IGCSE Biology Chapter 1

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    CAMBRIDGE IGCSE

    BIOLOGY

    CHAPTER 1: CLASSIFICATION

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    1.1 ALL LIVING THINGS HAVE SEVEN

    CHARACTERISTICS

    Biologyis the study of living things.

    Living organisms have seven

    characteristics which make them differentfrom non-living things.

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    1.1 ALL LIVING THINGS HAVE SEVEN

    CHARACTERISTICS

    Characteristicsof living things

    Movement- An action by an

    organism or part ofan organism

    causing a changeof position or place

    Nutrition

    - The taking inof nutrients for

    growth andtissue repair

    Reproduction

    - The processesthat make more

    of the same kindof organism

    Respiration

    - The chemicalreactions that break

    down glucose in

    living cells torelease energy

    Sensitivity

    - The ability todetect changes inthe environment

    (stimuli) andresponse to them

    Excretion

    - The removal oftoxic materials,

    waste products ofmetabolism andexcess substances

    from the body

    Growth

    - A permanentincrease in sizeand dry mass by

    an increase in

    number of cells orsize of cells

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    1.2 CLASSIFICATION INVOLVES GROUPING THINGS

    Classificationmeans putting things into

    groups.

    The main reason of classifying living things isto make it easier tostudy them. For example,

    we put humansand dogsinto one group

    (the mammals) because they sharecertain

    certain characteristics (having hair) that are

    not found in other groups.

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    1.3 BIOLOGISTS CLASSIFY LIVING THINGS

    The first person to try to classify living things

    in a scientific way was a Swedish naturalist

    Carl Linnaeus.Carl Linnaeus introduced his system of

    classification in 1735. He divided all kinds of

    living things into groups called species.

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    1.3 BIOLOGISTS CLASSIFY LIVING THINGS

    Kingdom

    Phylum

    Class

    Order

    Family

    Genus

    Species

    Hierarchy system of classification

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    1.3 BIOLOGISTS CLASSIFY LIVING THINGS

    Equus caballus (horse) Equus burchelli (zebra)

    Canis familiaris (dog) Canis lupus (wolf) Canis mesomelas (jackal)

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    1.3 BIOLOGISTS CLASSIFY LIVING THINGS

    Dog-likemammals

    Canis familiaris

    Canis lupus

    Canis mesomelas

    Horse-likemammals

    Equus caballus

    Equus burchelli

    Mammals

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    1.4 EACH SPECIES HAS A BINOMIAL

    Carl Linnaeus gave every living organisms

    two names, written in Latin. This two-word

    name is called binomial.The first name is the genus name and

    begins with a capital letter. The second

    name is the species name and begins witha small letter.

    A wolf belongs to the genus Canisand the

    species lupus. Its binomial is Canis lupus.

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    1.6 THE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONTAINS MANY PHYLA

    One of the best ways to tell if an organism is

    an animal is to look at its cells under the

    microscope. Animal cells do not have cellwalls.

    There is a very large number of different

    types of animals, classified into manydifferent phyla.

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    1.6 THE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONTAINS MANY PHYLA

    Kingdom: Animals

    Phylum: Arthropods

    Phylum: Vertebrates

    Class:

    Crustaceans

    Class:

    Myriapods

    Class:

    Insects

    Class:

    Arachnids

    Phylum:

    Nematodes

    Phylum:

    Annelids

    Phylum:

    Molluscs

    Class:

    FishClass:

    Reptiles

    Class:

    Amphibians

    Class:

    Birds

    Class:

    Mammals

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    1.6 THE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONTAINS MANY PHYLA

    Phylum: Vertebrates (animals with backbones)

    Class: Fish

    Vertebrateswith scalyskin

    Have gills Have fins

    Class: Amphibians

    Vertebrates withmoist, scale-less

    skin

    Eggs laid in

    water, larva

    (tadpole) lives in

    water

    Adult often lives

    on land

    Larva has gills,

    adult has lungs

    Class: Reptiles

    Vertebrateswith scaly

    skin

    Lay eggs

    with

    rubbery

    shells

    Class: Birds

    Vertebrateswith feathers

    Forelimbs have

    become wings

    Lay eggs with

    hard shells

    Homeothermic

    Have a beak

    Class: Mammals

    Vertebrates with hair

    Have a placenta

    Young feed on milk

    from mammary

    glands

    Homeothermic

    Have a diaphragm

    Heart have four

    chambers

    Have different types

    of teeth (incisors,

    canines, premolars

    and molars)

    Cerebral hemispheresare well developed

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    1.6 THE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONTAINS MANY PHYLA

    Fish

    Caudal finStreamlined bodycovered in scales

    Pelvic finAnal fin Pectoral fin

    Operculum

    covering gills

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    1.6 THE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONTAINS MANY PHYLA

    Frog

    Thin, moist skin

    Eardrum

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    1.6 THE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONTAINS MANY PHYLA

    Snake

    Scaly skin

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    1.6 THE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONTAINS MANY PHYLA

    Ocelot

    Body covered with hair

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    1.6 THE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONTAINS MANY PHYLA

    Phylum: Arthropods (invertebrates with jointed legs and exoskeleton)

    Class: Crustacean

    Arthropods

    with more thanfour pairs ofjointed legs

    Breathe throughgills

    Class: Arachnids

    Arthropods with four

    pairs of jointed

    legs

    Breathe through

    gills called

    book lungs

    Class: Insects

    Arthropods

    with three pairs

    of jointed legs

    Two pairs of

    wings (one or

    both may be

    vestigial)

    Breathe through

    tracheae

    Class: Myriapods

    (centipedes andmillipedes)

    Body consists ofmany segments

    Each segment

    has jointed legs

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    1.6 THE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONTAINS MANY PHYLA

    Crab

    Eye

    Exoskeleton containing

    calcium salts

    Jointed legClaw

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    1.6 THE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONTAINS MANY PHYLA

    Spider

    Cephalothorax

    Pedipalp

    Abdomen

    Eye

    4 pairs of jointed legs

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    1.6 THE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONTAINS MANY PHYLA

    Locust

    Abdomen

    Jointed legAntennaWing

    Head

    Thorax

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    1.6 THE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONTAINS MANY PHYLA

    Centipede

    Long, thin segmented body

    Jointed legs on each segment

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    1.6 THE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONTAINS MANY PHYLA

    Phylum: Annelids(worms with segmented

    bodies but no legs)

    Animals with bodies

    made up of ring-like

    segments

    Phylum: Nematodes(worms with

    unsegmented bodies)

    Animals with long,

    thin, unsegmented

    bodies

    Phylum: Molluscs(invertebrates with

    unsegmented bodies

    and may have a shell)

    Animals with soft,

    unsegmented bodies

    May have a shell

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    1.6 THE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONTAINS MANY PHYLA

    Earthworm

    Position of anus Position of mouth

    Clitellum

    Segmented body

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    1.6 THE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONTAINS MANY PHYLA

    Snail Squid

    Coiled shell

    Soft, unsegmentedbody

    Soft, unsegmented

    body with internal shell

    Eye

    Eye

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