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241 Abel, 146 comparison with Boris and Gleb, 139 Achaeans, 1 Agapetos, deacon, 183 Agathias, historian, 39 Histories, 38 Agathonikos, St depiction on seals, 155 Alamanni, 38 Alexander the Great, 40 comparison with Byzantine emperors, 157 depictions in friezes, 186, 194 in minor arts, 157, 159 Alexander, Byzantine emperor coins, 118 Alexandra, legendary Persian empress, 21 Alexios I, Byzantine emperor, 111, 198 coins, 118, 172 Alexios III, Byzantine emperor coins, 118 seals, 117 Alexios Angelos Komnenos, grandson of Alexios I seals, 198 All Souls’ Day, 60 Alta, river, 153 Church of Sts Boris and Gleb, 152 Amasea, city in Asia Minor, 27 Ambrose, St, 37 Ammianus Marcellinus, historian, 34 Anastasia, St depiction in frescoes, 129 Anastasios I, Byzantine emperor, 42 Anastasios the Persian, St miracles of, 23–4 Andreev, city in Rus, 176 Andrew Bogoliubskii, prince of Vladimir, 179, 183, 184, 185, 197 career, 168 comparisons with Andrew, 181 with Boris and Gleb, 181, 182 with King David, 181 with King Solomon, 181 murder of, 181–3 religious innovations, 168, 170 residence, 168, 178–9 Tale of the Victory over the Volga Bulgars, 180, 181 texts by and about, 180 veneration of Boris and Gleb, 181–2, 184 of Christ, 179–80, 181 of Mother of God, 181, 211 of eodore, 180–1 Andrew, St, 182 comparison with Andrew Bogoliubskii, 181 depiction on seals, 115 Andronikos Komnenos, son of Alexios I, 172 Anonymous Byzantine Treatise on Strategy, e, see Syrianos Magistros: De re strategica Antioch, 32, 59 Antony, St church dedications, 120 Apamea, city in Syria, 38 Apostles, 60 Index All ancient and medieval people are listed by first name. Princes of Rus in the generations up to and including Boris and Gleb are listed by first name only, while princes in subsequent generations are listed by first name and patronymic or epithet (e.g. Dolgorukii). Princes are generally identified by the city which they ruled last, unless an earlier city was particularly important for their career. Emperors up to and including Constantine I are identified as ‘Roman’, subsequent emperors as ‘Byzantine’. Emperors are listed by first name and number, not surname or epithet. www.cambridge.org © in this web service Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-19564-5 - Military Saints in Byzantium and Rus, 900–1200 Monica White Index More information

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Abel, 146comparison with Boris and Gleb, 139

Achaeans, 1Agapetos, deacon, 183Agathias, historian, 39

Histories, 38Agathonikos, St

depiction on seals, 155Alamanni, 38Alexander the Great, 40

comparison with Byzantine emperors, 157

depictions in friezes, 186, 194in minor arts, 157, 159

Alexander, Byzantine emperor coins, 118

Alexandra, legendary Persian empress, 21Alexios I, Byzantine emperor, 111, 198

coins, 118, 172Alexios III, Byzantine emperor

coins, 118seals, 117

Alexios Angelos Komnenos, grandson of Alexios I

seals, 198All Souls’ Day, 60Alta, river, 153

Church of Sts Boris and Gleb, 152Amasea, city in Asia Minor, 27Ambrose, St, 37Ammianus Marcellinus, historian, 34Anastasia, St

depiction in frescoes, 129

Anastasios I, Byzantine emperor, 42Anastasios the Persian, St

miracles of, 23–4Andreev, city in Rus, 176Andrew Bogoliubskii, prince of Vladimir, 179,

183, 184, 185, 197career, 168comparisons

with Andrew, 181with Boris and Gleb, 181, 182with King David, 181with King Solomon, 181

murder of, 181–3religious innovations, 168, 170residence, 168, 178–9Tale of the Victory over the Volga Bulgars,

180, 181texts by and about, 180veneration

of Boris and Gleb, 181–2, 184of Christ, 179–80, 181of Mother of God, 181, 211of Theodore, 180–1

Andrew, St, 182comparison with Andrew Bogoliubskii, 181depiction on seals, 115

Andronikos Komnenos, son of Alexios I, 172Anonymous Byzantine Treatise on Strategy, The,

see Syrianos Magistros: De re strategicaAntioch, 32, 59Antony, St

church dedications, 120Apamea, city in Syria, 38Apostles, 60

Index

All ancient and medieval people are listed by first name. Princes of Rus in the generations up to and including Boris and Gleb are listed by first name only, while princes in subsequent generations are listed by first name and patronymic or epithet (e.g. Dolgorukii). Princes are generally identified by the city which they ruled last, unless an earlier city was particularly important for their career. Emperors up to and including Constantine I are identified as ‘Roman’, subsequent emperors as ‘Byzantine’. Emperors are listed by first name and number, not surname or epithet.

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Arab invasions, 28, 49Arabs, 14, 22, 29, 60, 69, 107, 108Arethas, St, 79, 81

depiction in ivory carvings, 78Arkadii, archbishop of Novgorod

liturgical office to Boris and Gleb, 144, 145Arkadios, archbishop of Cyprus

homily to George, 23, 24Armenia, 32Arrianos, military author

Taktikon, 42Asia Minor, 173Avars, 45Avar-Slav invasions, 14, 18, 71

Baghdad, 95Balkans, 5, 25Baltic Sea, 124Barbara, St

church in Soğanlı, 83comparison with Boris, 139

Bardas Phokas, rebel, 89Bardas Skleros, rebel, 89Bartholomew, St

depiction in minor arts, 160Basil I, Byzantine emperor, 51, 65, 66, 67, 78, 121

anonymous poem to, 65campaigns, 32church-building activities, 66, 72, 121comparisons

with Constantine I, 65with King David, 65with King Solomon, 65

murder of Michael III, 121veneration

of Diomedes, 66of Elijah, 65

Basil II, Byzantine emperor, 32, 59, 64, 85, 89, 94, 203

campaigns, 32veneration

of military saints, 89–91of Mother of God, 89

Basil the Great, St, 78church in Vyshgorod, 151depiction on seals, 115, 154vision of, 141

Basil the Parakoimomenos, 85Basil the Younger, St

Life, 86–7Beirut, 32Belarus, 94Belisarios, general, 37, 40Bible, 52, 54, 113Black Sea, 73

