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239 Index Adams, Brooks, 101, 149–50, 161, 164, 178–9, 181, 199 Adams, Charles Francis, 19 Adams, Henry, 22, 39, 57, 104, 107, 127, 164, 166, 176, 181 Adams, John Quincy, 57 Adee, Alvey A., 66, 84 Africa, 78–83, 161. See also individual countries African Americans, 10, 47–50, 62, 80, 82–3, 154 African International Association, 79 Age of Steel, 39, 46 agriculture, 25–7, 102, 104–6. See also specific products Agriculture Department, see Department of Agriculture Aguinaldo, Emilio, 149, 151–2, 155–7, 159–60 airplanes, 22 Alabama, C.S.S., 57–8 Alaska, 11–14, 19, 180–1 Aldrich, Nelson, 156 Aleutians, 13 Alexander II (tsar), 45, 163 Alger, R. A., 138 Allen, Esther, 232 Allen, Horace, 92, 94, 112 American Can Corporation, 176 American China Development Company, 114, 196 American Federation of Labor (AFL), 32, 45, 98, 124–5, 154 American Historical Association, xi American Protective Association, 45 American Sugar Refining Company, 144, 176 American Tobacco Company, 24 Anderson, David L., 235–6 Anti-Imperialist League, 154 antitrust suits, 177, 204 Apache, 53 arbitration, 190, 207 Arendt, Hannah, 178 Argentina, 105 Armour, Phillip, 3 Armour and Company, 3 Army, U.S., 43, 52–3, 65, 138, 143 Arthur, Chester A., 79–80, 99 Asia, 90–6, 111–14; as market, 8, 36, 148–50, 153, 161–5, 178–9, 192; and McKinley, 129–31, 160; and racism, 218; Roosevelt’s policies on, 167, 192–9; Seward’s policies on, 16–18, 90; as target of expansion, 8. See also individual countries Atkins, Edwin, 123, 134 Atkinson, Edward, 31, 153 Atlanta, Georgia, 48 Atlanta Constitution, 167 Atlantic Monthly, 110, 192 Ayala, Cesar J., 233 Ayala, Plan of, 213 Bab-al-Mandeb Cape, 79 Babcock, Orville, 62 Baez, Buenaventura, 62–3 www.cambridge.org © in this web service Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-76752-1 - The New Cambridge History of American Foreign Relations, Volume 2: The American Search for Opportunity, 1865 – 1913 Walter Lafeber Index More information

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  • 239

    I n d e x

    Adams, Brooks, 101, 149–50, 161, 164, 178–9, 181, 199

    Adams, Charles Francis, 19Adams, Henry, 22, 39, 57, 104, 107,

    127, 164, 166, 176, 181Adams, John Quincy, 57Adee, Alvey A., 66, 84Africa, 78–83, 161. See also individual

    countriesAfrican Americans, 10, 47–50, 62, 80,

    82–3, 154African International Association, 79Age of Steel, 39, 46agriculture, 25–7, 102, 104–6.

    See also specific productsAgriculture Department,

    see Department of AgricultureAguinaldo, Emilio, 149, 151–2,

    155–7, 159–60airplanes, 22Alabama, C.S.S., 57–8Alaska, 11–14, 19, 180–1Aldrich, Nelson, 156Aleutians, 13Alexander II (tsar), 45, 163Alger, R. A., 138Allen, Esther, 232Allen, Horace, 92, 94, 112American Can Corporation, 176American China Development

    Company, 114, 196American Federation of Labor (AFL),

    32, 45, 98, 124–5, 154American Historical Association, xi

    American Protective Association, 45American Sugar Refining Company,

    144, 176American Tobacco Company, 24Anderson, David L., 235–6Anti-Imperialist League, 154antitrust suits, 177, 204Apache, 53arbitration, 190, 207Arendt, Hannah, 178Argentina, 105Armour, Phillip, 3Armour and Company, 3Army, U.S., 43, 52–3, 65, 138, 143Arthur, Chester A., 79–80, 99Asia, 90–6, 111–14; as market, 8,

    36, 148–50, 153, 161–5, 178–9, 192; and McKinley, 129–31, 160; and racism, 218; Roosevelt’s policies on, 167, 192–9; Seward’s policies on, 16–18, 90; as target of expansion, 8. See also individual countries

    Atkins, Edwin, 123, 134Atkinson, Edward, 31, 153Atlanta, Georgia, 48Atlanta Constitution, 167Atlantic Monthly, 110, 192Ayala, Cesar J., 233Ayala, Plan of, 213

    Bab-al-Mandeb Cape, 79Babcock, Orville, 62Baez, Buenaventura, 62–3

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  • Index

    240

    Balmaceda, José Manuel, 75Baltimore Sun, 105bananas, 209Banker’s Magazine, 100–1, 135banking, 5Banks, Nathaniel, 13, 58–9Baring Brothers, 106Barnes, Mark R., 233Bayard, Thomas F., 61, 65, 67, 84, 87,

    91–3; and South America, 70Bayonne, New Jersey, 35–6Beale, Howard K., 223, 237–8Becker, William H., 230Bederman, Gail, 230Beisner, Robert L., 229, 232Belgium, 79, 81–3, 196Bell, Alexander Graham, 20Bellomy, Donald C., 231Belmont, August, 124Belnam, Jeffrey, 232Benjamin, Jules R., 232Bernstorff, Count von, 216Bethlehem Iron Works, 33, 114Bethlehem Steel, 109Beveridge, Albert J., 153–4Bigelow, John, 12Bill, Lowthian, 37Bingham, John A., 90Bismarck, Otto von, 67, 81, 84–5, 104Blaine, James G., 21, 51, 70, 191, 225;

    and Africa, 81; and Asia, 91–2; and Costa Rica, 67; and Hawaii, 87–9; and immigration, 46; and isthmian canal, 67–9; and Mexico, 64–5; and need for naval bases, 76; and South America, 71, 75; and trade policy, 33, 71–5

    Blum, John Morton, 223Boker, George H., 79Bolshevik Revolution, 196Bonsack, James A., 24Boston Herald, 89Bouvier, Virginia M., 232Boxer uprising, 165–8, 171, 192Boxers United in Righteousness, 165.

