptions
  • Drum = rhythm of creation, birth, death
  • Synthesis of divine and human

20. Hinduism and Hindu Temples

  • Began during post Gupta period
  • Many gods and goddesses; local shrines in villages
  • Hindu temples built on mandala design
  • Womb chambers
  • Belief that deity is present in image (statue)
  • Individual devotion, not group worship

21. Eternal Shiva from Cave Temple of Shiva at Elephanta 3 faces show 3 different sides Feminine protector Spiritual, strong leader Fierce fighter with snakes around neck 11 feet high, set in recessed niche Shiva often shown with multiple heads, arms, etc to show multiple sides of a deity 22. Example of Hindu temple in south India, Chola dynasty, 1000 CE Rajarajeshvara Temple to Shiva Each niche holds a statue of Shiva Vimana is 4 sided hollow pyramid rising 13 stories 23. Angkor Wat, Cambodia, 12th century CEflashcard Hindu temple dedicated to Vishnu;Sculptural reliefs, sculpture in rhythmic dance poses Built by Suryavaran II, capital of medieval Cambodia,Corbelled gallery roofs; beehive 24. Battle Scene, relief sculpture From Angkor Vat temple 12th century Cambodia 25.

  • Symmetrical design - typical Islamic large arch with 2 smaller arches
  • Intricate inlays- floral & geometric designs, subtle design
  • Square plan with chamfered corners
  • Taj Mahal, Agra, Indiaflashcard17th century CE
  • Crown Palacebuilt to serve as Mumtaz Mahals tomb; she died while having her 14th child with Shah Jahan
  • Onion shape dome
  • Funerary gardens
  • Minarets act like picture frame

26. Student presentations onRangoli folk painting &Rajput school painting Class takes notes 27. Rangoli and Alapana Painting - traditions carried on by women Entire houses, doorways, or verandahs painted in geometric designs in paint, rice powder, or even flowers(mandalas) 28. Indian Watercolor Painting

  • Strong tradition of opaque watercolors on paper
  • Outlining, but subtly modeled sahdes
  • Hindu gods such as Krishna often subjects (he is usually blue)
  • Mughal school fostered painting traditions

29. Mughal school of minatures - developed during middle ages 30. Hamzas Spies Scale the Fortress ,Mughal Period (16th century) Gouache on cotton (opaque w.c.) 3- d setting, yet undercut by flat geometric patterns Robust naturalistic style (not so linear) Rocks, monkeys, birds, and more FLASHCARD Fusion of Indian and Persia styles Also painting on paper burnished on stones to make it gleam, details added last with thick white paint 31. Krishna and the Gopis,from the Gita Govinda (epic poem about Krishna and Radha) Mughal Period, Rajput India.16th century, gouche on paper(flashcard) Radha is jealous of Krishna and the Gopis (cowherds) .. Emotional tension.. Plump faces in profile with oversized frontal eyesline & pattern in the dramatic scene. 32. Buddhist Mandala Tradition

  • Buddhist monks traditionally make mandalas out of sand.
  • Mystical Arts of Tibet

33. Check out this video

  • http://www. youtube .com/watch? v=9piFA7MCmbQ

34. Mandalas & Cultural/Religious

  • Used for healing
  • Used to promote peace
  • Symbols reflect Buddhist traditions
  • This type of mandala is temporary (like beauty)

35. Mandalas in many cultures

  • Navajo Aztec