Bogoliubovo, town in Rus, 168, 179citizens of, 182

Boris, prince of Rostov, see also Boris, prince of Rostov and Gleb, prince of Murom

‘The Appearance of Boris’, 143comparisons

with Barbara, 139with Niketas, 139with Romanos the Melode, 139with Václav, 139

depiction on seals, 115relics, 153, 154, 182, 183, 184

Boris, prince of Rostov and Gleb, prince of Murom, 4, 6, 7, 132, 139, 167, 179, 180, 181, 184, 186, 193, 199

accounts in Primary Chronicle, 134–5, 137, 142, 143, 146, 147

association with Demetrios, 140–1, 142with George, 140, 142with Merkourios, 142with military saints, 3, 4, 6, 93, 131, 132–3,

134, 142–5, 147–8, 155–66, 187–90, 199–200, 201–2, 204

with Nicholas, 139–40category of sainthood, 135–7cathedral in Chernigov, 152church dedications, 120churches

in Grodno, 153in Kideksha, 178in Kiev, 149in Novgorod, 153in Novogrudok, 153in Polotsk, 153in Riazan, 153in Vyshgorod, 151–2, 178on Alta River, 152

comparisons with Abel, 139with Andrew Bogoliubskii, 181, 182with Joseph and Benjamin, 138

cultural significance of, 133death of, 135–6depictions

in frescoes, 163–4, 165–6in friezes, 187–90, 193in minor arts, 158–63, 164–6, 201on seals, 154–6, 165–6

earthly lives of, 134–5, 143entries

in First Redaction of prolog, 145, 179in minei, 145–6

Lesson, 135, 136, 137, 138–40, 141, 143, 154liturgical offices, 143–5

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monastery on Smiadyn River, 152, 179paremeinik readings, 146–7, 183, 184relics, 151–2, 175, 179sources, 7, 8–9, 133–4, 137–8, see also works

by title, medium or genreTale, 135, 137, 138, 139, 140–1, 142, 143, 146, 147Tale of the Miracles, 137, 139–40, 151, 152,

153, 175veneration

by house of Suzdal, 168–9, 170, 178, 179, 181–2, 184, 187–90, 199–200, 201–2

by Iaroslav, 142, 147by Riurikids, 142, 145–6, 148–62

Borisov, city in Rus, 176Borisov-Glebov, city in Rus, 176British Museum, 81Bulgaria, 32, 61, 87, 104Bulgarians, 56, 61Bulgars, 95Byzantine Commonwealth, 157Byzantine emperors, see emperors, dynasties or

periods by nameByzantine Empire, 3, 4, 8, 61, 62, 63, 92, 93, 94,

95, 97, 102, 121, 122, 130, 131, 132, 144, 150, 156, 157, 158, 159, 162, 165, 171, 177, 185, 186, 195, 203, 204, 205

trade with Varangians, 94–5Byzantines, 38, 39, 45, 54, 56, 62, 87, 96, 200,

204Byzantium, see Byzantine Empire

Cain, 146comparison with Sviatopolk, 139, 141

Campaign Organization and Tactics, see De re militari

Cappadocia, 13, 25, 173, 174churches

Cistern church, 82–3of the Cross, 83of Nikephoros II, 81, 83

Caucasus, 45, 94, 95Chaldaeans, see PersiansChernigov, city in Rus

Cathedral of Sts Boris and Gleb, 152Christ, 56, 58, 59, 60, 61, 103, 106, 139, 145, 180

anguish at sins of people, 69baptism of

depiction on seals, 115church dedications, 120comparison with Byzantine emperors, 157Crucifixion

depiction in minor arts, 123death of, 136depictions

on coins, 118, 172

in frescoes, 128, 173in minor arts, 127, 156, 157, 159, 160, 196, 197on seals, 116, 117, 198

as example to soldiers, 54icons of, 14, 38, 40, 108intercession in war, 64, 89, 197Pantokrator

monastery in Constantinople, 192Transfiguration

church in Polotsk, 130depiction on seals, 117

veneration by Andew Bogoliubskii, 179–80, 181in vision of Basil the Great, 141

Christendom, 46Christianity, 42, 45, 62, 79, 101, 121Christians, 41, 56, 58, 59, 136

Nestorian, 39non-Chalcedonian, 45in Roman army, 1, 34

persecution of, 1, 6, 13, 35of Thessalonika, 15

Christina, St depiction in frescoes, 129

Chronicon Paschale, 37–8, 45, 46, 47–8Chrysippos of Jerusalem, 30

miracle stories about Theodore Teron, 28Chud, tribe, 111, 175church dedications

Byzantine, 120–1Rus, 119–20, 151–3

Clement of Alexandria, St church dedications, 120depiction in ivory carvings, 81

Clement of Ohrid, St enkomion to Demetrios, 101–2lessons

in honour of Demetrios, 101–2in honour of George, 101

coins Byzantine, 118, 171–2Rus, 118–19

Constantine I, Roman emperor, 37, 47, 50, 178church in Constantinople, 121comparison with Basil I, 65decree of religious toleration by, 2depictions

on coins, 118in friezes, 187in minor arts, 157on seals, 115, 116

Life, 35–6rehabilitation of victims of persecution, 40religious leadership of army, 2, 35–6, 42veneration by Iurii Dolgorukii, 177war with Licinius, 36

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Constantine V, Byzantine emperor, 28, 46, 50Constantine VII, Byzantine emperor, 51, 57,

61, 77Book of Ceremonies, 69, 78campaigns, 32military orations, 58veneration of military saints, 78–80What Should be Observed When the…, 50–1,

57–8, 78Constantine IX, Byzantine emperor

seals, 111Constantinople, 15, 17, 29, 44, 47, 49, 50, 65,

70, 77, 82, 85, 87, 97, 100, 102, 107, 110, 161, 162, 171, 173, 174, 180, 185, 192, 196

attacks by Rus, 86–7, 96Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom, 37Chapel of Archangel Michael, 121churches

of Archangel Michael, 121of St Constantine, 121of St Demetrios, 66, 67, 71, 72of St George, 22, 107of St Peter, 69of St Theodore Teron, 30, 87of St Theophano, 121of St Zoe, 121

citizens of, 71monasteries

of the Pantokrator, 192of St Diomedes, 65

prayer for protection of, 57protection by Mother of God, 45, 84relics, 58siege of 626, 45, 46

