India Vision 2020 A.P.J.Abdul Kalam

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Transcript of India Vision 2020 A.P.J.Abdul Kalam

  • 1 INDIA2020 AVisionfortheNewMillennium A.P.J.AbdulKalam With Y.S.Rajan PENGUINBOOKS
  • 2 PENGUINBOOKS Publishedbythepenguingroup PenguinBooksIndiaPvtLtd,11CommunityCentre,PanchsheelPark,NewDelhi 110017,India PenguinGroup(USA)Inc.,375HudsonStreet,NewYork,NewYork10014,USAPenguinGroup(Canada),10Alcorn Avenue,Toronto,Ontario,CanadaM4V3B2(adivisionofPearsonPenguinCanadaInc.) PenguinBooksLtd,80Strand,LondonWC2R0RL,EnglandPenguin,Ireland,25StStephensGreen,Dublin2, Ireland(adivisionofPenguinBooksLtd)PenguinGroup(Australia),250CamberwellRoad,Camberwell,Victoria 3124,Australia(adivisionofPearsonAustraliaGroupPtyLtd)PenguinGroup(NZ),cnrAirborneandRosedaleRoad, Albany,Auckland1310,NewZealand(adivisionofPearsonNewZealandLtd)PenguinGroup(SouthAfrica)(Pty) Ltd,24SturdeeAvenue,Rosebank,Johannesburg2196,SouthAfrica PenguinBooksLtd,RegisteredOffices:80Strand,LondonWC2R0RL,England FirstpublishedinVikingbyPenguinBooksIndia1998 PublishedbyPenguinBooks2002 Copyright@A.P.J.KalamandY.S.Rajan1998 Allrightsreserved 15141312 TypesetinNebraskabySURYA,NewDelhi PrintedatChamanOffsetPrinters,New Delhi Thisbookissoldsubjecttotheconditionthatitshallnot,byanywayoftradeorotherwise,belent,resold,hiredout,or otherwisecirculatedwithoutthepublisherspriorwrittenconsentinanyformofbindingorcoverother thaninwhichit ispublishedandwithoutasimilarconditionincludingthisconditionbeingimposedonthesubsequentpurchaserand withoutlimitingtherightsundercopyrightreservedabove,nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinor introducedintoaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans(electronic,mechanical,photocopying, recording, or otherwise), withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionof boththecopyrightownerandtheabovementioned publisherofthisbook.
  • 3 AfteroneofhistalksdeliveredbyDrKalam,atenyearoldgirl cameuptohimforhisautograph.Whatisyourambition? heaskedher.IwanttoliveinadevelopedIndia,shereplied withouthesitation.Thisbookisdedicatedtoherandthe millionsofIndianswhoshareheraspiration.
  • 4 Ifthosewhothinktoachieve, Haveafirmandfocusedmind, Theywillrealizewhattheythoughtof, Andevenastheyhavethoughtof. Thirukkural
  • 5 Contents Acknowledgements vi Preface vii 1. CanIndiaBecomeaDevelopedCountry? 10 2. WhatothercountriesEnvisionforThemselves 31 3. EvoultionofTechnologyVision2020 49 4. Food,AgricultureandProcessing 61 5. MaterialsandtheFuture 83 6. ChemicalsIndustriesandOurBiologicalWealth 110 7. Manufacturingforthefuture 129 8. ServicesAsPeoplesWealth 143 9. StrategicIndustries 170 10. HealthCareforAll 196 11. TheEnablingInfrastructure 217 12. RealizingtheVision 240 Afterword 250 Appendix 264 Referencesandfurtherreading 266
  • 6 Acknowledgements Inwritingthisbook,ourideashavebeenshapedbyseveralhundredIndianssomevery well known. Each interaction enriched our experience and added a new dimension to understanding Indias developmental needs and actions required. It is difficult to list everyname.Firstandforemost,wearethankfultotheChairpersonsandCochairpersons of the various Technology Vision 2020 Task Forces and Panels as well as the coordinatorsandthekeyTIFACpersonswhohelpedinthewholeVision2020exercise. TheirnamesarelistedinanAppendixtothisbook.Inaddition,themembersofthe GoverningCouncilofTIFACcontinuetobeasourceofencouragement.Therearemany membersoftheTechnologyVision2020TaskForces,Panels,recentlyconstitutedAction TeammembersandthestaffofTIFAC.Wethankthemfortheirdedicatedwork.Results oftheirworkhavebeenthesourceofanumberofusefulinputsinwritingthisbook.We thankProfV.S.Ramamurthy,Secretary,DepartmentofScienceandTechnology,forthe encouragementandthepermissiongiventousethematerialfromTIFACreports. While embarking on this journey of writing a book, we realized the magnitude of various detailed activities starting with the manuscript.The book would not have taken this shape without the sincere, untiring and dedicated effort put forth by H. Sheridon, beyondhislongofficehours.Hislaptopcomputerwasalwaysbusyforthepastseveral months.WealsothankKrishnaChopraofPenguinBooksforhisexcellentproject managementinshapingthebooktoitsfinalform. Y.S. Rajan would like to thank his wife Gomathi, who has been a great source of strengththroughheraffectionandtendercareandthroughthecandidexpressionof her insightsintoreallifesituations. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam would like to place on records his thanks to the thousands of Indians who write to him on several occasions and inspire him to undertake several technologicaltasksforIndia.
