Indian Art Before 1200

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Chapter 6

Transcript of Indian Art Before 1200

  • 1.Chapter 6 Paths to Enlightenment: The Art of South and Southeast Asiabefore 1200 Gardners Art Through the Ages, 12e

2. South and Southeast Asia 3. Goals

  • Understand the late Neolithic origins of Indian and Southeast Asian art and culture.
  • Understand how the indigenous beliefs and the beginnings of Buddhism and Hinduism influenced the art and architecture.
  • Identify hallmarks of architecture from Hindu and Buddhist monuments.
  • Understand the artistic influence of Buddhism and Hinduism in Southeast Asia and the varying appearances of the human figure in art.
  • Identify hallmarks of temple and monastic architecture in Southeast Asia
  • Understand the role of the monarchs in Southeast Asia in the middle ages.

4. 6.1India and Pakistan

  • Understand the late Neolithic urban development of northern India and Pakistan in the Indus Valley.
  • Examine early art form and compare with Near Eastern and Egyptian arts of the same time period.
  • Examine indigenous beliefs as they lead to the origins of Buddhism and Hindu belief systems.
  • Identify the first Buddhist leader and the influence on art and architecture in the early dynasties.
  • Understand the artistic influences of the Gandhara and Mathura regions of the Kushan dynasty.
  • Explore the Buddhist and Hindu imagery and temples of the Gupta dynasty and afterwards in India.

5. The Indus Valley

  • Understand the late Neolithic urban development of northern India and Pakistan in the Indus Valley.
  • Examine early art form and compare with Near Eastern and Egyptian arts of the same time period.

6. Figure 6-1 Great Bath, Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, ca. 26001900 BCE. 7. Figure 6-2 Robed male figure, from Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, ca. 26001900 BCE. Steatite, 6 7/8 high. National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi. 8. Figure 6-3 Seal with seated figure in yogic posture, from Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, ca. 26001900 BCE. Steatite coated with alkali and baked, approx. 1 3/8 X 1 3/8. National Museum, New Delhi. 9. Art and Architecture in the Early Dynasties

  • Identify the first Buddhist leader and the influence on art and architecture in the early dynasties.
  • Explore the construction and purpose of the Buddhist Stupa.

10. Figure 6-4 Lion capital of column erected by Ashoka at Sarnath, India, ca. 250 BCE. Polished sandstone, approx. 7 high. Archaeological Museum, Sarnath. 11. Figure 6-5 Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, third century BCE to first century CE (View from the east). 12. The Early Art of Buddhism

  • Understand how the early art of Buddhism relates to pre-Hindu ideas and imagery.
  • Understand why abstract imagery the wheel, the bohdi tree -- is also used in early Buddhism.

13. Figure 6-7 Yakshi, detail of eastern gateway, Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, mid first century BCE to early first century CE. 14. Figure 6-8 Interior (left), section (top right), and plan (bottom right) of chaitya hall, Karle, India, ca. 100 CE. 15. Gandhara and Mathura

  • Examine the design traditions and influences in the Buddhist art from Gandhara.
  • Understand why the Buddhist art from Mathura presents a different tradition.

16. Figure 6-9 Meditating Buddha, from Gandhara, Pakistan, second century CE. Gray schist, 3 7 1/2 high. Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. 17. Figure 6-10 The life and death of the Buddha, frieze from Gandhara, Pakistan, second century CE. Schist, 2 2 3/8 X 9 6 1/8. Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 18. Figure 6-11 Buddha seated on lion throne, from Mathura, India, second century CE. Red sandstone, 2 3 1/2 high. Archaeological Museum, Muttra. 19. Figure 6-12 Seated Buddha preaching first sermon, from Sarnath, India, second half of fifth century. Tan sandstone, 5 3 high. Archaeological Museum, Sarnath. 20. Figure 6-14 Bodhisattva Padmapani, wall painting in Cave 1, Ajanta, India, second half of fifth century. 21. Figure 6-15 Boar avatar of Vishnu rescuing the earth, Cave 5, Udayagiri, India, early fifth century. Relief approx 22 X 13; Vishnu 12 8 high. 22. Art of the Guptas

  • Examine the Buddhist and Hindu imagery of the painted caves of Ajanta.
  • Explore ideas of Buddhist and Hindu coexistence in Shiva and Vishnu imagery.