Constantius II, Byzantine emperor, 37, 38Crimea, 173Crusades, 61Cyprus, 32Cyril and Methodios, Sts, see also Methodios,

Stveneration of Demetrios, 99–100

Cyril of Alexandria, St church in Kiev, 130

frescoes, 165Cyril, bishop of Turov, 108Cyrus and John, Sts

depiction in ivory carvings, 81hymns to, 145

Dadianos, legendary Persian emperor, 21Danube, 185David Sviatoslavich, prince of Chernigov

Cathedral of Sts Boris and Gleb, 152veneration of Gleb, 153

David, king of Israel, 45, 151, 159comparisons

with Andrew Bogoliubskii, 181with Basil I, 65with Byzantine emperors, 157with Gleb, 138

depictions in minor arts, 157on seals, 115

David, St, see Gleb, prince of MuromDavydova bozhenka, city in Rus, 176De re militari, 52De rebus bellicis, 42Delehaye, Hippolyte, 4, 5, 7, 12, 13, 27, 73Demetrios, St, 4, 6, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 26, 30, 32,

33, 64, 66, 70, 72, 73, 77, 78, 96, 102, 108, 119, 177, 198, 199

anonymous collection of miracle stories, 7, 18

association with Boris and Gleb, 140–1, 142Byzantine artistic sources, 13, 19–21, 25,

see also works by category or mediumByzantine textual sources, 12, 25, 75,

see also works by titlecathedrals

in Thessalonika 17, 19, 24, 190in Vladimir, 185, 192

churches in Constantinople, 66, 67, 71, 72in Dmitrov, 185in Kiev, 128

depictions on coins, 118, 172in frescoes, 84in friezes, 187, 190, 194, 195in ivory carvings, 78, 84in manuscript illuminations, 90, 91in minor arts, 82, 85, 124, 125, 127, 128, 157,

158–9, 161, 173, 185–6, 192, 201in mosaics, 82, 130on seals, 115, 116, 117, 125, 186, 198

enkomia by Clement of Ohrid, 101–2by Gregory the Deacon, 71by John, 18

entries in First Redaction of prolog, 106in Menologion of Basil II, 71, 74in Metaphrastic Menologion, 71in minei, 102in Second Redaction of prolog, 108–9in Synaxarion of Constantinople, 71–2

epigrams by John Geometros, 85, 86failure to aid Thessalonika in 904, 70

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grave covering, 173, 190–3homilies by Leo VI, 68–9, 71hymn by Leo VI, 69icons of, 20kanones

by George Skylitzes, 173by Methodios, 100–1, 102

lessons by Clement of Ohrid, 101–2miracle stories by John, 7, 16–18, 20, 101–2,

140–1myron, 173, 192Passio altera, 18–19, 68, 71, 192Passio prima, 15–16, 19, 20, 67, 68as protector of Thessalonika, 16, 18, 25, 31,

71–2, 101ranks and titles, 18–19relics, 16–17, 70, 127, 190, 192sticheron, 144, 145third collection of miracle stories, 173–4veneration

by Basil II, 89–90by Cyril and Methodios, 99–100by Justinian II, 17, 31by Leo VI, 66–9, 70, 100by Manuel I, 192–3by Slavs, 101, 102by Vsevolod Iurevich, 185–6, 190–2

Diocletian, Roman emperor, 1, 22, 107Diomedes, St

monastery in Constantinople, 65veneration by Basil I, 65–6

Dmitrov, city in Rus, 174, 177, 185Church of St Demetrios, 185

Dmitrov Kievskii, city in Rus, 176Dnieper, river, 95Domitianos, bishop of Martyropolis, 39, 43Domnitziolos, nephew of Phokas

veneration of George, 23, 24, 31Dorostolon, city in Bulgaria, 88

renaming of, 87–8

East Slavs, 10, 118, see also Rus (people)Edessa, Persian siege of 38Egypt, 25Eine griechische Schrift über Seekrieg,

see Syrianos Magistros, military author: Naumachiae

Elijah, prophet, 78church dedications, 120veneration

by Basil I, 65by Leo VI, 66

Euchaita, city in Asia Minor, 13, 26, 27, 28, 30, 72, 75, 106

Church of St Theodore Teron, 30citizens of, 28renaming of, 89

Euchaneia, town near Euchaita, 72, 73renaming of, 88, 89

Eupatios, St church dedications, 120

Europe, 94, 96, 133Eusebios, archbishop of Thessalonika, 16Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, 37, 40

Life of Constantine, 35–6Eustathios, St, 14, 79

depictions in frescoes, 83, 130in friezes, 187in ivory carvings, 78, 80, 81, 131in minor arts, 125, 128

enkomion by Niketas the Paphlagonian, 73Eustratios, St, 79

depictions in frescoes, 83in ivory carvings, 78, 81

enkomion by Niketas the Paphlagonian, 73

Euthemios Protasecretis, author, 73hagiography of Theodore Stratelates, 73

Evagrios, church historian, 64Ecclesiastical History, 38, 39, 40

Evfrosiniia, princess of Polotsk altar cross, 127

Ezra, city in Syria Church of St George, 22

Feodosii, St veneration by Sviatopolk Iziaslavich, 149

Feriale Duranum, 34Finland, 94First World War, 205Forty martyrs of Sebasteia

depictions in frescoes, 83in ivory carvings, 81

frescoes and mosaics Byzantine, 128–9Rus, 128–30

friezes, Rus, 186–90, 193–7, 198–200

Gabriel, Archangel depictions

in minor arts, 160on seals, 115

icons of, 14, 108Genesis, Book of, 139George, Metropolitan of Kiev, 153

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George, St, 4, 6, 13, 14, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 32, 33, 64, 70, 72, 76, 77, 103, 175, 177, 198

association with Boris and Gleb, 140, 142Byzantine artistic sources, 13, 25, 26, 31, 77,

see also works by category or mediumByzantine textual sources, 7, 12, 25–6, 76,

77, see also works by titlecathedrals

in Iurev-Polskoi, 193in Novgorod, 130

chapel in Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom, Kiev, 129–30

churches in Constantinople, 22, 107in Ezra, 22in Jerusalem, 22in Kiev, 107in Lydda, 22in Rome, 22in Staraia Ladoga, 130

depictions on coins, 118, 172in frescoes, 83, 84, 130, 173in friezes, 187, 194, 195in ivory carvings, 78, 80, 81, 84in manuscript illuminations, 91in minor arts, 82, 85, 123, 125–6, 127, 128,