    See also Boxer uprisingboycott, Chinese, 196Bradstreet’s, 66, 104

    Brazil, 115, 118Britain, see Great BritainBritish Columbia, 13British Guiana, 116Brooks Island, 16Bryan, William Jennings, 27, 119–21,

    155, 166, 169–72Bunau-Varilla, Philippe, 183–5Bureau of Foreign and Domestic

    Commerce, 206Bureau of the Census, 26Bureau of Trade Relations, 205Burlingame, Anson, 17Burlingame Treaty (1868), 17Burnham, Walter Dean, 127Burton, David Henry, 238

    California, 49–50, 92, 98Campbell, Charles S., 230Campbell, Duncan Andrew, 236Canada, 8, 11, 13; and Britain, 56–9,

    74, 203–5; and Hawaii, 88; and territorial claims, 180; trade with, 73–4, 204–5

    Canadian Pacific Railroad, 88capitalism, 3, 31–2, 37, 98–9, 104,

    107, 177–8Caribbean, 181; bases in, 76, 110;

    land policies in, 52; and racism, 47–8; Seward’s policy on, 14–15; U.S. intervention in, 186. See also isthmian canal; individual countries

    Carlisle, John G., 102–3Carnegie, Andrew, 20, 29–35, 37–8,

    40, 69, 176–7, 227; and Central America, 208; and China, 114; and immigration, 44; and imperialism, 153, 156; and industry, 108–9; and Latin America, 70, 74; and McKinley, 170, 172; and Mexico, 211; and social Darwinism, 41

    Carr, Raymond, 146, 233Carranza, Venustiano, 215censorship, 139, 158, 182Central America, 15, 67–70; land

    policies in, 52; Roosevelt and, 182–7, 207; Taft’s policies

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  • Index

    241

    on, 208–10; trade with, 73; U.S. interventions in, 186. See also isthmian canal; individual countries

    Central American Court, 208centralization, 39–40, 201–2Chamberlain, Joseph, 118Chandler, Alfred D., 231Chattanooga Tradesman, 24, 26Chernow, Ron, 231Cheyenne, 53Chicago World’s Fair (1893), 107–8Chicago American, 160Chicago Tribune, 44, 46, 53, 65Child, Maria, 62–3Chile, 15, 70, 74–5China, 17, 90–6, 203, 224; Boxer

    uprising in, 165–8, 171, 192; and Britain, 114, 129–31, 161, 165, 167, 219; emigration from, 44, 49–50, 196; and France, 161, 165; and Germany, 129–31, 161–3, 165; increasing U.S. involvement in, 92; and Japan, 112–14, 129, 165, 192, 198, 216; laborers from, 17; McKinley’s policy on, 134, 137, 164, 166, 168–9; missionaries in, 90, 92–6, 129, 165, 168, 216, 219, 224; revolution in, 216–17; Roosevelt’s policy on, 192–3, 196; and Russia, 129–31, 192–3, 195, 216, 218–19; Seward’s policies on, 18; Taft’s policy on, 216–20, 222; trade with, 1, 4, 17, 23–4, 129, 158, 164–5, 168–9, 216–18; U.S. treaties with, 17, 49; war of, with Japan, 112–14. See also Open Door policy

    Chinese Eastern Railway, 114, 218Christianity, 17. See also missionaries“City on a Hill” (Winthrop), 202Civil War, 1–2, 12, 17–18, 57;

    mercantilist acts, 72Clay, Henry, 70Clayton, Lawrence A., 234Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850), 15, 68,

    182Cleveland, Grover, 82, 98, 111,

    117–18, 224–5; and Cuba, 124–5; economic policies of, 100–3, 105–6; and Hawaii, 87, 89, 110; and Samoa, 84; and silver, 27

    Clyde Steamship Line, 76, 188Clymer, Kenton J., 238Coffman, Tom, 235Cohen, Paul A., 236Cohen, Warren I., xiii, 219, 233, 235Collins, Perry M., 12Collins Overland Line, 12Colombia, 73, 183–4colonialism, 80, 153–4, 203Columbian Exposition, 107Commerce Department,

    see Department of CommerceCommercial Bureau of American

    Republics, 71Commercial Advertiser, 161Congo, 78–83Congregationalism, 86, 94–5Congregationalist, 95Congress, U.S., 4–6, 10, 15–16, 47,

    49, 61, 76–7, 128, 135, 181, 185, 190; and Puerto Rico, 145

    Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court, A (Twain), 50, 102

    Conniff, Michael L., 235consular service, 64, 79“continentalism,” 8contract labor law, 5Cooke, Jay, 58Cooling, Benjamin Franklin, 109Cordova, Alabama, 161corporations, 201; birth of, 21;

    mergers, 27; multinational, 21, 27–8; and Taft, 204; and trusts, 170, 172. See also merger movement

    Cortelyou, George, 168Corwin, E. S., 6Costa Rica, 66–7, 208cotton, 23, 26, 28, 161, 167, 192Cowdray, Lord, 212Cramp Shipbuilding, 114Crawford, R. F., 104Crazy Horse, 53Croly, Herbert, 201–7, 222

