IFPRI-ICAR_TCI - land ownership and tenurial arrangements, T Haque, NITI Aayog

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Transcript of IFPRI-ICAR_TCI - land ownership and tenurial arrangements, T Haque, NITI Aayog

  • By

    T. Haque

  • At the time of independence, India inherited from theBritish a feudal agrarian structure, in which land rightswere concentrated in the hands of a few zamindars/intermediaries, while actual cultivators/ tenant did nothave any right as security of tenure. This was aninefficient, unequal and unjust structure. The EasternIndia was most adversely affected by it.

    INTRODUCTION

  • After independence, almost all state governmentspassed land reform laws for (i) abolition ofintermediaries, (ii) abolition/regulation of tenancy,(iii) imposition of ceilings on landholdings andredistribution of ceiling surplus land, (iv) preventionof tribal land alienation, (v) bhoodan and gramdan.Also states like Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradeshmade attempts to consolidate fragmented holdings.

    The main objectives of these reforms were to createcondition for an agrarian economy with high levels ofefficiency and equity (second Five Year Plan).

  • Key Achievements of Land Reforms Due to abolition of intermediaries, about 20 million

    cultivators were brought into direct contact with the state.

    Due to abolition / restriction of tenancy, about 12.6 million tenants were conferred occupancy or ownership right, over 6.7 million hectares.

    Due to ceiling on land holdings, about 5 million acres of ceiling surplus land have been distributed among 5.4 million families, of which 2.1 million was SCs, 0.9 million STs and 2.4 million others. The state of West Bengal alone distributed 1.02 million acres among 2.85 million beneficiaries.

  • Also various state governments distributed 14.7 million acres of Government land to rural landless families, of which AP alone distributed 4.7 million acres and UP about 2.5 million acres

    About 2.32 million acres of Bhoodan and Gramdanland was distributed among 0.315 million families.

    Till recently, almost 4.53 lakh cases of tribal land alienation were filed, involving 1.1 million acres, out of which 0.98 million acres were restored to the tribal land onwners

    About 174.2 million acres of land were consolidated, out of which 134.0 million acres was in the state of Punjab, Haryana, UP and Maharashtra.

  • Status of Land Reforms in Various States (as on Dec, 2015, No. in million and Area in million acre)

    State Ceiling

    Surplus

    land

    distributed

    No. of

    Celling

    Beneficiarie

    s

    No. of tenants

    conferred

    ownership,

    occupancy

    right

    Area

    transfer

    red to

    tenants

    Govt.

    Land

    Distrib

    uted

    Bhoodan

    land

    distributed

    Area

    consolidated

    AP 0.56 0.47 0.11 0.60 4.2 0.11 0.82Assam 0.55 0.45 2.9 3.17 0.59 0.00 NA

    Bihar 0.35 0.46 NR NR 1.32 0.02 9.61

    Chhattisgarh 0.61 0.27 NR NR NROdisha 0.16 0.14 0.30 1.11 0.73 0.58 2.97

    Jharkhand 0.00086 0.00132 NA NA NA NA NIL

    Kerala 0.07 0.77 2.84 1.45 0.46 NEG NA

    West Bengal 1.05 3.14 1.51 1.11 0.43 NEG NA

    Karnataka 0.24 0.058 0.60 2.63 0.14 NEG 2.68

    Maharashtra 0.63 0.14 1.49 4.29 1.02 0.03 52.65

  • Status of Land Reforms in Various States

    State Ceiling Surplus

    land

    distributed

    No. of

    Celling

    Benefic

    iaries

    No. of tenants

    conferred

    ownership,

    occupancy right

    Area

    transfe

    rred to

    tenants

    Govt.

    Land

    Distribut

    ed

    Bhoodan

    land

    distribut

    ed

    Area

    consolida

    ted

    Punjab 0.08 0.07 NR NR 0.11 NEG 12.18

    Haryana 0.10 0.03 NR NR 0.0 NEG 10.44

    MP 0.13 0.05 NR NR 0.08 0.14 9.56

    Rajasthan 0.45 0.08 0.02 NR 0.11 0.11 4.23

    TN 0.19 0.15 0.50 0.69 0.29 0.02 NA

    UP 0.27 0.31 NR NR 2.49 0.42 58.77

    Gujarat 0.17 0.04 1.28 2.60 1.38 0.03 7.0

    HP 0.006 0.004 0.40 NR 0.02 NEG 3.0

    J&K 0.008 NA 0.61 NR NR NEG 0.14

    India 5.10 1.35 12.6 16.7 14.8 1.65 174.25

  • Share of Households and Area Affected by Land Reforms Across States (%)