131, 158–9, 161, 201in mosaics, 82in posters, 205on seals, 115, 116, 117, 125, 198

dragon-slaying miracle, 14, 30, 128, 130entries

in First Redaction of prolog, 107in Metaphrastic Menologion, 75–6in minei, 103, 104in Synaxarion of Constantinople, 75, 77,

88, 107hagiography

by Niketas the Paphlagonian, 75by Theodore Daphnopates, 75

homily by Arkadios, 23, 24inscriptions, 23Iur’ev den’, 107kanon by George Skylitzes, 173lesson by Clement of Ohrid, 101miracle stories, 22, 24

Paphlagonian collection, 76passiones, 21–2sticheron, 144, 145veneration

by Basil II, 90by Domnitziolos, 23, 24, 31by Iaroslav, 111–12by John I, 88

George Kedrenos, historian Synopsis historion, 88–9

George of Pisidia, poet works, 46, 48

George Skylitzes, court official kanones

to Demetrios, 173to George, 173

Gerontios, father of George, 21Géza II, king of Hungary, 170Gildo, pagan count, 37Gleb Iurevich, prince of Kiev, 168Gleb Sviatoslavich, prince of

Tmutarakan, 153Gleb, prince of Murom, 143, see also Boris,

prince of Rostov and Gleb, prince of Murom

comparisons with King David 138with Zechariah, 138

depictions in minor arts, 153, 154on seals, 115

relics, 153veneration

by David Sviatoslavich, 153by Sviatoslav Iaroslavich, 153

Glebl, city in Rus, 176Glebov, city in Rus, 176gods, Greco-Roman, 1Goliath, 45Göreme, town in Cappadocia

chuch of Mother of God, 83Goriaser, murderer of Gleb, 182Gorodishche, town in Rus, 95Gospels, 49, 54, 68Goths, 38Greece

inscriptions about Theodore Teron, 30Greeks, see ByzantinesGregory of Nyssa, St, 27, 30

enkomion to Theodore Teron, 26–7Gregory the Deacon

enkomion to Demetrios, 71Grodno, city in Rus

Church of Sts Boris and Gleb, 153

Herakleios, Byzantine emperor, 33, 45, 46, 48, 50, 51, 53, 54, 61, 65

dispatches, 47–8letter to Kavadh II, 46military theories, 44, 49, 51religious propaganda, 44–5, 48–9rise to power, 44wars with Persia, 44

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Hercules depiction in friezes, 187

Hermitage, 80Hermogenes, rhetorician, 54Hieron, St

depiction in frescoes, 83holy war, inapplicability to Byzantium, 61–2Holy Wisdom

cathedrals in Constantinople, 37in Kiev, 129, 149in Novgorod, 127

church dedications, 120Homer, 1house of Suzdal, 98, 166, 169, see also princes

by nameveneration

of Boris and Gleb, 168–9, 170, 179, 201–2of military saints, 168–9, 170, 184, 201–2

Hungarians, 56, 173Hyakinthos, St

depiction on seals, 117Hypatian Chronicle, 149, 179, 180, 181, 182

Ianin, V. L., 112, 113, 114Iaroslav, prince of Kiev, 129, 135, 138, 142, 148,

149, 151, 152, 169, 183, 184churches

of Sts Boris and Gleb, 151, 178of St George, 107

coins, 118foundation of cities, 111, 175seals, 111, 115veneration

of Boris and Gleb, 142, 147of George, 111–12

war with Sviatopolk, 135, 142, 146, 147, 148, 183Iaroslav Vladimirovich, prince of Novgorod

Church of the Saviour (Nereditsa), 130Iaroslav Vsevolodovich, prince of Vladimir

helmet, 124Iconoclasm, 2, 12, 14, 28, 29, 51, 91

used to rally army, 50Iconoclast emperors, 51, see also emperors by

nameIgnatios, St

depiction on seals, 155Igor, prince of Kiev, 95, 96Ioachim and Anna, Sts

church dedications, 120Irene, Byzantine empress, 50Isaac I, Byzantine emperor, 172

coins, 171–2Isaac II, Byzantine emperor

coins, 118

Isaac Komnenos, son of Alexios I, 172Isaurian emperors. 51, see also emperors by

nameIslam, 62Ismael, descendants of, 59Italy, 38Iurev (Tartu), city in Rus, 177

foundation, 175Iurev, city in Rus, 177

foundation, 111, 175Iurev-Polskoi, city in Rus, 174, 177

Cathedral of St George, 193friezes, 193–7, 198–200

Iurii Dolgorukii, prince of Suzdal, 168, 170, 171, 174, 176, 177, 178, 179, 182, 184, 185, 187, 188, 193, 202

career, 167–8Church of Sts Boris and Gleb, 178foundation of cities, 174, 177–8, 185relations with Byzantine empire, 170–1veneration

of Boris and Gleb, 178of Constantine, 177of military saints, 177–8

ivory carvings, Byzantine, 78–81, 84–5Iziaslav Davydovich, prince of Chernigov

veneration of Archangel Michael, 197of Mother of God, 197

Iziaslav Iaroslavich, prince of Kiev, 128, 151, 152

Church of Sts Boris and Gleb, 151, 152Iziaslav Mstislavich, prince of Kiev, 170Iziaslav Vladimirovich, prince of Polotsk,

175Iziaslavl, city in Rus, 175

foundation, 175

Jacob, Old Testament patriarch, 138James, St

depiction in minor arts, 160Jerusalem, 38, 45, 46, 108

churches of St George, 22of St Theodore Teron, 30

jihad, 61, 62John I, Byzantine emperor, 81, 85, 198

campaigns, 87Church of St Theodore Stratelates, 88, 89renaming of cities, 87–9veneration

of George, 88of Theodore Stratelates, 87–9, 111

John II, Byzantine emperor, 172coins, 118, 172

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John, archbishop of Thessalonika, 18enkomion to Demetrios, 18miracle stories about Demetrios, 16–18, 20,