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  • Index

    242

    Cromwell, William, 183Crook, George, 54Cuba, 57, 175; annexation question,

    59–61, 87, 124, 141–5, 170; army of, 142–3; civil war in, 147; Cleveland and, 124–5; independence movement in, 51; land policies in, 52; revolution in, 122–5, 131–2, 224; Roosevelt and, 144; self-government in, 187; and Spain, 59–61, 74, 123–5, 132–3, 135; in Spanish-American War, 133–7; and trade, 74

    Cuban Constitutional Convention, 144Cuban Junta, 59, 124, 130, 132, 135Cushing, Caleb, 16Custer, George Armstrong, 52–3customs union, 71

    Dalton, Kathleen, 238Daniel, John, 154Danish West Indies, 120Darwin, Charles, 39–40Darwinism, 93, 179Daughters of the American

    Revolution, 108Dávila, Miguel, 210Davila-Cox, Emma, 231Davis, Cushman, 150Dawes Severalty Act (1887), 52–3Day, William R., 128, 131, 149–50Declaration of Independence, 55Dehler, Gregory J., 237deLome, Dupuy, 132Democratic party, 21, 119–21, 170Demolin, Edmond, 179Denby, Charles, 92–3, 111, 113–14,

    131Denby, Charles, Jr., 114Denis, Alfred L. P., 174Denmark, 14–15Dennett, Tyler, 17Department of Agriculture, 26Department of Commerce, 206–7Department of Labor, 204Department of State, 204, 218depression, 28–30, 47, 97–9, 104–7,

    119, 212

    Descent of Man (Darwin), 39Dewey, George, 133, 138, 148–9, 151Díaz, Adolfo, 209Díaz, Felix, 215Díaz, Porfirio, 64–6, 208, 210–13,

    215–16Dickman, John T., 147Diner, Steven J., 230Dingley Tariff (1897), 126diplomatic service, 106dollar diplomacy, 205–7Dominican Republic, see Santo

    DomingoDooley, Mr., see Dunne, Finley PeterDouglass, Frederick, 47, 62, 76Drake, Frederick C., 236Dreiser, Theodore, 40Duke, James “Buck,” 24Dunne, Finley Peter, 33, 168, 172Dyer, Thomas G., 238

    Eastman Kodak, 27Echevarria, Robert Gonzalez, 232Eckes, Alfred E., Jr., 230Eddy, Sherwood, 94Edison, Thomas A., 20–1Education of Henry Adams, The

    (Adams), 57Edwards, Rebecca, 230Egan, Patrick, 75Egypt, 9; trade with, 26El Salvador, 67, 208–9, 224electricity, 20Emancipation, 14Emancipation Proclamation, 2engines, 35English Imperial Federation, 32Esthus, Raymond A., 237Estrada Cabrera, Manuel, 208European Consortium, 219, 221Evarts, William M., 64, 66, 79, 83, 225Exclusion Act (1882), 23, 49–50executive agreements, 189–90, 198–9expansionism, 8–14, 44, 46, 51–61,

    63–5; characteristics of U.S., 225–7; opposition to, 10–11; and race, 59, 62; and Seward, 8, 11, 19. See also imperialism

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  • Index

    243

    Fairbank, John K., 96Federal Children’s Bureau, 204Federalist, 100Fenian Brotherhood, 58Fernandez, Raul, 232Field, Cyrus, 12Fish, Hamilton, 57–8, 60–4, 68, 79,

    86, 224–5fisheries, 59Fiske, John, 40–2Fitzgerald, “Honey-Fitz,” 119Foglesong, David S., 237Foner, Philip S., 232Foraker Act (1900), 145–7Foraker, Joe, 145Ford, Henry, 36Ford, Worthington C., 164Forum, The, 161Foster, Anne L., 233France, 18, 188, 207; and China,

    161, 165; and Mexico, 64; and Philippines, 152; and Spanish-American War, 135

    Frederic, Harold, 26Fredrickson, George, 231Frelinghuysen, Frederick T., 68–70,

    81, 225Frelinghuysen-Zavala Treaty, 69Freud, Sigmund, 39Frick, William Clay, 32, 37frontier, 46, 51, 101–2Frye, William, 150Fuertes, E. A., 132

    Gage, Lyman, 127Galt, Alexander, 73Garfield, James, 70Garland, Hamlin, 101Geary Act (1892), 50General Electric Corporation, 21“Geographical Pivot of Asia, The”

    (MacKinder), 194Germany: and China, 129–31,

    161–3, 165; and Costa Rica, 67; economic policies of, 104; Hay’s views on, 162; and Latin America, 71, 73, 188, 207–8; Roosevelt’s views on, 181; and Samoa, 83–5,

    108, 156; and Spanish-American War, 135

    Geronimo, 53Gettysburg, 2Geyer, Dietrich, 237Gherardi, Bancroft, 76“Ghost Dance,” 53Go, Julian, 233Gobat, Michel, 234Godkin, E. L., 95, 103gold, 27, 103–4, 120gold standard, 27–8, 126–7, 170Gold Standard Act (1900), 27, 170Gompers, Samuel, 98, 125Good Neighbor approach, 70, 73Gorgas, William C., 185Gould, Jay, 65Gould, Lewis L., 238Grady, Henry, 49Grant, Ulysses S., 29, 39, 49, 57–8;

    and Britain, 57; and Cuba, 59–61; and Haiti, 63; and Mexico, 63, 65; and Monroe Doctrine, 63; and Santo Domingo, 62; and Sumner, 59