    State Tenancy Ceiling

    Area (%) Households(%) Area (%) Households (%)

    Andhra Pradesh 3.48 0.75 8.34 3.81

    Bihar 0.00 0.00 4.42 4.00

    Gujarat 15.00 11.20 1.95 0.31

    Haryana 0.51 0.01 1.26 0.26

    Himachal Pradesh 0.16 3.19 0.06 0.05

    Karnataka 15.38 5.29 1.71 0.30

    Kerala 8.47 12.49 1.30 1.04

    Madhya Pradesh 2.15 0.61 2.69 0.71

    Maharashtra 27.01 1.68 7.74 1.08

    Orissa 0.15 1.43 2.24 1.28

    Punjab 1.89 0.04 1.50 0.25

    Rajasthan 0.00 0.16 6.63 0.75

    Tamil Nadu 3.85 3.23 2.47 1.24

    Uttar Pradesh 0.00 0.00 5.81 3.68

    West Bengal 6.41 10.80 14.91 19.73

    All India 5.45 5.35 4.41 2.27

  • State wise annual growth rates of GSDP from agriculture & allied activities

    State1981-82 to

    1993-941993-94 to

    2003-042004-05 to

    2009-102009-10 to

    2013-14Andhra Pradesh 3.9 3.5 5.42 4.5Assam 2.5 0.7 2.94 2.9Bihar 1.1 2.4 3.2 8.03Chhattisgarh 4.9 2 3.85 8.96Gujarat 8.8 1.7 3.2 7.99Jharkhand 1.1 3.7 7.48 11.9Karnataka 4.5 1.2 4.89 0.27Kerala 3.2 -1.6 -0.88 0.26Madhya Pradesh 4.9 1.1 4.37 13.36Maharashtra 5.7 1.1 3.96 4.37Odisha 2.6 7.9 3.63 1.27Punjab 4.9 2.2 2.18 1.01Uttar Pradesh 2.8 2.7 2.59 4.24Uttarakhand 2.8 2.4 1.58 4.16West Bengal 5.3 3.1 2.8 1.4All India 3.4 2.3 3.47 4.87