101–2, 140–1John, metropolitan of Kiev

liturgical office of Boris and Gleb, 144–5

John Chrysostom, St, 104, 182, 183John Geometros, poet, 85

works about military saints, 85–6John Kaminiates, Thessalonian

De Expugnatione Thessalonicae, 69–70John Komnenos, father of Alexios I

seals, 111John Malalas, historian

Chronicle, 141John Skylitzes, historian, 88, 173

Synopsis historiarum, 88, 89–90John the Baptist, St

depictions in minor arts, 160on seals, 115, 154

John the Theologian, St depiction on seals, 115, 154

John the Warrior, St depiction in frescoes, 130, 131

John Zonaras, historian Epitomae historiarum, 89

Jordan inscriptions about Theodore Teron, 30

Joseph and Benjamin, sons of Jacob comparison with Boris and Gleb, 138

Judaism, 79Julian, Byzantine emperor, 28, 141

comparison with Sviatopolk, 141killing

by Merkourios, 14, 141by Thekla, 141by Theodore, 141

Julius Caesar, Roman emperor, 34, 50Justin I, Byzantine emperor, 23Justin II, Byzantine emperor

veneration of Mother of God, 39Justinian I, Byzantine emperor, 16, 37

conquest of North Africa, 38Justinian II, Byzantine emperor

coins, 118veneration of Demetrios, 17, 31

Justinian, general, 39, 43, 49

Kavadh II, Persian emperor, 44, 47, 48letter from Herakleios, 46

Kekaumenos, military author works, 52

Khazar Empire, 95

Kideksha, town in Rus, 179Church of Sts Boris and Gleb, 178

Kiev, 95, 96, 128, 135, 143, 150, 151, 152, 161, 167, 168, 170, 178, 179, 180, 187, 196, 197

cathedrals of Archangel Michael, 130of the Holy Wisdom, 129, 149

Caves Monastery, 149Cathedral of the Dormition, 149Paterik, 197

Chapel of St George, 129–30churches

of Sts Boris and Gleb, 149of St Cyril of Alexandria, 130, 165of St Demetrios, 128of St George, 107Tithe Church, 149

Kievan Rus, see RusKomnenoi emperors, 174, see also emperors

by nameveneration of military saints, 92,

171–3Kosmas and Damian, Sts

depictions in friezes, 199in minor arts, 157on seals, 115, 154

veneration by Leo VI, 66Ksniatin on the Sula, city in Rus, 176, 177Ksniatin, city in Rus, 174, 177Kyrion, St

depiction in ivory carvings, 81

Lamech, Old Testament patriarch comparison with Sviatopolk, 139, 141

Last Judgement, 186Laurentian Chronicle, 149, 175, 180, 181, 182, 183,

185, 190, 197Lemerle, Paul, 7, 18, 19, 20Lent, 100Leo IV, Byzantine emperor, 50Leo VI, Byzantine emperor, 50, 55, 57, 61, 65,

70, 71, 72, 78, 101campaigns, 32church-building activities, 121coins, 118homilies to Demetrios, 68–9, 71hymn to Demetrios, 69Problemata, 55Tactical Constitutions, 55–7veneration

of Demetrios, 66–9, 70, 100of Elijah, 66of Kosmas and Damian, 66

Leo the Deacon, 88, 198

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History, 87–8Leontios, eparch of Illyricum, 15, 192Licinius, Roman emperor

decree of religious toleration by, 2persecution of Christians, 40war with Constantine I, 36

liturgical texts, military-related, 60–1Longinos, St

inscription, 30Louvre, 80Luke, St

Monastery of (Hosios Loukas) mosaics, 82

Lyaeus, gladiator, 15, 103Lydda, city in Palestine, 13, 77

church of St George, 22

Macedonian dynasty, see Macedonian emperors

Macedonian emperors, 4, 13, 15, 21, 26, 33, 34, 50, 51, 171, see also emperors by name

military successes, 32veneration of military saints, 13, 33, 64–5,

77–80, 86–91, 94, 202–3Magnentios, usurper, 38Manuel I, Byzantine emperor, 170, 171, 173, 181,

185, 192, 193, 198coins, 118, 172depiction in frescoes, 172–3seals, 116veneration of Demetrios, 192–3

Marcellinus, historian Chronicle of Marcellinus, 37, 64

continuation of, 37Mark, St

depiction in minor arts, 157relics, 30

martyr-generals, see military saintsMartyropolis, siege of, 39martyrs

Byzantine strategists’ fascination with, 49–50, 53

exhortations to soldiers to emulate, 49, 51, 54, 56, 57–8, 59–61, 63, 77

martyr-warrior ideal, 4, 77, 102, 127, 131, 132, 134, 150, 171, 193, 199

Mary, St, see Mother of GodMascezel, brother of Gildo, 37Maurice, Byzantine emperor, 16, 44, 46, 47, 54

campaigns, 39Strategikon, 43–4, 47, 55, 56, 59

Maximian, Roman emperor, 15Mediterranean, 94Melias, general, 81Melissa, 183

Melitene, city in Armenia, 32menaia, see minei, RusMenander, historian, 39

History, 39Menas, St

depiction in ivory carvings, 81Menologion of Basil II, 90, 104, 106

entries for Demetrios, 71, 74for Theodore Stratelates, 74for Theodore Teron, 74

illuminations, 90opening poem, 90, 91

Merkourios, St, 4, 14, 24, 103, 108, 141association with Boris and Gleb, 142depictions

in friezes, 187in ivory carvings, 81in manuscript illuminations, 91in minor arts, 128in mosaics, 82on seals, 115

entries in First Redaction of prolog, 107in minei, 103

killing of Julian, 14, 141Methodios, St, 101, 102, 103, see also Cyril and

Methodios, Stskanon to Demetrios, 100–1, 102

Michael III, Byzantine emperor, 51, 121murder by Basil I, 121

Michael IV, Byzantine emperor coins, 118seals, 111

Michael, Archangel, 11, 12cathedral in Kiev, 130chapel in Constantinople, 121churches in Constantinople, 121depictions

on coins, 118in minor arts, 160on seals, 115, 154, 155

icons of, 14, 108military role, 11name used as password, 57veneration by Iziaslav Davydovich, 197