    Gray, George, 150Great Britain, 69, 207; and Africa,

    161; and Asia, 90; and Canada, 56–9, 74, 203–5; and Central America, 67, 207–8; and China, 114, 129–31, 161, 165, 167, 219; and Civil War, 12, 57; and gold standard, 27–8, 126; and Hawaii, 87–8; interests of, in Western Hemisphere, 114–18; and Japan, 193; and Latin American markets, 71; navy of, 108; and Philippines, 152; Roosevelt’s views on, 180–1; and Samoa, 83–5; and Spanish-American War, 138

    Great Northern Railway, 98Great White Fleet, 107–8Greeley, Horace, 11, 51, 63Greene, Julia, 234Gresham, Walter Quintin, 29, 89,

    99–100, 105, 112–13, 115, 117, 225

    Gresham, Matilda, 99

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  • Index

    244

    Guam, 145, 197Guantanamo, 143Guatemala, 67, 208–9Guggenheim, Solomon, 65

    Hagan, Kenneth J., 235Hague Conference, 163, 190Haiti, 47, 63, 73, 76Hamilton, Alexander, 175Hankow-Canton railway concession,

    196, 199Hanna, Mark, 128, 134, 156, 171–3Hannigan, Robert, 144, 229Hanson, Kurt W., 229Harriman, E. H., 20, 114, 176, 218Harrington, Fred Harvey, x, 232Harrison, Benjamin, 47, 53, 69, 71–6,

    82, 88–9, 102, 172, 225Hart, John Mason, 215Harte, Bret, 80Hawaii, 10–11, 16, 74, 96, 197–8;

    and Carnegie, 34; and Cleveland, 87, 110; and Gresham, 105; missionaries in, 52, 140, 224; and racism, 48; revolution and annexation, 86–9, 139, 141, 156, 170, 224

    Hay, John, 238; and Britain, 130, 135; and Central America, 182–5; and Germany, 162; and McKinley, 126–8; and Open Door policy, 161–8; and Russia, 192; as secretary of state, 150, 158–9, 180; and Spanish-American War, 137

    Hay-Herran Treaty (1902), 183Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1900), 68,

    182, 207Hayes, Rutherford B., 49, 64, 68Haymarket Riot (1886), 29, 50Headland, Isaac Taylor, 95Healy, David, 237Hearst, William Randolph, 133, 185Hendrix, Joseph C., 106Hill, Patricia R., 236Hilton, Sylvia, 232Hoar, George F., 55, 128Hofstadter, Richard, 223Hogan, Michael J., xi

    Hoganson, Kristin, 232Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 44Holt, Hamilton, 198Homer, Winslow, 102Homestead Act (1862), 5Homestead strike (1892), 29, 32, 37Honduras, 67, 209–10Howells, William Dean, 101–2Huckleberry Finn (Twain), 50Hudson River School, 102Huerta, Victoriano, 213, 215–16Hunt, Michael H., xi, 21, 230, 236Hyppolite, 76

    Ileto, Reynaldo, 233immigration, 5, 23, 43–7, 50–1, 196–7imperialism, 153–6, 169–71, 179–81,

    202, 206In re Neagle, 76income tax, 28, 98, 172, 198India, 105Indians, American, 43, 51–5, 116, 180Industrial Revolution, 20–37.

    See also Second Industrial Revolution

    industry, 1–4, 46, 172; Carnegie and, 30–4

    Influence of Sea Power upon History (Mahan), 109

    informal empire, xviInsular Cases, 52, 145–6intelligence services, 76International Court of Justice, 188International Harvester, 27, 176,

    192, 204. See also McCormick Harvester

    Interstate Commerce Commission, 38investment, 21, 23, 106, 123, 188,

    210–13, 215–17Iriye, Akira, xiisolationism, 46, 227isthmian canal, 9–10, 15, 24, 56,

    68–70, 173, 182–3. See also Panama Canal

    Itata, 75

    Jacobson, Matthew Frye, 42, 230James, Henry, 80

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  • Index

    245

    Janney, Samuel M., 124Japan, 17–18, 78, 90–2, 96, 218–19;

    and China, 111–14, 129–30, 165, 192, 198, 216; and Hawaii, 140–1; and Korea, 197; and Open Door policy, 112, 193, 195; and Philippines, 195, 197; and Roosevelt, 197, 220–1; and Russia, 175, 193–5, 197; and Taft, 220–1; trade with, 217–18

    Japanese Society, 198Jefferson, Thomas, I, 171jingoism, 148Johnson, Andrew, 10, 13, 19, 58, 64,

    225Journal, 133Journal of Commerce, 36–7, 105journalism, 182, 184–5

    Kalakaua (king), 87Kansas, 54Kapital, Das (Marx), 39Kasson, John, 54, 80–1, 126Katz, Friedrich, 235Keith, Minor, 66–7Kennan, George, 193–5kerosene, 35Knights of Labor, 21Knox, Philander C., 128, 200, 203,

    207; and Central America, 208–10; and China, 217–21; and Japan, 219; and Mexico, 213–15; and Philippines, 217

    Korea, 18, 90–4, 96, 111–13, 195, 197, 199, 218

    Kramer, Paul A., 230, 233, 236Kuhn, Loeb and Company, 189, 193,

    221Kuomintang, 220Kuykendall, Ralph S., 235

    labor, 99. See also unionsLabor Department, see Department of

    LaborLaBotz, Dan, 235Lafayette College, 137LaFollette, Robert, 126laissez-faireism, 38, 113, 180