23. Figure 6-16 Dancing Shiva, rock-cut relief in cave temple, Badami, India, late sixth century. 24. Figure 6-17 Shiva as Mahadeva, Cave 1, Elephanta, India, ca. 550575. Basalt, Shiva 17 10 high. 25. Figure 6-18 Vishnu Temple, Deogarh, India, early sixth century. 26. Figure 6-19 Vishnu asleep on the serpent Ananta, detail of facade of the Vishnu Temple, Deogarh, India, early sixth century. 27. Figure 6-20 Rock-cut temples, Mamallapuram, India, second half of seventh century. From left to right: Dharmaraja, Bhima, Arjuna, and Draupadi rathas. 28. Figure 6-21 Rajarajeshvara Temple, Thanjavur, India, ca. 1010 29. Figure 6-22Vishvanatha Temple, Khajuraho, India, ca. 1000.(View looking northwest and plan). 30. Figure 6-23Sculptures on temple wall, Vishvanatha Temple, Khajuraho, India, ca. 1000. 31. Figure 6-24Shiva as Nataraja, bronze in the Naltunai Ishvaram Temple, Punjai, India, ca. 1000. 32. The Belief Systems

  • Examine indigenous beliefs as they lead to the origins of Buddhism and Hindu belief systems.
  • The Vedas: great religious knowledge written in Sanskrit
  • The Upanishads:samsara, karma, moksha (nirvana)
  • Hinduism: an outgrowth of indigenous beliefs coupled with the Vedas and the Upanishads, codified between 8-500 bce.
  • Buddhism:a reaction to indigenous beliefs begun with the preaching of Siddartha Gautama, the Buddha after 500 bce.

33. 6.2Southeast Asia

  • Understand the artistic influence of Buddhism and Hinduism, combined with the indigenous beliefs of the various peoples of Southeast Asia.
  • Identify hallmarks of monumental temple and monastery architecture in Southeast Asia.
  • Understand the different presentations of the human form between India and Southeast Asia.
  • Identify the key leaders in the middle ages whose works set the standards for art and architecture.

34. Art of Southeast Asia

  • Understand the artistic influence of Buddhism and Hinduism, combined with the indigenous beliefs of the various peoples of Southeast Asia.
  • Identify hallmarks of monumental temple and monastery architecture in Southeast Asia.

35. Figure 6-25 Death of the Buddha (Parinirvana), Gal Vihara, near Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka, eleventh to twelfth century. Granulite, Buddha approx. 46 long. 36. Figure 6-26 Borobudur, Java, Indonesia, ca. 800. 37. The Human Image in Southeast Asia

  • Understand the different presentations of the human form between India and Southeast Asia.

38. Figure 6-27 Harihara, from Prasat Andet, Cambodia, early seventh century. Stone, 6 3 high. National Museum, Phnom Penh. 39. The Khmer Kingship

  • Identify the key leaders in the middle ages whose works set the standards for art and architecture.

40. Figure 6-29 Angkor Wat, Angkor, Cambodia, first half of twelfth century. 41. Figure 6-31 Bayon, Angkor Thom, Cambodia, ca. 1200. 42. Discussion Questions

  • What ideologies in Buddhism and Hinduism determined the appearance of figures in art and architecture?
  • Why does the Buddhas appearance change in different places and time periods?
  • Do you think that the Gandharan style is the result of Alexander the Great and the Greeks contact with India?Explain why or why not (or to what extent).
  • What is the purpose of the Stupa and how is it similar or different from other large scale architecture we have examined?