Michael Autoreianos, patriarch of Constantinople, 62

Middle East, 94Mikhailov, city in Rus, 176Mikhalko Iurevich, prince of Vladimir

veneration of Boris and Gleb, 149–50of Mother of God, 149–50

Mikulin, city in Rus, 176

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military handbooks, see military writings, Byzantine

military saints, see also saints by namealliance with Mother of God, 11, 84, 87,

197–8Byzantine sources, 7–8, 9–11, 77–8,

see also works by title, medium or genreByzantine terms for, 3as Christian equivalent of ancient gods, 1depictions

in frescoes, 163–4, 173in minor arts, 157on seals, 154, 173

état-major, 4, 5, 6, 13, 78historical reliability of texts, 12as models for Boris and Gleb, 3, 4, 6, 93,

131, 132–3, 134, 142–5, 147–8, 155–66, 187–90, 199–200, 201–2, 204

modern terms for, 3names used as passwords, 57, 78Rus sources, 8–11, 98, 110, see also works by

title, medium or genrescholarship about, 7, 99veneration

as group, 3, 6, 77–84, 89–91by house of Suzdal, 168–9, 170, 177–8,

184, 187–90, 194–6, 197, 198–200, 201–2by Komnenoi emperors, 92, 171–3by Macedonian emperors, 13, 33, 64–5,

77–80, 86–91, 94, 202–3as martyrs, 3, 5, 15, 65, 78–84, 90–1by Riurikids, 2, 92, 109–11, 122, 203–4

military treatises, see military writings, Byzantine

military writings, Byzantine, 10Iconoclast, 50–1, see also works by titlelate antique, 40–4, see also works by titlemiddle Byzantine, 49–61, see also works by

titleminei, Rus, 100–1, 102–4, 105, 109

entries for Boris and Gleb, 145–6for Demetrios, 102for George, 103, 104for Merkourios, 103for Nestor, 103for Theodore Stratelates, 103–4

minor arts Byzantine, 82, 85, 156–7, 196Georgian, 157–8Rus, 122–8, 156, 158–62

Mithraism in Roman army, 34

Mother of God, 11, 12, 43, 48, 49, 59, 60, 87, 88, 151, 180, 196, 197

alliance with military saints, 11, 84, 87, 197–8

Annunciation depiction on seals, 115

church dedications, 119, 120church in Göreme, 83depictions

on coins, 118, 172on enkolpia, 123in frescoes, 128, 163–4, 172–3in friezes, 194, 195in ivory carvings, 84in minor arts, 84, 156, 157, 160, 197on seals, 116, 117, 198

Dormition Cathedral in Caves Monastery, 149

icons of, 11, 88, 89, 127Intercession, 179intercession in war, 197military role, 11, 39–40, 64, 89name used as password, 57protection of Constantinople, 45, 84relics, 11veneration

by emperors, 39, 89by Riurikids, 149–50, 179–80, 181, 195–6,

197Mstislav Iurevich, prince of Novgorod, 177

exile in Byzantine empire, 185Mstislav Rostislavich, prince of Novgorod

veneration of Boris and Gleb, 150Mstislav Vladimirovich, prince of Kiev

commissioning of enamels, 161veneration of Boris and Gleb, 161

Murom, city in Rus, 135Muslims, 28, 62

Najran, city in Arabia, 79Narses, general, 38Naslav, scribe, 161

journey to Constantinople, 161Nektarios, archbishop of Constantinople

homily to Theodore Teron, 28Nestor, monk, 136

Lesson, 135, 136, 137, 138–40, 141, 143, 154Nestor, St, 14, 15, 103

depictions in friezes, 187, 194in minor arts, 128in mosaics, 82

entry in minei, 103Nicholas, St, 140

association with Boris and Gleb, 139–40depictions

in frescoes, 172–3

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in minor arts, 125, 140, 163on seals, 115, 117

Nicholas Mystikos, patriarch of Constantinople, 70

sermon on sack of Thessalonika, 69Nikephoros I, Byzantine emperor, 61

invasion of Bulgaria, 61Nikephoros II, Byzantine emperor, 85

akolouthia commemorating, 61church in Cappadocia, 81, 83De velitatione bellica, 58, 59–60petition of Patriarch Polyeuktos, 60Praecepta militaria, 58–9

Nikephoros, patriarch of Constantinople Short History, 46

Nikephoros Ouranos, governor of Antioch, 90hagiography of Theodore Teron, 74–5, 90Taktika, 59, 74

Niketas, St comparison with Boris, 139depictions

in minor arts, 127on seals, 155

Niketas Choniates, historian, 198Niketas the Paphlagonian, scholar, 72, 73

enkomia to Eustathios, 73to Eustratios, 73to Prokopios, 73to Theodore Stratelates, 72–3

hagiography of George, 75Nisibis, Persian siege of, 37North Africa, 37Novgorod, city in Rus, 95, 112, 114, 135, 147,

168, 201cathedrals

of St George, 130of the Holy Wisdom, 127

churches of Sts Boris and Gleb, 153of the Saviour (Nereditsa), 129, 163–4

Novgorod First Chronicle, 152, 185Novgorodians, 183, 201Novogrudok, city in Rus

Church of Sts Boris and Gleb, 153

Old Testament, 52, 54, 138, 139, 146, 181use in paremeinik, 146

Oleg, Varangian prince attack on Constantinople, 96

Oleg Sviatoslavich, prince of Chernigov Church of Sts Boris and Gleb, 151, 152

Olga, princess of Kiev, 96conversion to Christianity, 97

Orthodoxy, 51, 203

Otskalan, region in Byzantine empire, 185Ottoman conquests, 5

Palestine, 22, 40inscriptions about Theodore Teron, 30

Panteleemon, St depiction on seals, 115relics, 127

Paphlagonia, region in Asia Minor, 76Parekbolai, 52Paul, St, see also Peter and Paul, Sts

Letter to the Romans, 183–4Pchela, 183Pechenegs, tribe, 143Pereslavl, city in Rus, 152, 167, 168Pereslavl-Zalesskii, city in Rus, 127Persia, 45, 49, 137

trade with Varangians, 94Persians, 23, 29, 39, 45, 76, 173Peter, bishop of Euchaita, 27Peter, bishop of Thessalonika, 20Peter, St, see also Peter and Paul, Sts

church in Constantinople, 69depictions

on coins, 118on seals, 115

Peter and Paul, Sts, see also Peter, St; Paul, Stdepictions

in minor arts, 128, 160on seals, 154

hymns to, 144Phokas, Byzantine emperor, 23, 44Photios, patriarch of Constantinople, 65