    Lamarckism, 179Langley, Lester D., 232, 234Lapsley, Samuel, 82Latin America, 14, 56–7, 75, 207–8;

    Croly’s views on, 202–3; Germany and, 188; as market, 178; trade with, 24, 26, 70–3; and U.S. power, 115–19. See also individual countries

    Lauren, Paul Gordon, 231Laurier, Wilfred, 204Lazarus, Emma, 46Lease, Mary Elizabeth, 104Lee, Fitzhugh, 125Lee, Yur-Bok, 236Leffler, Melvyn, xiLeopold II (king), 79, 81–2, 196Lesseps, Ferdinand de, 68–9, 183, 185Li Hung-chang, 93, 113Li-Lobanov Treaty, 114Liaotung Peninsula, 112–13Libby, William Herbert, 35–6Liberal Republican, 63Liberia, 78–9Lievan, Dominic, 231Liliuokalani (queen), 88–9Limerick, Patricia Nelson, 51Lincoln, Abraham, 2, 5–6Linn, Brian McAllister, 233Little Bighorn, 53Livingstone, David, 78Lodge, Henry Cabot, 117–18, 141,

    149–50, 153, 155–6, 178, 183, 207, 226

    Long, John D., 133Love, Eric Tyrone, 229Loverman, Brian, 234Luce, Henry, 94Luzon, 149–52lynchings, 47–8

    MacArthur, Arthur, 160MacArthur, Douglas, 160Maceo, Antonio, 123Mackinder, Halford, 194Madagascar, 79Madero, Francisco, 212–16Madison, James, 15, 100

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    246

    Mahan, Alfred Thayer, 41, 109–11; and arbitration, 207; and Asia, 111; and Central America, 67; and China, 166; and Cuba, 141–2; and Germany, 162; at Hague Conference, 164; and McKinley’s election, 121; on missionaries, 110; and Panama, 183; and possibility of war, 110; on presidency, 111, 225; and Russia, 194

    Maine, U.S.S., 132–3, 135Manchu dynasty, 78, 90Manchuria, 111–13, 129, 166, 195,

    197–9, 218–21; and Russia, 162–3Manifest Destiny, 12, 39, 41, 44, 46,

    49, 51, 54, 141, 180“Manifest Destiny” (Fiske), 40Manitoba, 58Marines, U.S., 186–7, 208–9Martí, José, 122–4, 142, 232Marx, Karl, 39Maurer, Noel, 235Maximilian, Archduke, 8–9May, Ernest, xiMay, Glenn Anthony, 233McClellan, George B., 65McCook, Edward, 16McCook, John J., 124, 130, 132, 137McCormick, Cyrus, 20McCormick Harvester, 27, 163.

    See also International HarvesterMcCoy, Alfred W., 233McEnery Resolution, 156McFeeley, William S., 60McKinley, William, 21, 119–21, 175,

    177–8, 225; and Asia, 129–31, 160–1; assassinated, 173; and China, 134, 137, 164–6, 168–9; and Cuba, 132–7, 141–3, 224; election campaigns of, 169–73; and gold standard, 27; and Hawaii, 89, 139–41; and immigration, 44; and modern presidency, 111, 125–9, 146, 168; and naval bases, 145; and Panama, 183; and Philippines, 148–53, 155–8, 160; and presidential accountability, 63; and Spanish-American War, 137–9

    McKinley Tariff (1890), 72, 74, 88–9Mclaurin, John L., 153Meade, Richard W., 83Mennonites, 45merchant marine, 111, 173merger movement, 27, 176–7, 212Merry, Sally Engle, 235Mexican Revolution, 64, 66Mexico, 8–9, 57, 175, 186, 203,

    210–16; U.S. investments in, 64–6Midway Island, 17Miles, Nelson A., 53, 138, 144–5Military Information Division, 76military, U.S., 51, 56, 76, 95, 157,

    202, 226–7. See also Army, U.S.; Marines, U.S.; Navy, U.S.

    militias, 29, 32Miller, Scott, 237Mindanao, 159mining, 65–6missionaries, 52, 82–3, 86; in China,

    90, 92–6, 129, 165, 168, 216, 219, 224; and destabilization, 111–12; in Hawaii, 140, 224; Mahan’s views on, 110; in Philippines, 152

    Mitchell, Nancy, 163, 236Môle St. Nicholas, 76Money, Hernando, D., 23Monroe Doctrine, 8, 12, 15, 56, 58,

    68, 82, 163, 189, 210; and Britain, 115–16, 118; Croly’s views on, 202; and Cuba, 144; Democrats’ support of, 120; and Grant, 63; invoked by Olney, 117; and Roosevelt, 179, 186; and Root, 190. See also Roosevelt Corollary

    Moody, Dwight L., 93Moore, John Bassett, 86, 100, 119Morales, José Joaquin, 234Morgan, J. P., 20, 34, 98, 176, 189,

    196, 198, 221Morgan, John T., 24, 50, 69, 79–81,

    183Morocco, 197Moros, 159Morrill, Justin, 16Morrill Act, 4Morton, Bliss, 92

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  • Index

    247

    Morton, Levi P., 92Mosquito Indian Reservation, 116–17Muñoz Rivera, Luis, 146Murphy, Edgar Gardner, 48

    Napoleon III (emperor), 8–9Nation, 98, 103National Association of

    Manufacturers (NAM), 38–9, 106, 126

    National City Bank of New York, 212nationalism, 165–7, 176, 198–9,

    201–3, 205–6, 224natural gas, 21Naval Order of the United States, 108Naval War College, 109Navy, U.S., 14, 17, 30, 74–5, 107–12,

