ICC ruling on Jean-Pierre Bemba

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    N° ICC-01/05-01/08 1/364 21 March 2016

    Original: English No.: ICC-01/05-01/08 Date: 21 March 2016

    TRIAL CHAMBER III 

    Before: Judge Sylvia Steiner, Presiding Judge

    Judge Joyce Aluoch

    Judge Kuniko Ozaki

    SITUATION IN THE CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

    IN THE CASE OF

    THE PROSECUTOR v. JEAN-PIERRE BEMBA GOMBO

    Public with annexes I, II, and A to F

    Judgment pursuant to Article 74 of the Statute

    ICC-01/05-01/08-3343 21-03-2016 1/364 NM T

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    N° ICC-01/05-01/08 2/364 21 March 2016

    Judgment to be notified, in accordance with Regulation 31 of the Regulations of

    the Court , to:

    The Office of the Prosecutor

    Ms Fatou BensoudaMr Jean-Jacques Badibanga

    Counsel for the Defence

    Mr Peter HaynesMs Kate Gibson Ms Melinda Taylor

    Legal Representatives of the Victims

    Ms Marie-Edith Douzima Lawson Legal Representatives of the Applicants

    Unrepresented Victims Unrepresented Applicants for

    Participation/Reparation

    The Office of Public Counsel for

    Victims

    Ms Paolina Massidda

    The Office of Public Counsel for the

    Defence

    Mr Xavier-Jean Keïta

    States Representatives

    REGISTRY

    Amicus Curiae

    Registrar

    Mr Herman von Hebel  Counsel Support Section

    Mr Esteban Peralta-Losilla

    Victims and Witnesses Unit

    Mr Nigel Verrill Detention Section

    Mr Patrick Craig

    Victims Participation and Reparations

    Section

    Ms Isabelle Guibal

    Other

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    N° ICC-01/05-01/08 3/364 21 March 2016

    I.  

    OVERVIEW .................................................................................................................... 10  

    The Accused ............................................................................................................. 10  

    A.

     

    The Charges ............................................................................................................. 10  

    B.

     

     Jurisdiction and admissibility ............................................................................... 11  

    C.  

    Procedural background .......................................................................................... 11  

    D.

      Participation of victims .......................................................................................... 16 E.

    1.  Application procedure ....................................................................................... 16 

    2.  Involvement of certain intermediaries ............................................................ 18 

    3.  Modalities of participation ................................................................................ 18 

    II.  SCOPE AND NOTICE OF THE CHARGES ............................................................ 18 

    Amendment of the charged mode of liability ..................................................... 25  

    A.   Underlying acts not specified in the Confirmation Decision ........................... 26 B.

      The “should have known” mental element......................................................... 35 C.

      Facts relating to the Accused’s criminal responsibility ..................................... 38 D.

      “Widespread” or “systematic” nature of the attack........................................... 42 E.

    III. APPLICABLE LAW ....................................................................................................... 43 

    Method and confines of interpretation ................................................................ 45 A.

     

    Murder as a crime against humanity (Article 7(1)(a) of the Statute) ............... 49  

    B. 1.

     

    Material elements (actus reus) ........................................................................... 49 

    2.  Mental elements (mens rea) ................................................................................ 50 

    Murder as a war crime (Article 8(2)(c)(i) of the Statute) ................................... 50 C.

    1.  Material elements (actus reus) ........................................................................... 50 

    2.  Mental elements (mens rea) ................................................................................ 52 

    Rape as a crime against humanity and a war crime (Articles 7(1)(g) andD. 8(2)(e)(vi) of the Statute) ......................................................................................... 52

     

    1.  

    Material elements (actus reus) ........................................................................... 53  

    a)  

    Invasion of the body of a person ...................................................................... 53  

     b)  Circumstances in which rape occurs ................................................................ 53 

    2.  

    Mental elements (mens rea) ................................................................................ 56  

    Pillaging as a war crime (Article 8(2)(e)(v) of the Statute) ................................ 56  

    E.

    1.  

    Material elements (actus reus) ........................................................................... 57  

    2.  

    Mental elements (mens rea) ................................................................................ 59  

    3.  Military necessity ................................................................................................ 60 

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    N° ICC-01/05-01/08 4/364 21 March 2016

    Contextual elements of war crimes (Article 8 of the Statute) ........................... 62  

    F.

    1.  

    Existence of an “armed conflict not of an international character’’  ............ 63  

    2.  

    Governmental authorities and organized armed groups ............................. 64  

    3.  

    Intensity threshold and protracted character of the conflict ........................ 67  

    4.  

    The “nexus” requirement .................................................................................. 69  

    5.  Awareness of factual circumstances that established the existence of an armed conflict ................................................................................................ 70 

    Contextual elements of crimes against humanity (Article 7 of theG. Statute) ...................................................................................................................... 71

     

    1.  

    Existence of an “attack directed against any civilian population” .............. 71  

    a)  Course of conduct involving the multiple commission of acts

    referred to in Article 7(1) ................................................................................... 71   b)

     

    Directed against any civilian population......................................................... 72  

    c)  

    Pursuant to or in furtherance of a State or organizational policy to commit such attack ............................................................................................. 74 

    2.  Widespread nature of the attack ...................................................................... 77 

    3.  Acts committed as “part of” the attack (nexus) ............................................. 78 

    4.  Knowledge of the attack .................................................................................... 78 

    Command responsibility (Article 28(a) of the Statute) ...................................... 79  

    H. 1.  Crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court must have been

    committed by forces ........................................................................................... 82 

    2.  The accused must have been either a military commander or a person effectively acting as a military commander ....................................... 83

     

    3.  

    The accused must have had effective command and control, or effective authority and control, over the forces who committed the crimes ................................................................................................................... 84 

    4.  

    Knowledge that the forces were committing or about to commit suchcrimes ................................................................................................................... 89  

    5.  

    The commander failed to take all necessary and reasonable measures within his power ................................................................................................. 91 

    a)  

    Failure to prevent the commission of crimes ................................................... 92  

     b)  

    Failure to repress the commission of crimes or submit the matter to the competent authorities for investigation and prosecution ............................ 93 

    6.  The crimes committed by the forces must have resulted from the