Bibliotheca, 68Photios of Thessalonika, St

enkomion to, 90Polotsk, city in Rus

churches of Sts Boris and Gleb, 153of the Transfiguration, 130

Polovtsy, tribe, 174, 180Poluainos, military author, 52Polyeuktos, patriarch of Constantinople, 60pre-Mongol Rus, see RusPrimary Chronicle, 95, 96, 149, 174, 175

accounts about Boris and Gleb, 134–5, 137, 142, 143, 146, 147

Procopius of Caesarea, 38, 40History of the Wars, 38

Prokopios, St, 4, 14, 107depictions

in frescoes, 83in friezes, 187, 194in ivory carvings, 78, 81in manuscript illuminations, 91

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in minor arts, 82, 128in mosaics, 82on seals, 115

enkomion by Niketas the Paphlagonian, 73entry in First Redaction of prolog, 107–8sticheron, 144, 145

prolog, Slavonic, 104, 105, 109First Redaction, 104–6, 108

entries for Boris and Gleb, 145, 179entries for George, 107entry for Demetrios, 106entry for Merkourios, 107entry for Prokopios, 107–8entry for Theodore Stratelates, 106entry for Theodore Teron, 106

Second Redaction, 105, 108entry for Demetrios, 108–9

Slavonic Synaxarion, 104, 108Psalms, 47Psalter of Basil II, 90

frontispiece, 91opening poem, 91

Ravenna Church of Sant’Apollinare Nuovo, 20

Riazan, city in Rus, 124, 163Church of Sts Boris and Gleb, 153

Riurik, prince of Novgorod, 95Riurik Rostislavich, prince of Kiev

veneration of Boris and Gleb, 150Riurikids, 2, 95, 96, 99, 110, 122, 132, 156, 166,

see also princes by namededication of churches, 119, 120naming system, 113seals, 111–13, 114–16, 117–18succession system, 96veneration

of Boris and Gleb, 142, 145–6, 148–62of military saints, 2, 92, 109–11, 122,

203–4Roman army, pre-Constantine I, 1

Christianity in, 5religious observances in, 34–5

Roman emperors, post-Constantine I, see Byzantine emperors

Roman Empire, pre-Constantine I, 13Roman, St., see Boris, prince of RostovRomanos I, Byzantine emperor, 89

campaigns, 32Romanos II, Byzantine emperor, 86

campaigns, 32Romanos III, Byzantine emperor

seals, 111Romanos the Melode, St, 151

comparison with Boris, 139Romans, post-Constantine I, see ByzantinesRome

churches of Santa Maria Antiqua, 20of St George, 22of St Theodore Teron, 30

Palazzo Venezia, 78Rostislav Iurevich, prince of Pereslavl, 177Rostov, city in Rus, 135, 167Rus, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 92, 93, 94, 96, 97, 99, 102,

103, 107, 109, 121, 131, 132, 133, 134, 136, 138, 139, 141, 142, 143, 149, 151, 152, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 165, 167, 168, 169, 171, 174, 177, 178, 179, 183, 185, 186, 190, 196, 197, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205

earliest history of, 94–5official conversion to Christianity, 2, 94,

97, 135princely clan of, see Riurikids

Rus (people), 86, 87, 89, 90, 95, 96, see also East Slavs

attacks on Constantinople, 87, 96Russia, 94Russian Empire, 205Russians, 205

Sabbas the Warrior, St depiction in frescoes, 130

Saracens, see ArabsSaviour

church outside Novgorod (Nereditsa), 129frescoes, 163–4

Scandinavians, see VarangiansScythians, 26, 27, 87, 173seals

Byzantine, 116–17, 173Rus, 111–13, 114–16, 117–18

Second World War, 127Serbia, 104Sergiopolis, city in Syria, 40, 64Shapur II, Persian emperor, 37Symeon,

depiction on seals, 154Sinai, Mt, 197Skirmishing, see Nikephoros II: De velitatione

bellicaSlavs, 102, 144

attacks on Thessalonika, 71veneration of Demetrios, 101, 102

Smiadyn, river, 153Monastery of Sts Boris and Gleb, 152, 179

Smolensk, city in Rus, 135, 152Soğanlı, valley in Cappadocia

Church of St Barbara, 83

Prokopios, St (cont.)

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Solachon, battle of, 40Solomon, king of Israel

comparisons with Andrew Bogoliubskii, 181with Basil I, 65

Staraia Ladoga, city in Rus Church of St George, 130

Stephen, St, 139depiction in ivory carvings, 81relics, 127

Suzdal, city in Rus, 98, 168, 178, 193, 201Sviatopolch, city in Rus

foundation, 174–5Sviatopolk, prince of Kiev, 143

baptism, 135coins, 118–19comparisons

with Cain, 139, 141with Julian, 141with Lamech, 139, 141

death of, 141, 142murder of Boris and Gleb, 135war with Iaroslav, 135, 142, 146, 147,

148, 183Sviatopolk Iziaslavich, prince of Kiev, 151

foundation of cities, 174–5veneration

of Feodosii, 149of Mother of God, 149

Sviatoslav Iaroslavich, prince of Kiev, 151, 152Church of Sts Boris and Gleb, 151veneration of Gleb, 153

Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich, prince of Iurev-Polskoi, 179, 193

Cathedral of St George, 193friezes, 193–7, 198–200

veneration of Boris and Gleb, 199–200of military saints, 194–6, 197,

198–200of Mother of God, 195–6, 197

Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich, prince of Kiev

veneration of Boris and Gleb, 150Sviatoslavichi, see princes by nameSylloge tacticorum, 57Symeon Metaphrastes, 19, 74, 75

Menologion entry for Demetrios, 71entry for George, 75–6entry for Theodore Stratelates, 73entry for Theodore Teron, 73, 74

Synaxarion of Constantinople, 106commemoration of soldiers massacred in

811, 61

entries for Demetrios, 71–2for George, 75, 107for George and Theodore, 77, 88for Theodore Stratelates, 73–4for Theodore Teron, 74