    115, 127, 138, 184, 194; bases of, 75, 81, 83, 87, 120, 143, 145–6, 159; and Cuba, 133; improvements in, 33; Office of Intelligence of, 76; and Panama, 69; and Philippines, 133; and Roosevelt, 197–8; and Santo Domingo, 62, 189

    neutrality laws, 58New Left historians, xNew York, 48, 176, 178New York Commercial and Financial

    Chronicle, 4New York Evening Post, 11New York Herald, 78, 81–2New York Life Insurance Company, 27New York Post, 136New York Sun, 148New York Times, 185New York Tribune, 11, 131, 134, 150New York World, 133, 185New-Chwang, 166Nicaragua, 15–16, 67, 69, 116, 118,

    120, 183, 208–9Nicholas I (tsar), 12Nicholas II (tsar), 113Nobel, Dennis L., 235Nobel Peace Prize, 195North Carolina, 48North American Review, 26, 163, 192Northcott, Elliott, 209Northern Pacific Railroad, 58

    O’Brien, Thomas F., 234Offner, John, 233oil, 21–2, 35–6, 65, 210–11Oklahoma, 53Olney, Richard, 98–9, 106, 112–14,

    117, 123Olympic Games, 101Omogorski, Moisei, 128Open Door policy, 17, 96, 224; and

    China, 192, 197–8; and Croly, 203; and Hay, 161–8, 180; and Japan, 112, 193, 195; and McKinley, 129–30, 137; and Taft, 220–1

    Oregon, U.S.S., 140Orinoco River, 117–18Oris, Elwell, 157–8Orozco, Pascual, 212–13Our Country (Strong), 46, 93Our World (Strong), 94

    Pacific, bases in, 110Pacific War, 70, 75Pago Pago, 83, 85Painter, Nell Irvin, 230Palma, Estrada, 144Pan American Union, 71Pan-American conference

    (1889–1890), 70Panama, 175, 183–6. See also Panama

    CanalPanama Canal, 16, 184–7, 208Paris Commune, 29Parrini, Carl, 231Patriotic Gore (Wilson), 2patriotism, 108Patterson, Wayne, 236Pauncefote, Julian, 88, 99, 115–16Payne-Aldrich bill, 204Pearl Harbor, 87–8Peking-Hankow Railway, 114Pennsylvania Railroad, 65Pepper, Charles, 205Perez, Louis A., Jr., 232Perkins, Bradford, ixPerkins, Dexter, 230Permanent Court of Arbitration, 190Perret, Geoffrey, 237Perry, Matthew, 18, 78

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  • Index

    248

    Peru, 15, 70, 75Philadelphia Press, 113, 156Philippines, 133, 138, 141, 171,

    197–8, 203, 224; and annexation question, 148–56; and Carnegie, 34; independence movement in, 51; and Japan, 195, 197; Knox’s views on, 217; land policies in, 52; McKinley’s views on, 149–53, 155–8, 160, 169; missionaries in, 52, 152; and racism, 48, 154; war in, 156–60

    Pinkerton National Detective, 32Pitkin, Horace, 94Platt, Orville, 144Platt Amendment, 144, 147, 187Plessy v. Ferguson, 145Pletcher, David M., 66, 230Plummer, Brenda Gayle, 234pogroms, 45, 193, 221Populist party, 21, 101, 120Powell, William F., 188president, U.S.: accountability of, 63;

    as commander in chief, xv; and Congress, 128, 190–1; election of, 119–21, 169–73; Mahan’s views on, 111; powers of, 5–7, 76–7, 127–9, 168, 190–1, 224–8; Seward’s defense of, 7

    Progressivism, 175, 181, 201–3, 207Promise of American Life, The

    (Croly), 201protectionism, 30, 38, 73, 103–4, 204.

    See also tariffsPrussia, 14Pruyn, R. H., 17Puerto Rico, 87, 138, 141, 144–7, 159Pulitzer, Joseph, 133Pullman strike, 98, 100, 205

    Qing dynasty, 165, 196, 219. See also China

    race riots, 48racism, 5, 49, 146–7, 180, 197,

    224; against African Americans, 47–8; and Asia, 218; and Caribbean, 47–8; and Cuba, 60–1;

    deep roots of, 2; and expansionism, 51; and Hawaii, 48; and immigration, 43, 45–7, 49–50; and Philippines, 48, 154; and Progressivism, 175; of Roosevelt, 197, 199; and Santo Domingo, 62–3; and social Darwinism, 41–2

    Radical Republicans, 10–11, 13, 15, 47, 57

    railways, 30, 88, 111, 176; as cause of strikes, 29; in China, 93, 114, 195–6, 217–19; growth of, 22; and Mexico, 211–12, 214; Roosevelt’s policy on, 179; transcontinental, 4, 58, 65. See also Trans-Siberian Railway

    Rauchway, Eric, 237Rawlings, John B., 60reciprocity, 72–4, 76, 86, 88, 103,

    115, 126, 144, 173, 205reciprocity trade treaty (1854), 57, 59Reconstruction, 6, 10, 22, 38, 47Red Lanterns Shining, 165Red River area, 25–6, 58Reed, James, 236Reed, Thomas B., 141, 170Reick, W. C., 134Reid, Whitelaw, 134, 150Renda, Mary, 234Republican party, 15, 119–21.

