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  • Energy Efficiency Indicators: Fundamentals on Statistics

  • Energy Efficiency Indicators: Fundamentals on Statistics

    Energy efficiency is high on the political agenda as governments seek to reduce wasteful energy consumption, strengthen energy security and cut greenhouse gas emissions. Referred to as the hidden or first fuel, improved efficiency seems an obvious policy choice since it usually pays back on the investment and is readily available. However, the lack of data for developing proper indicators to measure energy efficiency often prevents countries from transforming declarations into actions. Without data and indicators, it is also difficult to optimise energy efficiency policies and monitor progress and failures.

    Inadequate expertise and know-how are often put forward to explain the lack of data and indicators. However, surveying, metering and modelling practices exist all around the world. Making these practices available to all is precisely the main objective of this manual, together with identifying the main sectoral indicators and the data needed to develop these indicators. To tackle policy challenges in the energy sector, statistics are essential.

    This manual, together with its companion document, Energy Efficiency Indicators: Essentials for Policy Making, has been developed as a starting point towards enabling policy makers to understand where greater efficiency is needed, to implement appropriate policies and to measure their impact. The ultimate goal is to make improved energy efficiency not only a concept but a reality.

  • Energy Efficiency Indicators: Fundamentals on Statistics


    The International Energy Agency (IEA), an autonomous agency, was established in November 1974. Its primary mandate was and is two-fold: to promote energy security amongst its member

    countries through collective response to physical disruptions in oil supply, and provide authoritative research and analysis on ways to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its 29 member countries and beyond. The IEA carries out a comprehensive programme of energy co-operation among its member countries, each of which is obliged to hold oil stocks equivalent to 90 days of its net imports. The Agencys aims include the following objectives:

    n Secure member countries access to reliable and ample supplies of all forms of energy; in particular, through maintaining effective emergency response capabilities in case of oil supply disruptions.

    n Promote sustainable energy policies that spur economic growth and environmental protection in a global context particularly in terms of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions that contribute to climate change.

    n Improve transparency of international markets through collection and analysis of energy data.

    n Support global collaboration on energy technology to secure future energy supplies and mitigate their environmental impact, including through improved energy

    efficiency and development and deployment of low-carbon technologies.

    n Find solutions to global energy challenges through engagement and dialogue with non-member countries, industry, international

    organisations and other stakeholders.IEA member countries:

    Australia Austria

    Belgium Canada

    Czech RepublicDenmark




    Ireland Italy

    JapanKorea (Republic of)LuxembourgNetherlandsNew Zealand NorwayPolandPortugalSlovak RepublicSpainSwedenSwitzerlandTurkey

    United KingdomUnited States

    The European Commission also participates in

    the work of the IEA.

    OECD/IEA, 2014International Energy Agency

    9 rue de la Fdration 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France

    Please note that this publication is subject to specific restrictions that limit its use and distribution.

    The terms and conditions are available online at

    Secure Sustainable Together

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    Energy efficiency is high on the political agenda. There are very few countries that have not set goals to be less energy-intensive, to consume less energy and to de-crease their carbon dioxide emissions.

    If the world wants to avoid a temperature increase of 5 or 6 degrees Celsius by the end of the century, then ambitious programmes of energy efficiency have to be launched in all sectors and in all countries. In the first edition of its Energy Efficiency Market Report, the International Energy Agency (IEA) rightly raises the status of en-ergy efficiency from a hidden fuel to our first fuel. This is in line with analyses from the World Energy Outlook and the Energy Technology Perspectives reports, which both show that around 40% of tomorrows energy should in fact come from gains in energy efficiency.

    However, actions do not always follow intentions, and despite the strong consensus behind energy efficiency, numbers show that the impact of energy efficiency on de-mand has fallen by half over the last 20 years compared with the previous 20 years.

    There are several reasons that could explain the gap between declarations and ac-tions, but one of the biggest reasons is the lack of proper data to build proper indi-cators. How many countries, for instance, know how much energy households use for appliances, how much offices use for heating or trucks for transporting goods? And it is not only the energy consumption that they do not know, but it is also the corresponding activity data (number of appliances, floor area or tonne-kilometres) which are not known.

    With no data there are no indicators, and with no indicators there is an obvious difficulty, if not an impossibility, in making a robust assessment of a situation. Thus, this shortfall of information leads to difficulties for optimising measures and policies, and for closely monitoring progress and failures.

    Inadequate resources, expertise, know-how and practices are often put forward to explain the lack of data and indicators. However, surveying, metering and model-ling practices exist all around the world. It is just a matter of taking the time to look at these practices and to make them available to all.

    This is exactly the purpose of this manual. After identifying the most common indica-tors, the manual provides more than 160 practices used all around the world for collecting the data needed to build these indicators.

    The practices encompass the main methodologies used for collecting data: sharing experiences and establishing contacts and links among users and countries are the two underlying objectives of the manual.

    In 2005, the IEA together with Eurostat launched its Energy Statistics Manual. This turned out to be a major success with tens of thousands of copies disseminated all around the world in ten different languages. It is my sincere hope that this manual will enjoy the same success. If thousands of statisticians, analysts and policy mak-ers read and use this manual, this will translate into more and better data, robust indicators, and optimised policies and actions, and at the end of the day, in massive energy efficiency gains across all sectors and all countries.





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    The manual is complemented by a companion document Energy Efficiency Indicators: Essentials for Policy Making. While the Energy Efficiency Indicators: Fundamentals on Statistics focuses on what data to use and how to collect them, the other report is aimed at providing energy analysts and policy makers with tools needed to deter-mine the priority areas for the development of indicators and how to select and develop the data and indicators that will best support energy efficiency policy.

    The challenge to reduce energy consumption is enormous and challenging. It can be tackled only if we all act together and if we share practices and experiences. This is why I am particularly appreciative to all those who have kindly agreed to share their practices. A great start for more co-operation.

    People often say that everything starts with statistics. Lets hope that this statistics manual will constitute a starting point towards making energy efficiency not only a concept but a reality.

    This report is published under my authority as Executive Director of the IEA.

    Maria van der Hoeven

    Executive Director International Energy Agency




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    This Manual was prepared by the Energy Data Centre of the International Energy Agency in co-operation with the IEA Energy Technology Policy Division.

    The manual was designed and directed by Jean-Yves Garnier, Head of the Energy Data Centre. Roberta Quadrelli was responsible for the overall management and for bringing the manual to completion. Anna Zyzniewski largely contributed to the initial development of the manual especially in organising the survey on good and best practices. Taejin Park was instrumental in the finalisation phase of the manual.

    Although it is difficult to list all those who have contributed to the publication, spe-cial acknowledgments go to Paolo Canfora, Davide dAmbrosio, Mieke Reece and Robert Schnapp from the Energy Data Centre, and Franois Cuenot, Emer Dennehy, Jean-Franois Gagn, Cecilia Tam and Nathalie Trudeau from the Energy Technology Policy Division; Robert Tromop from the Energy Efficiency and Environment Division; and Mario Barreto from the International Transport Forum.

    At its early stage and all along its development, the manual benefitted from the support and guidance from the ODYSSE-MURE network, especially from Didier Bosseboeuf and Bruno Lapillonne.

    Special thanks are given to Sh