ICT and Climate Change Beijing 22nd April2011
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- 1. Climate Change and Informatics in Scotland Andrew Mitchell Beijing 22 ndApril, 2011.
- The twin challenges of a Low Carbon Economy
- Scotland s capabilities
- ICT and Climate Change
3. Economic success has led to twin challenges
- Energy security
4. In the absence of a low carbon future
- Projections (IEA/EIA) suggest:
- World energy demand rising: 1.5%/yr
- 12,000 mtoe (2007) to 16,800 mtoe by 2030 40% rise
- 90% of growth in demand from non-OECD countries; Asian countries main drivers
- Fossil fuel share remains at ~80%
- Liquid fuels remain dominant fuel type
- Demand for power generation rises 75%
- 4,800GW required by 2030 [5x current US capacity]
- Power generation dominated by coal
5. Le Qu r et al. 2009, Nature Geoscience; CDIAC 2009 as emissions growth from developing nations Annex B (Kyoto Protocol)Developed Nation Developing NationsNon-Annex B 1990 2000 2010 5 4 3 2 CO 2emissions(PgC y -1 ) 55% 45% 6. Proposition
- A low carbon future is a necessary condition to overcome the twin challenges of energy security and environmental sustainability, with their consequent impacts on equity, wealth creation, etc
- What are the barriers to delivery of a low carbon future?
7. Professional skillsKnowledge hubInnovation www.climatechangecentre.org.uk 8. Scotland s Capabilities
- Edinburgh Centre on Climate Change
- The Edinburgh Centre aims to bridge the intimidating gap between good ideas and the practical actions required to support the transition to a low carbon economy.We undertake three types of activities:
- Professional skills training;
- Providing a forum for building partnerships tosolve "low carbon" problems; and
- Coordinating and sharing information on workable solutions from around the world.
- Located in the cultural, political and scientific capital of Scotland and the most significant financial centre after London.
9. Scotland s Capabilities
- University of Edinburgh: particular expertise in:
- Novel Fuels and Waste Usage.
- Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
- Carbon Utilisation
- Economic Modelling and Accounting of Energy and Carbon
- Renewable Energy Systems (Marine and Wind)
- Sustainability & Low Carbon Infrastructure
- Solar Cells and Thermo-Electric Power
- Green Electronics and IT
- Environmental Mitigation Technologies
- Climate Change, Energy, Environment and Carbon
- Hydrogen Storage and Nuclear Power
10. The world's first MSc in Carbon Finance , dedicated to professionals in the carbon market and climate change investment field and focussed on the business opportunities and financial flows driven by society's response to climate change. A landmark collaborationbetween the world-renowned School of GeoSciences and the Business School at the University of Edinburgh, theMSc in Carbon Managementprovides a high-level, intensive exploration of a subject crucial to the future of business and, of course, the planet itself.www.business-school.ed.ac.uk 11.
- Informatics in Scotland:
- Edinburgh: Largest Computer Science department in Europe and Best Computer Science department in the UK by a factor of two (based on official Research Assessment Exercise)
- Scottish Informatics and Computer Science Alliance
- Low Carbon related research:
- Low Power Consumption Chip Design
- Microbial Fuel Cells
- Energy Neutral Speckled Computing
- Centre for Earth System Dynamics and Climate Change Modelling
- Zero Carbon Buildings (CAD, Visualisation, Management, Analysis)
- Hydrodynamic Modelling of Tidal Currents
- And and andhttp://www.cleaninformatics.com/
Scotland s Capabilities 12. ICT and Climate Change
- The ICT industry has a very significant role to play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, especially in a rapidly developing country such as China. Future development in China should not follow the wrong path taken by developed countries. Many industries can make use of modern ICT technology to move into higher efficiency low carbon markets. If we are to better use ICT technology to move away from existing energy intensive work habits and lifestyles, we need government policy innovations, incentives for companies and the active participation of consumers.
- Tang Min, Deputy Secretary-General,
- China Development Research Foundation
13. ICT and Climate Change
- The ICT industry has a sizeable carbon footprint on a par with the aviation industry at 2-3% of global carbon emissions (Gartner 2007).
- BUT IT IS GROWING RAPIDLY!
- At current growth rates data centers and telecommunication networks, the two key components of the cloud Facebook depends on, will consume about 1,963 billion kilowatts hours of electricity in 2020. Thats more than triple their current consumption and more than the current electricity consumption of France, Germany, Canada and Brazil combined.
- Greenpeace Blog, March 30, 2010
14. Addicted to Data The Worlds Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information Martin Hilbert and Priscila Lpez Science 1 April 2011: 60-65. DOI:10.1126/science.1200970 In 2007 humankind was able to store 2.910 20optimally compressed bytes (290 exabytes) and communicate almost 210 21bytes. "If we were to take all that information and store it in books, we could cover the entire area of China in 13 layers of booksDr Martin Hilbert University of Southern California bytes290,000,000,000,000,000,000 kilobytes 290,000,000,000,000,000 megabytes 290,000,000,000,000 gigabytes 290,000,000,000 terabytes 290,000,000 petabytes 290,000 exabytes 290 15. Greenpeace / Kate Davison Addicted to Products 16. Three roles of ICT in Climate Change
- Reducing the Carbon Footprint of the ICT industry itself
- Zero carbon data centres
- Low power consumption chips
- Software design, deployment and management
- Consumer, corporate and supplier behaviour: product lifecycles
- Always on pervasive data networks?
Role one: 17. Three roles of ICT in Climate Change
- Informatics : analysing and understanding climate change.
- Informatics is the study of the structure, the behaviour, and the interactions of natural and engineered computational systems.
when you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind Lord Kelvin(1824 1907) Role two: 18. SMART2020: Three roles of ICT in Climate Change
- Enabling efficiency:changing the way we live and work
- Dematerialisation: (e-books, telepresence, e-billing etc)
- SMART motor systems
- SMART logistics
- SMART buildings
- SMART grids
Role three: 19. SMART2020: Global e-Sustainability Initiative
- Smart motor systems:2% of global emissions in 2020 will come from motor systems (manufacturing) in China. 10% efficiency would deliver 200 million tonnes (Mt) CO2e savings. Applied globally, optimised motors and industrial automation would reduce 0.97 GtCO2e in 2020.
- Smart logistics:Efficiencies in transport and storage, smart logistics could deliver significant fuel, electricity and heating savings (1.52 GtCO2e in 2020).
- Smart buildings:Better building design, management and automation could save 15% of North Americas buildings emissions.
- Globally, smart buildings technologies would enable 1.68 GtCO2e of emissions savings.
- Smart grids:Reducing transmission and distribution losses in Indias power sector by 30% is possible through better monitoring and ma