    See also Radical RepublicansReservation-Bluefields region, 116Revels, Hiram, 62Review of Reviews, 89revolutions, 203, 208–10, 216, 223–4Riel, Louis, 58Rio de Janeiro, 115Roach, John, 109Rockefeller, John D., 3, 20, 29, 34–8,

    115, 176, 227; and industry, 108; and social Darwinism, 41

    Rockhill, William C., 166–7, 194, 197Roosevelt, Theodore, 110, 154, 161,

    169, 225–6; and arbitration, 207; assessment of, 174–6, 199; and Asia, 167, 192–9; becomes president, 173; and Central America, 182–7, 207–8; and Cuba,

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    249

    144; economic policies of, 176–9; and imperialism, 179–82; and Japan, 197, 220–1; and modern presidency, 111; and presidential accountability, 63; and racism, 197, 199; announces Roosevelt Corollary, 189–91; and Rough Riders, 137; and Russia, 181; and Santo Domingo, 187–91; as secretary of navy, 130, 133, 138; self-image of, 48; and Taft, 200; and Venezuela, 118; as vice president, 171–2; and West, 54

    Roosevelt Corollary, 68, 189–91, 202, 207

    Root, Elihu, 128; and China, 166, 168; and Cuba, 142–4; and expansionism, 55; and Monroe Doctrine, 190–1; and Philippines, 154; and presidential power, 146

    Root-Takahira agreement, 198–9Rosenberg, Emily S., 127, 230Rothschilds, 35–6Rough Riders, 137rubber, 211Ruiz, Ramón Eduardo, 235Russett, Cynthia, 231Russia: and Alaska, 11–13; and

    China, 129–31, 192–3, 195, 216, 218–19; emigration from, 45; expanding power of, 161–4; and Japan, 175, 193–5, 197; and Manchuria, 111, 113–14, 162, 165–6, 192; and oil production, 35–6; revolution in, 196; Roosevelt’s views on, 181; trade with, 26, 31; U.S. corporations in, 27, 31; U.S. trade with, 33, 221. See also Trans-Siberian Railway

    Russo-Japanese War, 175Ryan, David, 229Rydell, Robert W., 231

    Sakhalin, 195Salisbury, Lord, 117–18, 138Samana Bay, 62Samoa, 83–6, 109, 156Samsah Bay, 168

    San Domingo Improvement Company, 188–9

    San Francisco Chamber of Commerce, 84

    San Juan Islands, 58Sanford, Henry S., 81Sante Fe Railroad, 65Santo Domingo, 14–15, 57, 62–3,

    175, 187–91Saul, Norman E., 193, 237savings rate, 21Scarano, Francisco A., 232Schiff, Jacob H., 114, 193, 221Schoonover, Thomas, 234, 236Schurman, Jacob Gould, 158–60, 169Schurman Commission, 158Scott Act (1888), 49Scruggs, William L., 117Second Industrial Revolution, 20,

    22, 102, 106, 108, 125, 137, 147, 201, 206–7; and economic crisis, 97; and Gresham, 99; and merger movement, 177; and military power, 157; and need for markets, 222; and science, 172; and Twain, 50; and U.S. global power, 224; and Woodrow Wilson, 227

    segregation, 47–8Segrera, Francisco Lopez, 232Sellers, Charles, 4Seward, Frederick W., 14Seward, George F., 18Seward, William H., 7–19, 57, 71,

    129, 166; and Alaska, 11–14; and Asia, 16–18, 90; and Caribbean, 14–15; and expansionism, 8, 12, 19, 51, 56; and Hawaii, 16, 86; and immigration, 46; and importance of naval bases, 34; and isthmian canal, 68; and Mexico, 64; and presidential power, 7; and Reconstruction, 10; and Santo Domingo, 62

    Seward-Burlingame Treaty, 92Shantung region, 129, 165Sheppard, William Henry, 82–3Sherman, John, 128Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890), 27, 38

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    250

    Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890), 27, 38, 99

    Shestakov, I. A., 12Shimonoseki, Strait of, 17Shufeldt, Robert, 78–9, 91–2, 108Siberian Exile System, The (Kennan),

    193Sibley, Hiram, 12“Significance of the Frontier in

    American History, The” (Turner), 40, 101

    Silbey, David J., 233, 236silver, 27, 102–3, 120, 126, 169–70,

    172Singer Sewing Machine Company, 27,

    163Sino-Japanese War (1894), 93, 112–14Sino-U.S. treaty, 17Sioux, 53Sklar, Martin J., 231slavery, 59–61Slavs, 45Smith, Angel, 231Smith, Joseph, 234social Darwinism, 38, 40–2, 44, 47–9,

    93, 97, 179–80social unrest, 29socialism, 29Society of Political Education, 38Sousa, John Phillip, 108South, post-Civil War, 22–4, 49, 52South Africa, 170, 182South America, see Latin AmericaSouth Dakota, 53South Manchuria Railway, 195, 218Spain, 15, 53; colonialism in Cuba

    and Philippines, 54; and Cuba, 59–61, 74, 123–5, 132–3, 135; and Philippines, 149; and Santo Domingo, 14; U.S. treaty with (1898), 155

    Spanish-American War, 97, 133–9, 155, 225

    Spectator, 44, 168Spencer, Herbert, 40, 44Spetter, Allen B., 237Speyer, James, 211Spooner, John, 183

    Spooner Amendment, 183sports, 101Springfield, Illinois, 48St. Louis Exposition (1904), 196Standard Oil Company, 3, 27, 34–6,

    38–9, 204, 212–14Stanley, Henry M., 78“Stars and Stripes Forever, The”