  • 7 Preface BothofuswerebornwhenIndiawasstill struggling forherIndependence.Onewas in the final year of school when Jawaharlal Nehru made his famous speech about India waking up to make her tryst with destiny the other was a child speaking a first few words. Our families were not known for riches or power. Destiny in the form of the progressive measures taken by independent India to harness science and technology in ordertodevelopamodernnationbroughtustogether. ItwasthevisionofVikramSasrabhai,supportedbyNehruandHomiBhabha,which gaveustheopportunitytoworkonthespaceprogramme.Theprogrammewasaimedat carryingdevelopmentalmessagesintohomesalloverthecountry,especiallyinthe6lakh villages, by leapfrogging many traditional routes. The programme also aimed at surveyingthenaturalresourcesofthecountrysothattheycouldbeharnessed to benefit our people. Many in India must have considered these objectives an unattainabledreamintheearly60swhenthespaceprogrammewasborn.We,however, alongwithmanyofourcolleagues,sawtheseaimsasavisionrealandattainable.What followed was a shared mission. Every person in ISRO believed that they were born to realizeallthatspacetechnologycanbringtothecountryanditspeople. For us, then, there was no going back. There were days and nights o work. Many failures and a few hardwon successes. The system which were designed, developed, fabricatedandtestedweredirectedtowardsacommongoalastrongIndia,adeveloped andproudIndiawiththebenefitsavailablealloverthecountry.Itisgratifyingtonotethe vision,inrelationtospacetechnology,hascometruenowespeciallyintermsofreaching outtothe people providing communication through networks in remote areas disaster warning systems quick resource surveys to target ground water, save our forest cover andsoon.And,ofcourse,inareasofcertainstrategicstrengths,vitaltoIndiainaworld whichrespectsonlystrength. We are also proud and happy that dreams of many Indians in the agricultural, scientific,artistic,culturalandsocialfieldshavealsocometrue. However,thevisionofa
  • 8 prosperousIndiawithoutpoverty,anIndiastrongintradeandcommerce,anIndiastrong in many fields of science and technology, an India with innovative industry and with healthandeducation forall, hasremained justpartiallyrealized.In someareas, in fact, pessimismhastakendeeproots. Wehavecompletedthefiftiethyearofourindependence,withalargemajorityborn after independence. Every year about twenty million Indians are being added to the nation. What visioncanthey have?Shouldwe, likesome,questionthe very conceptof development and leave our people to the same condition of stagnation which existed thereforcenturies?Orthinkonlyoftheupperstrataofsocietyandleavetheresttotheir fate, employing such nice sounding phrases as market driven strategies and competitiveness?Orleavetheinitiativetovariousglobalizingforces?Whereshouldwe seeIndia(anditspeople)goinginthenexttwodecades?Inthenextfive decades?Andmore? Theauthorswere fortunatetohave beenassociatedwitha large numberofpersons who were interested in posing these questions and finding some answers. These came substantiallythroughanovelorganization,theTechnologyInformation, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC), which launched a major exercise called TechnologyVisionforIndiaupto2020. About 500 experts with unique experience in industry, Academic, laboratories and government administration were deeply involved in the exercise. Experts and socially aware persons also participated. About 5000 people contributed indirectly through responsestoquestionnairesandotherinputs. Subsequently,whiletheteamsdeliberatedonvariousissuesandthedraftreports,and later when the report was released by the Prime Minister on 2 August 1996, we had numerousopportunitiestointeractwithmanyothersaboutavisionforIndia.Wehadthe benefit of various inputs ranging from encouraging suggestions for specific actions to pessimisticcommentsabouttheinabilityofsystemstoactonanythingfocusedandlong term.Wetraveledwidelytointeractwithdifferentsectionsofpeopleinvariegatedparts ofthecountry.WealsoreflectedontheimperativesforIndiainchangingworld. Weareawareofoursystemsofgovernanceandsocialandpoliticalcompulsions.We are fortunate to have gained experience in implementing projects involving people of
  • 9 variousstrataasbeneficiaries,aswellasprojectsenta