Syria, 32inscriptions about Theodore Teron, 30

Syrianos Magistros, military author, 53–5, 56authorship of works, 53date, 53De re strategica, 53, 54Naumachiae, 53, 54Rhetorica militaris, 53, 54

tagmata, 57, 69Tbilisi, 84Theagenes, St, 27Thekla, St

killing of Julian, 141themata, 57Theodore, St, 6, 13, 14, 33, 64, 77, 161, 181,

182, 184, 194, 198, see also Theodore Stratelates, St; Theodore Teron, St

Byzantine artistic sources, 13, see also works by category or medium

Byzantine textual sources, 12, 75, see also works by title

depictions on coins, 118, 172in frescoes, 83, 173in friezes, 187, 194, 195in ivory carvings, 84in minor arts, 82, 85, 124, 125, 128on seals, 115, 116, 117, 125, 154

disambiguation, 6dragon-slaying miracle, 14, 128entry in Synaxarion of Constantinople, 77, 88killing of Julian, 141poems by John Geometros, 85, 86relics, 197veneration by Andrew Bogoliubskii,

180–1Theodore Daphnopates, author

hagiography of George, 75Theodore of Sykeon, St

Church of St George, 23Life, 23, 24

Theodore Stratelates, St, 4, 72, 73, 74, 90–1, 107, 198, see also Theodore, St

appearance of, 72churches

built by John I, 88, 89in Constantinople, 87

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depictions in ivory carvings, 78, 79, 80, 81, 131in manuscript illuminations, 90, 91in minor arts, 84, 125, 197in mosaics, 82on seals, 115, 125

dragon-slaying miracle, 72, 73enkomion by Niketas the Paphlagonian, 72–3entries

in First Redaction of prolog, 106in Menologion of Basil II, 74in Metaphrastic Menologion, 73in minei, 103–4in Synaxarion of Constantinople, 73–4

hagiography by Euthemios Protasecretis, 73intercessions in battles against the Rus,

86–9passio, 72relics, 72veneration

by Basil II, 90, 91by John I, 87–9, 111

Theodore Teron, St, 4, 13, 24, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 64, 70, 72, 73, 74, 77, 88, see also Theodore, St

Byzantine artistic sources, 30–1, see also works by title

churches in Constantinople, 30in Euchaita, 30in Jerusalem, 30in Rome, 30in Venice, 30

depictions in frescoes, 172–3in ivory carvings, 78, 80in manuscript illuminations, 90, 91in minor arts, 84, 125, 197in mosaics, 82on seals, 115, 125

dragon-slaying miracle, 27, 29–30, 74, 75, 106

earliest passio, 27early military associations, 26, 30enkomion by Gregory of Nyssa, 26–7entries

in First Redaction of prolog, 106in Menologion of Basil II, 74in Metaphrastic Menologion, 73, 74in Synaxarion of Constantinople, 74

hagiography by Nikephoros Ouranos, 74–5, 90

homily by Nektarios, 28inscriptions, 30

Life and Education of Theodore Teron, 27Life, Education and Miracles of St Theodore

Teron, 7, 28–30miracle stories by Chrysippos of Jerusalem, 28poems by John Geometros, 85veneration by Basil II, 90

Theodoropolis, see Dorostolon, Euchaita or Euchaneia

Theophanes Confessor, historian, 51Chronicle of Theophanes, 47, 48–9, 61

Theophano, Byzantine empress, 67church in Constantinople, 121Life, 67

Theophilos, Byzantine emperor, 19, 95Theophylaktos Simokattes, historian, 44, 49

History, 39–40, 44Thessalonians, 16, 17, 18, 20, 69, 70, 71, 101Thessalonika, 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 66, 67, 68, 69,

70, 71, 89, 100, 102, 106, 108, 140, 174, 185, 190, 192

Cathedral of St Demetrios, 17, 19, 173comparison with Vyshgorod, 146protection by Demetrios, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19,

25, 31, 66sack of 904, 70seventh-century attacks on, 16, 71

Tiberios Constantine, Byzantine emperor, 39toponomy, Rus, 174–6Trojans, 1True Cross, 44, 45, 46Tryphon, St

depiction in minor arts, 157Turks, 173, see also Hungarians

Ukraine 94Urbikios, military author

Epitedeuma, 42Taktikon, 42

Václav, prince of Bohemia, 136, 137comparison with Boris, 139

Varangians, 95, 135trade conducted by, 94–5

Vasilev, city in Rus foundation, 175

Vasilev Galitskii, city in Rus, 176Vasilko Iurevich, prince of Porose

exile in Byzantine Empire, 185Vatican City

Museo Sacro, 80Vegetius, military author, 53

Epitome of Military Science, 41–2Venice

Church of St Theodore Teron, 30Vespers, 146

Theodore Stratelates, St (cont.)

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Virgin Mary, see Mother of GodVladimir, city in Rus, 98, 175, 179

Cathedral of St Demetrios, 185, 192friezes, 186–90

citizens of, 182Vladimir, prince of Kiev, 96, 111, 138, 143

coins, 118–19conversion to Christianity, 97, 99, 102, 135death of, 135foundation of cities, 175wives, 134

Vladimir Monomakh, prince of Kiev, 152, 167Church of Sts Boris and Gleb, 152Testament, 149, 153, 176veneration

of Boris, 149, 153–4of Boris and Gleb, 152of Mother of God, 149

Vladimir Mstislavich, prince of Kiev, 149Vladimirko Volodarevich, prince of Galich, 170Vladimir-Suzdal, principality, 134, 168, 170,

201, 202, 204Volga, 95Vsevolod Iaroslavich, prince of Kiev, 151, 152

Church of Sts Boris and Gleb, 151Vsevolod Iurevich, prince of Vladimir, 168, 177,

179, 184, 193, 194, 199career, 184–5Cathedral of St Demetrios

friezes, 186–90church-building activities, 185eulogy to, 183seals, 186veneration

of Boris and Gleb, 149–50, 187–90of Demetrios, 185–6, 190–2of military saints, 187–90of Mother of God, 149–50

Vyshgorod, town in Rus, 135, 139, 147, 151, 152, 153, 178, 179, 182, 187

churches of St Basil, 151of Sts Boris and Gleb, 151–2, 178

comparison with Thessalonika, 140, 146Vytecheva, hill, 175

Walter, Christopher, 4, 5, 9, 12, 19, 25What Should Be Observed When the

Emperor …, 50

Xusro II, Persian emperor, 39, 44, 46, 47, 48

Zechariah, prophet comparison with Gleb, 138

Zelve, town in Cappadocia Church no. 3, 84

Zoe, St church in Constantinople, 121

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