    (Sousa), 108State Department, see Department of

    StateStatue of Liberty, 46–7steel, 22, 28, 30–1, 33–4, 192Sternburg, Speck von, 186, 188Stevens, John, 88Stevens, Thaddeus, 15Stillman, James, 114, 212–13Stillman College, 82Stoeckel, Edouard de, 12Storey, Moorfield, 154Straight, Willard, 206, 218–21strikes, 29, 46, 98–9, 101Strong, Josiah, 41, 46, 93–4Student Volunteers for Foreign

    Missions, 94Subic Bay, 159Suez Canal, 130sugar, 74, 86–8, 122, 187, 191Sumner, Charles, 11, 13, 16, 57, 59,

    62Sumner, William Graham, 41Sun Yat-sen, 220Supériorité des Anglo-Saxons

    (Demolin), 179Supreme Court, U.S., 6, 28, 47, 52,

    76, 98, 145Sutton, Warner Perrin, 66

    T’ang Shao-yi, 218Taft, William Howard, 146, 159–60,

    175, 177, 225, 238; assessment of, 200–1; and Central America, 208–10; and China, 216–20, 222; and corporations, 204; and Croly, 203; and dollar diplomacy, 205–7; and Japan, 220–1; and Mexico, 212–16; and Open Door policy, 220–1; poor communication skills

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  • Index

    251

    of, 205–6; as secretary of war, 187; and trade, 204–5, 207

    Taft-Katsura deal, 195tariffs, 30, 115, 122, 126–7, 160;

    and Asia, 90; and Congress, 16; Croly’s views on, 202; and Hawaii, 88–9; and industry, 4, 7, 99; and Latin America, 71–3; under McKinley, 88–9; need for low, 105–6; protective, 38, 103–4; and Roosevelt, 178–9; and Taft, 204. See also protectionism; reciprocity

    technology, 20–2Teller, Henry, 65, 136Teller Amendment, 136Texas, 11Thayer, Roscoe R., 238The Louisville Courier-Journal, 103Thurston, Lorrin A., 88Time, 174Tisdel, Willard P., 79tobacco, 24, 187, 204Tracy, Benjamin, 109, 225trade: Blaine and, 33, 72–4; with

    Canada, 204–5; with China, 1, 4, 17, 23–4, 130, 158, 164–5, 168–9, 216–18; deficit in, 25; and expansionism, 8; exports in, 23–4; growth in, 35, 37; importance of, to South, 23–4; and isthmian canal, 68; with Japan, 217–18; with Mexico, 63; with Russia, 35–6, 221; Seward’s views on, 17; Taft’s views on, 204–5, 207. See also protectionism; reciprocity; tariffs

    trading companies, 187Trans-Siberian Railway, 30–1, 105,

    111, 113–14, 129–30, 163, 192, 194, 219

    transportation, 226. See also railwaysTrask, David F., 232Travis, Frederick F., 237Treasury, U.S., 98Triumphant Democracy (Carnegie),

    31, 33trusts, 170, 172Turk, Richard W., 238

    Turner, Frederick Jackson, 40, 54, 101, 180

    Twain, Mark, 40, 50, 80, 101–2Tyrrell, Ian, 229

    U.S. Daughters of 1812, 108U.S. industrial complex, xvU.S. sugar trusts, 160Union League Club, 124unions, 5, 32, 46, 49, 201, 214United Fruit Company, 67, 210United Iron Works, 114United States Steel Corporation, 34,

    176–7, 204

    Vatican, 124, 135, 145Venezuela, 73, 116–18Victoria (queen), 135Virginius, 61

    Wall Street, 205War Plan Orange, 197–8Washington, Booker T., 48Washington Treaty (1871), 58–9Watterson, Henry, 103wealth, concentration of, 4Weeks, William, xWeihaiwei, 165Weinberg, Albert, 2Welch, Richard F., 237Welles, Gideon, 15Wells, David Ames, 103Wells, Samuel F., Jr., 230West Indies (Virgin Islands), 14–15Weyler, Valeriano, 124, 132Wharton, Edith, 22, 80, 182wheat, 25–6, 28Whig party, 10White, Andrew Dickson, 162White, George, 47Whitman, Walt, 102Wiebe, Robert, 223Wilcox, Walter F., 48Wildman, Rounsevelle, 155Wilkins, Mira, 231Williams, George Washington, 82Williams, Walter L., 231Williams, William Appleman, x, 230

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    Wilson, Edmund, 2Wilson, Francis Huntington, 205,

    209Wilson, Henry Lane, 213–16Wilson, James Harrison, 92–3, 130,

    137, 142–4, 194Wilson, Woodrow, 169, 175, 215,

    220, 225, 227Wilson-Gorman legislation, 103Wilson-Gorman Tariff, 122Winchester, Richard C., 232Winning of the West, The (Roosevelt),

    54–5Winthrop, John, 202Wisconsin School of historians, xWitte, Count Sergei, 31, 111, 113,

    130, 192Wolseley, Lord, 54women, 154–5, 165women’s clubs, 94Wood, Leonard, 137, 142, 144Woodward, C. Vann, 22, 38Wooster, Robert, 231

    Wounded Knee, 53Wright, Frank Lloyd , 101Wright, Wilbur, 22Wuhan-Canton Railway, 219Wuhan-Chengdu Railway, 219Wyoming, 49Wyoming, U.S.S., 18

    xenophobia, 5

    Yale University, 94YMCA and YWCA movements, 94Young, Andrew, 47Young, John Russell, 92Yu, Carlos, 235Yuan Shih-k’ai, 218–21

    Zabriskie, Edward H., 237Zapata, Emiliano, 212–13Zappo-Zap tribe, 83Zelaya, José Santos, 116, 208–9Zemurray, Sam, 210Zwik, Jim, 232

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