  • State wise growth rate of yield of Rice

    States

    Rice CGAR

    TE-1974

    TE-1984

    TE-1994

    TE-2004

    TE-2014

    1974-84

    1984-94

    1994-2004

    2004-2014

    Assam 970.3 1065 1310 1489 1951 0.9 2.1 1.3 2.7

    Bihar 876.9 929.5 1137 1244 2065 0.6 2 0.9 5.2

    Odisha 847.2 986.2 1364 1236 1695 1.5 3.3 -1 3.2

    Eastern UP 630 1070 1740

    Uttar Pradesh 782.7 1231 1850 1939 2421 4.6 4.2 0.5 2.3

    West Bengal 1181 1360 1979 2513 2745 1.4 3.8 2.4 0.9

    Chhattisgarh 770.0 880 .0 1240 1107 1703 4.4

    Uttarakhand 2206

    MP 736.8 800.5 1113 784.2 1429 0.8 3.4 -3.4 6.2

  • State wise growth rate of yield of Rice

    States

    Rice CGAR

    TE-1974

    TE-1984

    TE-1994

    TE-2004

    TE-2014

    1974-84

    1984-94

    1994-2004

    2004-2014

    AP 1572 2090 2563 2906 3081 2.9 2.1 1.3 0.6

    Gujarat 648.3 1319 1463 1500 2139 7.4 1 0.3 3.6

    Haryana 1627 2508 2733 2805 3191 4.4 0.9 0.3 1.3

    Karnataka 1770 1968 2498 2385 2697 1.1 2.4 -0.5 1.2

    Kerala 1647 1681 1983 4611 2620 0.2 1.7 8.8 -5.5

    Maharashtra 901.8 1310 1562 1498 1913 3.8 1.8 -0.4 2.5

    Rajasthan 677.7 1155 1116 1316 1935 5.5 -0.4 1.7 3.9

    Tamil Nadu 2057 1979 3206 2457 3243 -0.4 4.9 -2.6 2.8

    All India 1089 1372 1848 1935 2424 2.3 3 0.5 2.3

  • State wise growth rate of yield of Foodgrains

    States

    Food Grains CGAR

    TE-1974

    TE-1984

    TE-1994

    TE-2004

    TE-2014

    1974-84

    1984-94

    1994-2004

    2004-2014

    Assam 978 1059 1296 1431 1861 0.8 2 1 2.7

    Bihar 882.4 1046 1435 1454 2161 1.7 3.2 0.1 4

    Odisha 846.4 982.8 1305 1115 1507 1.5 2.9 -1.6 3.1

    Uttar Pradesh 1002 1478 1936 2049 2508 4 2.7 0.6 2

    West Bengal 1213 1408 2007 2425 2695 1.5 3.6 1.9 1.1

    Chhattisgarh 953.7 1471 4.4

    Uttarakhand 1626 1967 1.9

    Madhya Pradesh

    729.1 877.9 1195 1107 1596 1.9 3.1 -0.8 3.7

  • State wise growth rate of yield of Foodgrains

    StatesFood Grains CGAR

    TE-1974

    TE-1984

    TE-1994

    TE-2004

    TE-2014

    1974-84

    1984-94

    1994-2004

    2004-2014

    Andhra Pradesh

    1046 1461 2006 1948 2617 3.4 3.2 -0.3 3

    Gujarat 637.3 1134 1237 1385 1980 5.9 0.9 1.1 3.6

    Haryana 993.9 1739 2682 3088 3807 5.8 4.4 1.4 2.1

    Karnataka 977.8 1063 1422 1097 1579 0.8 3 -2.6 3.7

    Kerala 1632 1621 1910 2121 2591 -0.1 1.7 1.1 2

    Maharashtra 497.6 732.8 1004 847.2 1133 4 3.2 -1.7 3

    Rajasthan 509.1 785.4 916.4 1056 1387 4.4 1.6 1.4 2.8

    Punjab 1956 2913 3612 3932 4404 4.1 2.2 0.9 1.1

    Tamil Nadu 1526 1577 2554 1675 2616 0.3 4.9 -4.1 4.6

    All India 821.8 1134 1565 1638 2109 3.3 3.3 0.5 2.6

  • Rural Poverty HCR- Tendulkar MethodologyState 1993-94 2004-05 2009-10 2011-12

    Assam 54.9 36.4 39.9 33.9Madhya Pradesh 49.0 53.6 42.0 35.7Chhattisgarh 55.9 55.1 56.1 44.6Bihar 62.3 55.7 55.3 34.1Jharkhand 65.9 51.6 41.6 40.8Jammu & Kashmir 32.5 14.1 8.1 11.5Kerala 33.9 20.2 12.0 9.1Odisha 63.0 60.8 39.2 35.7Punjab 20.3 22.1 14.6 7.7Rajasthan 40.8 35.8 26.4 16.1Uttar Pradesh 50.9 42.7 39.4 30.4Uttarakhand 36.7 35.1 14.9 11.6West Bengal 42.5 38.2 28.8 22.5Haryana 40.0 24.8 18.6 11.6All India 50.1 41.8 33.8 25.7

  • Changes in Agrarian Structure

    States

    Proportion of Marginal Holdings

    Proportion of area under

    marginal holdingsProportion of small holdings

    Proportion of area under small

    holdings

    1970-71

    2010-11

    1970-71

    2010-11

    1970-71

    2010-11

    1970-71

    2010-11

    Assam 11.9 67.3 5.5 25.8 14.6 18.3 10.3 22.9

    Bihar 64.3 91.1 16.1 57.4 14.6 5.9 13.6 18.6

    Orissa 43.3 72.2 11.9 39.6 32.9 19.7 26.6 30.9

    West Bengal 60.0 82.2 21.5 52.5 22.3 13.8 25.7 28.3

    Chhattisgarh 58.3 18.7 22.2 23.2

    Jharkhand 68.2 24.1 15.8 18.7

    Madhya Pradesh 31.8 43.9 3.4 12.1 16.8 27.6 6.2 21.9

    Gujarat 23.8 37.2 3.0 8.9 19.1 29.3 6.8 21.0

  • Changes in Agrarian Structure (contd)

    States

    Proportion of Marginal Holdings

    Proportion of area under marginal holdings

    Proportion of small holdings

    Proportion of area under small

    holdings

    1970-71

    2010-11

    1970-71 2010-11 1970